Geothermal Energy in Yemen and the World
(Spending much less to get much more)
The Earth’s Mantle and Core contains enough heat to
supply Humans’ Energy needs for millions of years:
Author: Dr. Eng. Mohammed Darsi Abdulrahman
First of all, I would like to mention the following fact, “We
in Yemen are highly in need for more energy, such as
electric energy. At the same time, we all know well, that
many areas in Yemen are good indicators for good
It is known, that geothermal reservoirs can be formed in
areas where rising hot water and steam is trapped in
permeable and porous rocks under a layer of impermeable
rock’’. A geothermal reservoir is a powerful source of energy! Geothermal reservoirs can
reach temperatures of 700 oF/370OC (more than 3 times boiling).
So, the main question, which must stand in front of our high Excellency heads and
scientists is, ‘‘when we are going to generate electricity, using our huge prospective of
geothermal power and energy?’’.
In Yemen, earth heat reaches the surface in very diffuse areas, I think this heat however,
due to a variety of geological processes, some Yemeni areas, including substantial
portions of many other Yemeni areas and those are underlain by relatively shallow
Based on my personal scientific research, study to the area, and my reading on pervious
and current scientific articles and papers I think we must give more attention and more
care to the following Yemeni areas rich with geothermal energy shows, as examples:
1. In Sana’a Governorate (The Capital), we have:
• Hammam Al-Garef in Al-Garef Village (Belad Al-Rus) near Wadi Al-Dhabr, 15
km from Sana’a-Taiz Asphaltic Road.
• Hammam Ali (in Bani-Mansour Village; the internal area of Al-Haima; North of
Sana’a): located on Sana’a-Al-Hodaida road near Bani-Jossef, 10 km from Bani-
2. In Shabwah governorate, we have:
• Hammam Radhum (Radhum City)
• A’in Al-Harrah (Radhum City)
3. In Damar governorate, we have:
• Hammam Al-Lessi
• Hammam Espeal
• Hammam Dhawran Al-Ghfr
• Hammam Ali (on the North-West side; 28 km far from Damar City)
• Hammam Mahsana (in Bani Suwaid)
• Hammam Al-Kimmah (in Bait Al-Seyaghi; 36 km far from Damar City)
• Hammam Al-Sublah
And other Yemeni areas, where we can see and feel the Steaming Ground, such as
Hamam Damt in Damt area
So, what is Geothermal Energy?
1. The term GEOTHERMAL consist of two parts, the word GEO means Earth and
the word THERMAL means Heat. So, Geothermal Energy is heat (thermal)
derived from the earth (geo).
2. Geothermal Energy is the thermal energy contained in the rock and fluid (that fills
the fractures and pores within the rock) in the earth's crust.
Important Notice (1): Scientist calculations show that the earth, originating from a
completely molten state, would have cooled and become completely solid many
thousands of years ago without an energy input in addition to that of the sun. It is
believed that the ultimate source of geothermal energy is radioactive decay occurring
deep within the earth (Burkland, 1973).
Countries Generating Electricity with Geothermal Resources:
1. Australia 9. Indonesia 17. Portugal (Azores)
2. China 10. Italy 18. Russia (Kamchatka)
3. Costa Rica 11. Japan 19. Taiwan (China)
4. El-Salvador 12. Kenya 20. Thailand
5. Ethiopia 13. Mexico 21. Tibet (China)
6. France (Guadeloupe) 14. New Zealand 22. Turkey
7. Guatemala 15. Nicaragua 23. United State
8. Iceland 16. Philippines 24. Zambia
Hottest known Geothermal Regions:
Many areas have accessible geothermal resources, especially countries along the circum-
Pacific "Ring of Fire," spreading centers, continental rift zones and other hot spots.
It is known, that geothermal power could serve 100% of the electrical needs of 39
countries (over 620,000,000 people) in Africa, Central/ South America and the Pacific.
