EARTH SCIENCE COLLEGE OF JILIN UNIVERSITY
                             INSTITUTE OF GEOENERGY


               A NEW LOOK ...
CHANGCHUN – 2002
             EARTH SCIENCE COLLEGE OF JILIN UNIVERSITY
                             INSTITUTE OF GEOENERG...
CHANGCHUN – 2002
                                                   ABSTRACT

    This is the first work, which introduce ...
interested geologists, scientific expeditions, organizations, local and forieghn companies, variably detailed information
...
At the end, I would like to fix in minds, that my personal field notices and records show, that the Yemeni

Lithostratigra...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
   I would like to thank the Ministry of High Education (China),the Yemeni Ministry of Oil and Mineral Res...
INTRODUCTION
   My interest in the Yemeni Geology started on my first investigation practise in Al-Kharj area Marib Al-Jaw...
2. Which way we must use to make it easy to unsderstand the whole earth history evolution? (and in a short time)



NATURE...
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT                                                            i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                           ...
CHAPTER 2: REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN                              30

2.1. INTRODUCTION                                   ...
4.2 STRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES: A SUMMARY      108

4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND NOMEN...
6.2 PALEOZOIC                                              228

       6.2.1 Lithology                                    ...
8.2 THE YEMENI SECTOR OF RUB AL KHALI BASIN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK

                                            ...
Fig. (1.2) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous geologists and their most famous

works dur...
Fig. (1.18): The Republic of Yemen (Location Map)                                           15

Fig. (1.19): Yemen Populat...
E – Lawder – Wafid – Beyhan (Lobunets et al., 1988); and

F – Habban-Al-Mukalla (Scharamm et al., 1986)).                 ...
Fig. (3.16) Stratigraphy of the Yemen Volcanics from Al Qanawis to San’a,

Yemen (Baker and Menzies, 1993, unpublished dat...
Fig. (5.10A) Thickness Map for Umm Er Radhuma Formation ( Layer No. 8 ) 180

Fig. (5.10B) 3D Model for Umm Er Radhuma Form...
Fig. (5.23B) 3D Model for Nayfa Formation ( Layer No. 21 )                         207

Fig. (5.24A) Thickness Map for Sab...
Fig. (8.5) Satellite Images No.5: Yemen 16, (N17.38-E51.31)                  254

Fig. (8.6) Satellite Images No.6: Yemen ...
Fig. (9.4): Using the 3DYGM-For All Tin to make a Geological Well Section   282

Fig. (10.1): Al-Tohaita Geological Time C...
LIST OF TABLES
Table. (1.1) Crude Oil Export and Destinations                         18

Table. (3.1) Summary of geologic...
CHAPTER 1:                                                          1

THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN GENERAL GEOLOGY              ...
1.7 GEOGRAPHY             22

1.8 DRAINAGE              25

1.9 CLIMATE               26

1.10 VEGETATION           27

1....
CHAPTER 1
             THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN GENERAL GEOLOGY
1.1 THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK IN THE REPUBLIC OF Y...
2

         Yemen has a very rich and long geological research history work aged 150 years. During those 150 years,

many ...
Third Stage: 1947-1967. I gave it two new names:

         First name: The First systematic more detailed Stratigraphic an...
Step No.2:

1. To write about the First Stage (The First Systematic Geological Observation Stage or Carter’s Stage) as who...
Work with Fig. (1.3)




                                      Fig. (1.3)




                                            ...
Step No.3:

2. To write about the Second Stage (The Hinterland Studies Stage) as whole, authors must write about the follo...
2.2. To write about the

Famous Scientific

Expedition and their

famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 2)

during the second stage as

...
Step No.4:

3. To write about the Third Stage (The First systematic more detailed Stratigraphic and Geological Studies Sta...
3.2. To write about the

Famous Scientific

Expeditionand their

famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 3)

during the third stage as

wh...
Step No. 5:

4. To write about the Fourth Stage (The Yemeni Geologists Stage) as whole, authors must write about the follo...
Fig. (1.12)

4.3. To write about the

Most Famous Companies

and their most famous Work

(M.F.C.& W. 4) during the

fourth...
Step No. 6:

To write about the Four Stages as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equiva...
The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen



            First Stage:         Second Stage:           ...
The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen



    (M.F.G.&W1)                        (F.S.E.&W1)       ...
IMPORTANT NOTICE:

     To prove that we in Yemen are highly in need for such new part, with the new classification and di...
Fig. (1.18): The Republic of Yemen (Location Map)
2. Area: 527,790 sq. kilometers (203,730 sq. miles); approximately the s...
Fig. (1.19): Yemen Population Density Map