For example, total Primary Energy Consumption in Iceland in 2002 was 86% of houses
in the country are heated by geothermal, 17% of the electricity (200 MW) comes from
geothermal, other uses include greenhouses, fish farming, industry, snow melting,
swimming pools etc and only a fraction of the potential is used
Steaming Ground (Locally and Internationally)
To explain the main reason stand behind the episode of what we call a steaming ground
locally (such as in Yemeni areas), and internationally (such as in areas rich with
geothermal resources around the world), we can say, it is known, that Earth's crust as
known for all is broken into huge plates that move apart or push together at about the rate
our fingernails grow. Convection of semi-molten rock in the upper mantle helps drive
plate tectonics. New crust forms along mid-ocean spreading centers and continental rift
zones. When plates meet, one can slide beneath another. Plumes of magma rise from the
edges of sinking plates. Thinned or fractured crust allows magma to rise to the surface as
lava. Most magma doesn't reach the surface but heats large regions of underground rock.
Rainwater can seep down faults and fractured rocks for miles. After being heated, it can
return to the surface as steam or hot water. Forming, what we call a steaming ground.
Taking in account, the active East African rift (an incipient plate boundary) runs through
Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti and touches six other
countries. Where, active volcanoes occur in Kenya, Ethiopia and Tanzania. It is an
international case of study. In my opinion Hammam Damt area in Yemen is a local case
of study. So, when hot water and steam reach the surface, they can form fumaroles, hot
springs, mud pots and other interesting phenomena.
I believe in, that building geothermal power plants in Yemeni areas, rich with geothermal
energy must be one of the main questions, need for a special care and a special decision.
The philosopher Monticiko was right, when he wrote ‘‘ Great men create great institutes,
which in turn will return to create great men, so the nations will continue their rise
Next step should be taken by the Yemeni Ministry of Oil and Minerals to build
geothermal plants to generate geothermal power, a renewable energy, to electric power.
That will increase Yemeni's energy self-sufficiency and play a significant role in
satisfying our lovely country energy needs.
I am sure the long awaited production of electrical energy from our geothermal resources
will alleviated some of the Republic of Yemen’s energy concerns and will contributed
toward greater energy diversification for our lovely County (Yemen).
In my opinion, serious scientific studies and discussion on the possibility of using power
from the Yemeni area's rich with geothermal reservoirs must continue always and with
one main aim to produce electricity to light above mentioned areas, and transmitting this
power by subsurface and submarine cables to the other Yemeni areas and islands in the
future as a strategy.
Using of Geothermal Energy:
So, geothermal energy ultimately comes from radioactive decay in the core of the Earth,
which heats the Earth from the inside out, and from the sun, which heats the surface. It
can be used in three ways:
1. Geothermal electricity: Geothermal electricity is created by pumping a fluid (oil
or water) into the Earth, allowing it to evaporate and using the hot gases vented
from the earth's crust to run turbines linked to electrical generators.
a. Geothermal heating, through deep Earth pipes: The geothermal energy
from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in
others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and
brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. Such
geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of
the world such as Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines
and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States
are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland
produced 170 MW geothermal powers and heated 86% of all houses in
the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity
is operational in total.
b. Geothermal heating, through a heat pump: Geothermal heat from the
surface of the Earth can be used on most of the globe directly to heat
and cool buildings. The temperature of the crust a few feet below the
surface is buffered to a constant 7-14C (45-58F), so a liquid can be pre-
heated or pre-cooled in underground pipelines, providing free cooling
in the summer and, via a heat pump, heating in the winter. Other direct
uses are in agriculture (greenhouses), aquaculture and industry.
2. Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring
geological heat sources. It is a form of renewable energy.
3. Water injection: In some locations, the natural supply of water producing
steam from the hot underground magma deposits has been exhausted and
processed waste water is injected to replenish the supply. In at least one
location, this has resulted in small but frequent earthquakes (see external link
below). This has led to disputes about whether the plant owners are liable for
the damage the earthquakes cause.
Benefits of geothermal power (locally and globally)
We must use Geothermal Energy to produce Electricity in Yemen, because of its benefits.
Geothermal power has many local and global benefits, as follow:
1. A clean, renewable and environmentally benign energy source based on the heat in the
2. Provides clean and safe energy using little land.
3. Is renewable and sustainable
4. Generates continuous, reliable ''base load'' power
5. Conserves fossil fuels and contributes to diversity in energy sources
6. Avoids importing and benefits local economies
7. Offers modular, incremented development and village to remote sites.
Yes, we simply can say, ‘‘Geothermal Energy is the natural heat of the Earth.’’
Using hot springs and geothermal water in the history:
1. Since Roman times, people have piped the hot water into pools to better control
2. There are historical drawing depicts Native Americans using hot springs at what
is now Calistoga, California. Bathing in hot pools like these at Hot Creek,
Mammoth Lakes, California, has been practiced throughout history. In several
western US states, many long greenhouses are built and heated with geothermal
water. Geothermal water is also used to speed the growth of fish. These are
growing in a geothermally heated hatchery at Mammoth Lakes, California. This
net full of fish was grown in geothermally heated waters in California's Imperial
Valley. Closeup of individual fish from a geothermal fish farm. Closeup of a
prawn grown in a research project with geothermally heated water at the GeoHeat
Center, Oregon Institute of Technology. These alligators are grown in
geothermally heated water in Idaho. Geothermal water is also used for industrial
uses, like drying lumber or food products. This plant in Brady, Nevada, provides
dried onions to Burger King. Pipes of geothermal water can be installed under
sidewalks and roads to keep them from icing over in winter, like this sidewalk in
Klamath Falls, Oregon.
3. Some tribes considered hot springs to be neutral territory where no wars were
4. Use of hot springs by Maoris of New Zealand for cooking and other purposes
extends into modern times.
5. Modern day Beppu Japan uses geothermal water and heat in buildings and
factories and has 4,000 hot springs and bathing facilities that attract 12 million
tourists a year.
6. This small greenhouse is heated with geothermal water. Plants grow faster and
larger when they have additional heat available.
7. These are photos of outdoor and indoor pool and spa bathing in Japan, the US,
8. This one is in New Mexico. Peppers, tomatoes, and flowers are commonly grown
in geothermally heated greenhouses.
9. Be careful -- people and animals have been burned badly in unfamiliar pools.
1. Geothermal-generated electricity was first produced at Larderello, Italy, in 1904.
2. Since then, the use of geothermal energy for electricity has grown worldwide to
about 8,000 megawatts of which the United States produces 2700 megawatts.
3. The first geothermal district heating system in the US was built in Boise, Idaho.
4. The largest dry steam field in the world is the Geysers; about 90 miles north of
San Francisco began in 1960 which produces 2000 MWe. Calpine
5. Since 2000, geothermal generation has tripled in France, Russia, and Kenya and
three new countries-Austria, Germany, and Papua New Guinea-have been added to the
list of those producing power.
6. Another major geothermal area is located in south central California. As of 2001,
there were 15 geothermal plants producing electricity in the area. Combined the
plants produce about 570 megawatts.
7. Iceland (producing 17% of its electricity from geothermal sources). It estimates
that Iceland's geothermal energy could provide 15 TWh per year over 100 years,
compared to the current production of 1.2 TWh per year.
8. Countries producing geothermal power in 2003 were: Australia, Austria, China,
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France (Guadeloupe), Germany, Guatemala,
Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Portugal (Azores), Russia, Thailand, Turkey, and the United
9. An experimental 200 kWe electrical generator operates in Zambia,
10. At Olkaria, Kenya there is a 48 MWe geothermal power plant and an additional 64
a. Boise's capital and city buildings are heated with a geothermal district heating
b. About 95% of the buildings in Reykjavik are heated with geothermal water.
Reykjavik is now one of the cleanest cities in the world.
c. Geothermal energy is produced in 24 countries. (Electricity generation 53
TWh/a in 22 countries)
d. Used in 58 countries of the world. (Direct heating use 53 TWh/a in 55
e. Geothermal energy is known in over 80
f. Countries as diverse as the Philippines, Iceland, and El Salvador generate an
average of 25 percent of their electricity from geothermal sources, and geothermal
serves 30 percent of Tibet's energy needs in China.
g. Geothermal energy is meeting the total electricity needs of some 60 million
people worldwide - roughly the population of the United Kingdom
h. Geothermal is number three of the renewable energy sources in world
electrictity production after hydro and biomass. It is followed by wind and solar
12. According to a new study by Rugerro Bertani of ENEL, presented at the World
Geothermal Congress in Turkey. In 2003, geothermal resource supplied 57,000
Gigawatt-hours of electricity, an increase of 15 percent from 2000 and 50 percent
from 1995, Bertani reported.
13. The United States continues to produce more geothermal electricity than any other
country, comprising some 32 percent of the world total.
Yet, the U.S. geothermal power industry appears to be on a rebound. State renewable
policies and federal tax incentives are spurring a wave of new investment. GEA
reports that projects are being planned in several states including Alaska, Arizona,
California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Oregon. "We have just begun to
tap the tens of thousands of megawatts of geothermal resources available," Gawell
said. "It's just a question of the right economic incentives and continued advances in
Important Notice (2): In my opinion attending major U.S. geothermal events is a great
honor for every scientist. GEA Trade Show and concurrent Geothermal Resources
Council (GRC) Both the GEA-GRC events are expected to have significant record of
attendance year by year.
In this respect, I would like to ask the following questions:
1. When we are going to rewrite the geothermal exploration history of Yemen?
2. Are we really ready to begin a new age with geothermal exploration in Yemen?
If the answer is YES, so when we start? And if the answer is No, we must ask
3. When we planed to drill the first geothermal well in Yemen?
4. What we are going to name the first well? (Hope, we are going to call it Hamam
5. What is the expected depth (in feet or in meters) for the first geothermal wells in
6. Is it one of the hottest wells in the world?
7. When we are going to build the first Yemeni power plant?
8. For how many years above mentioned demonstration project on geothermal
power plants in Yemen are originally designed?
9. For how many years our first wells can be operated before it will be shut down at
10. What is the estimated power for that wells (in megawatt or in million kilowatt
hours of electricity per year) expected to produce from the above mentioned
generating plant or plants?
11. And at the end, in which year we can produce electricity by using geothermal
power plant in Yemen?
I hope that in the future, Yemeni electricity produced by geothermal power plants must
be related to the Ministry of Oil and Minerals and would be sold to the Yemeni General
Electric Power Corporation for use by Yemeni electric customers.
Our plans for the future:
I suggest the following plans, if we are really serious to use our potential of geothermal
1. Build the first Yemeni Geothermal Research Center. It must be located next to the
first geothermal well, which will be drilled in the future.
2. Use the above mentioned Yemeni Geothermal Research Center to provide the
a. A test site for direct-use demonstration projects using geothermal heat
and other by-products.
b. They included such varied projects as dyeing fabrics, using geothermal
hot water for aquiculture, and drying fruits and lumber.
3. Drill a series of small-diameter scientific observation holes in all Yemeni areas
rich with geothermal energy based on a strong strategic plans and projects done
by the first Yemeni Geothermal Research Center and approved by the Yemeni
Ministry of Oil and Minerals. (In my opinion, those observation holes will
provide our center with valuable information on the geothermal characteristics of
that areas. And as a result it will be easy for us to draw our future plans, strategy
and tactics for our resource management and regulation of geothermal
4. Keep our plants open and our projects always alive. We can do this, if we take
the following steps:
a. Issued a permit explaining how much megawatts of geothermal power
we can produce from sections related to our geothermal reservoir in the
Yemeni Geothermal areas.
b. Sign a Power Purchase Agreement between the Yemeni ministry of Oil
and Minerals and the Yemeni General Electric Power Corporation,
where the Yemeni ministry of Oil and Minerals can delivers an average
amount (in megawatts) of firm energy on a continuous basis. (Here, we
must know, how many percent of the total electricity needs, we need for
supplying the Yemeni geothermal areas?).
5. Use modern technology always to meet the Yemen’s growing demand for
6. To transmitte geothermal power from Yemeni geothermal areas, by subsurface
and submarine cables, to the other Yemeni areas and islands in the future.
7. We must be optimistic always. For this reason, a new future study on a submarine
cable project must be always under consideration.
To fulfill above mentioned steps, we are highly in need not just for a governmental help
and support, but also fund.
Why, we are highly in need for fund to fulfill our plans and especially what is
related to Yemeni Deep Water Cable(s) Project (The Submarine Cable(s))?
Simply, because above mentioned fund will be expend in:
5. And testing for the Yemeni Deep Water Cable Project.
Our Submarine Cable(s) Classifications:
We must take in account our cable(s) design criteria. This is a very important matter. Our
submarine cable(s) would have to be able to withstand the stresses of at-sea deployment
1. Strong currents,
2. Large waves,
3. And strong winds
Here also we must take in account the undersea environment, including:
2. And abrasion,
Our submarine cable(s) must be able to reliably conduct electricity for a long period of
1. The Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea Channel are deep, so both
deployment (laying of the cables) and operating environment will pose unique
2. In this critical situation different cable designs will be considered. So tests
included laboratory and at-sea cable deployment tests will be so important that
time to do.
Future studies on that above mentioned submarine cable project must show that the
chosen cable must be:
1. Technically feasible through the research project,
2. Economically approved,
3. And its cost proposals for commercial installation must be commercially
I believe in that days and years will shows, prove and teach us, that any technical or
scientific research study project, plans or strategy must have a significant government
help, support and subsidies, which were not possible at the time.
Ok, dear reader let us stop talking about that submarine cable future project, because
currently, the Yemeni's policy must be concentrate mainly on future supports of the
geothermal energy production on all areas rich with geothermal reservoirs exclusively for
use on that areas.
Types of Geothermal Sources*:
It is known, that geothermal power is generally harnessed in one of three ways. Large
scale electrical generation is possible in areas near:
1. Geysers (1); or
2. Hot springs (2) by utilizing naturally occurring steam, superheated ground
3. Using geothermal heat to heat a heat-transfer fluid.
4. Experiments are in progress to determine if a fourth method, deep wells into
"hot dry rocks"(3), can be economically used to heat water pumped down from
(1) A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot
water and steam into the air (Bryan 1995). The name geyser comes from Geysir, the
name of an erupting spring at Haukadalur, Iceland; that name, in turn, comes from the
verb gjÃ³sa, "to gush".
The formation of geysers requires a favorable hydrogeology which exists in only a
few places on Earth, and so they are fairly rare phenomena. About 1000 exist
worldwide, with about half of these in Yellowstone National Park, USA (Glennon,
J.A. 2005). Geyser eruptive activity may change or cease due to ongoing mineral
deposition within the geyser plumbing, exchange of functions with nearby hot springs,
earthquake influences, and human intervention (Bryan, T.S. 1995).
Erupting fountains of liquefied nitrogen have been observed on Neptune's moon
Triton. These phenomena are also often referred to as geysers. On Triton, the
geysers appear to be driven by solar heating instead of geothermal energy. The
nitrogen, liquefied by a kind of greenhouse effect, may erupt to heights of 8 km.
(2) A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on
a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the
ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57Â°F or 13~14Â°C in the
eastern United States).
(3) A hot dry rock project in the United Kingdom was abandoned after it was
pronounced economically unviable in 1989. HDR programs are currently being
developed in Australia, France, Switzerland and Germany. Magma (molten rock)
resources offer extremely high-temperature geothermal opportunities, but existing
technology does not allow recovery of heat from these resources.
Hot-Dry-Rock (HDR) is a type of geothermal power production that utilizes the very
high temperatures that can be found in rocks just a few kilometers below ground. This
is done by pumping high pressure water down a bore hole into the heat zone. The
water travels through fractures of the rock, capturing the heat of the rock until it is
a. Direct use as the name implies, involves using the heat in the water directly (without a
heat pump or power plant) for such things as:
1. Heating of buildings,
2. Industrial processes,
4. Aquaculture (growing of fish)
5. And resorts.
Direct use projects generally use resource temperatures between 38°C (100°F) to 149°C
(300°F). Current U.S. installed capacity of direct use systems totals 470 MW or enough
to heat 40,000 average-sized houses.
b. Ground-source heat pumps use the earth or groundwater as a heat source in winter
and a heat sink in summer. Using resource temperatures of 4°C (40°F) to 38°C (100°F),
the heat pump, a device which moves heat from one place to another, transfers heat from
the soil to the house in winter and from the house to the soil in summer. Accurate data is
not available on the current number of these systems; however, the rate of installation is
thought to be between 10,000 and 40,000 per year.
The current production of geothermal energy from all uses places third among
renewables, following hydroelectricity and biomass, and ahead of solar and wind. Despite
these impressive statistics, the current level of geothermal use pales in comparison to its
potential. The key to wider geothermal use is greater public awareness and technical
(Here, I used Information furnished by the Respectful Geo-Heat Center).
Yemen Geothermal Potentials:
And at the end, to know the Yemeni Geothermal Potential, we also must answer the
1. What are the potential geothermal reserves (in MW) in all Yemeni Geothermal
2. What are the proven geothermal reserves (in MW) in all Yemeni Geothermal
3. How much energy, we can install out from every above mentioned proven geothermal
reserve for every Yemeni Geothermal reservoirs?
I am sure, that our lovely country Yemen not just rich with geothermal reservoir in the
above mentioned areas, but there are obviously plenty of opportunities for expansion and
private sector involvement.
Conclusions and Recommendations
In this respect, I would like to say, “If we really want to inter a new age with the use of
geothermal energy to produce electricity in our lovely country (Yemen), we must work
hard on the following conclusions and recommendations given by me, based on my
scientific research, reading and research study to the valuable experiences of most of
other countries, who already entered to the New World of Using Geothermal Energy”.
1. The primary emphasis will necessarily be to start a big scientific work on
geothermal projects such as the exploration, expansion and/or answering further
questions related to the development of major known geothermal fields, based on
the result of the above mentioned scientific study as an strtigic step to fulfill our
expansion, optimization and development projects in all future fields.
Gentlemen, may I ask you to let me finish this scientific research work by sharing my
solutions to the bright future of the Yemeni geothermal projects, as I hope, with YOU.
We in Yemen are highly in need to:
1. Build the first Geo Thermal Energy high committee.
2. Prepare the first qualified scientific team.
3. The above mentioned committee must deal with the following questions to
high recommendations and consultations to the heads
4. Establish a The first Geo Thermal Energy and Science Education
5. Encourages all research studies done on the Use of the Geo Thermal
Energy in Yemen by locals or by foreign experts or specialists. I am sure,
several of our experts and specialists will make research opportunities
available in their fields of expertise, at times as independent study, and at
times with funding made available.
6. Research in Geo Thermal Field often includes work done in the field to
make observations and gather data and specimens for study. For this
reason we must do our best to support this kind of important works.
7. Results of our experts and specialists research must be presented in the
form of talks or poster sessions at gatherings such as our experts and
specialists Research and Creativity Celebration or annual meetings of
professional organizations. Here, I would like to recommend the following
university to prepare our specialist: (United Nations University,
Geothermal Training Programme, UNU-GTP, Orkustofnun, Grensasvegur
9, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland; Tel: 354-569 6000; Fax: 354-568 8896; E-mail:
email@example.com; Internet: www.os.is/unugtp/
I would like to classify the Yemeni geothermal resource areas, based on it’s
capable of generating electricity at a cost competitive with other energy sources,
such as natural gas and coal, to five areas:
1. Areas No.1: I call it, High Geothermal Yemeni Resource Areas.
2. Areas No.2: I call it, Low Geothermal Yemeni Resource Areas. Those areas
can be divided to two other sub areas:
2a.Areas doesn’t have a high enough temperature to produce steam.
2b. Areas don't have the water to produce steam, which is necessary for
current plant designs.
Important Notice(3): Also, instead of producing electricity, lower temperature areas
can provide space and process heating. As of 1998, the U.S. has 18 district heating
systems, 28 fish farms, 12 industrial plants, 218 spas and 38 greenhouses that use
3. Areas No.3: I call it, Hot Dry Rock Areas. Those areas are geothermal areas
without steam and methods for exploiting them are continuing till today all
over the world.
To fulfill the above mentioned step we are highly in need to build the first geothermal
power plants in our area. We must study the big experience of the Countries, who already
generated Electricity with Geothermal Resources. such as: (Australia, China, Costa Rica,
El-Salvador, Ethiopia, France (Guadeloupe), Guatemala, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan,
Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines, Portugal (Azores), Russia (Kamchatka),
Thailand (China), Tibet (China) Turkey, United State of America and Zambia). and as
with most important decisions, looking at big picture remains a solid piece of advice)
1. "Advantages/Disadvantages with Geothermal Heat." 1998. University of Washington.
6 April 2001. <http://www.mech.uwa.edu.au/courses/ES407/Geothermal/1998/html>.
2. April 2001. <http://www.crest.org../renewables/re-kiosk/geothermal
3. Baird, Stuart M. "Environmental Concerns, Energy Facts: Geothermal Energy."
4. Bost, David. Marketing Director. Aztec Engineering. Personal Interview. 16 April
5. "Environmental Protection Agency Risk Management Plan 2286 Nevada." 24 August
1999. Steamboat Geothermal Power Plants. 16 March 2001.
6. "Frequently Asked Questions, Environmental and Economic Impacts of Geothermal
Energy." Geothermal Energy Program. 6 April 2001.
7. "Geothermal Energy Facts." Geothermal Education Office. 6 April 2001.
8. "Geothermal Facts and Figures." 6 December 1999. Geothermal Energy Association. 6
April 2001. <http://www.geotherm.org/usfacts.htm>.
9. "Geothermal Energy -- Net Positive Environmental Impact." Geothermal Resources
Council. 6 April 2001. <http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/geothermal/grc/impact.html>.
10. "Geothermal Energy Net Positive Environmental Impact." 4 April 2001. Energy and
Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah.
11. "Geothermal Power Reliability, Heat From the Earth." 4 April 2001. <http://www.eg
12. "Geothermal Energy Program." State. 4 April 2001.
13. Huttrer, Gerald W. Geologist. Geothermal Management Consultants, Inc. Personal
Interview. 4 April 2001.
14. Hesse, Paul. U.S. Department of Energy Specialist. Personal Interview. 4 April 2001.
15. Kurk, Dale. Financing Risk Management Consultant. Personal Interview. 16 April
16. Reed, Marshall J. and Joel L. Renner, "Environmental Compatibility of Geothermal
Energy, Energy Geothermal Energy Technical Site." 4 April 2001.
17. Tarara, Richard. Professor of Physics. Personal Interview. 9 April 2001.
18. "The U.S. Geothermal Industry: Three Decades of Growth." 24 Sept. 1997. Taylor
and Francis. 6 April 2001. <http://id.inel.gov/geothermal/articles/mclarty/index.html>.
19. "Technologies: Geothermal." State. 6 April 2001.
20. "What is Geothermal Energy." Geothermal Resources Council. 6 April 2001.
21. Geothermal Energy. Washington D.C.: Office of Geothermal and Wind
Technologies, September 2000.
22. Geothermal Resources Worldwide. Ed. Susan F. Hodgson and Marilyn Nemzer. 2nd
ed. Tiburon, CA: Geothermal Education Office, 1998, 1-20.
23. A Global View of Geothermal Energy. Ed. Susan F. Hodgson and Marilyn Nemzer.
6th ed. Tiburon, CA: Geothermal Education Office, 1997, 1-2.
24. Flavin, Christopher, and Nicholas Lessen. Power Surge: Guide to the Coming Energy
Revolution. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994, 191.
25. Gronbeck, Christopher. "Geothermal Theory: Geothermal Reservoirs." 12 Nov. 1994.
26. Colligan, J.G. "Electric Power Annual 1991." U.S. Department of Energy Energy
Information Administration, DOE/EIR-0348(91), Washington, D.C., 1993.
Other Geothermal Energy Information - Worldwide (Sources & Links)
1. Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology - www.crest.org
2. The US Department of Energy's list www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/eer/kiddietoc.html
3. Geothermal Biz - www.geothermal-biz.com - part of the U.S. Department of Energy
4. Geothermal Education Office - geothermal.marin.org
5. Geothermal Energy Technology online document database -
6. Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium - www.geoexchange.org –
7. Geothermal Resources Council - www.geothermal.org -
8. Geothermal Energy Program - www.eren.doe.gov/geothermal - U.S. Department of
Energy's information on the history of geothermal applications
9. International Geothermal Association - iga.igg.cnr.it
10. National Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE) -
11. Puna Geothermal Venture - www.punageothermalventure.com -
12. Real Goods Renewables - www.realgoods.com/ -
13. Renewable Energy Analysis Studies Network (REASN) - www.nrel.gov/reasn -
14. Union of Concerned Scientists - www.ucsusa.org -
15. U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network -
16. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations -
Glossary of Map Page Terms
GWh - gigawatt hour thermal. A unit of heat energy for non-electrical uses equal to 1000
megawatt hours (MWh).
A GWh can heat 860 thousand tons of water one degree centigrade (or bring about 9
million quarts of freezing water to a boil).
MWe - megawatt electrical. A unit of electrical power equal to 1000 kilowatts (kWe) -
enough (in the U.S) for about 1000 people.
Additional Glossary Items
Aquifer - a porous or fractured body of rock carrying cold or hot water.
Basin or Sedimentary basin - a bowl-shaped depression in the earth filled with
sedimentary rocks (rocks usually formed in water such as sandstone, limestone, etc.).
Fault - a break in the earth's crust which extends a considerable distance (horizontally
and vertically) along which relative (sliding) movement occurs.
Fumarole - a flow of steam from the ground. Fumaroles can be weak or strong, noisy
and superheated (temperature above boiling).
Hot spot - a relatively small area of a plate heated by a rising plume of magma from deep
within the mantle which produces local volcanic activity over a long time period.
Plate - a rigid part of the earth's crust that moves relative to other plates. The map shows
eight major plates and several minor ones.
Plate boundary - where two plates meet. When plates move apart they form a rift
boundary (e.g. the North American and Eurasian plates). When they move together they
can bump to form a collision boundary (e.g. the Indian and Eurasian plates) or one can
slide under the other to form a subduction boundary (e.g. the Nazca and South American
plates). Sometimes plates just slide past each other along a fault boundary (e.g. the San
Andreas fault between the North American and Pacific Plates). Some boundaries (e.g.
through Siberia) are poorly defined.
Rift - a part of the crust that has been pulled apart, usually bordered by faults. A rift zone
is a rift with bordering faults. When rifting occurs, magma can move near the surface,
forming volcanoes and geothermal systems. Rift zones may become plate boundaries.
Sinter - a white or gray surface deposit from a hot spring or geyser consisting of silica
(SiO2). Travertine is a similar deposit consisting of carbonate (usually CaCO3).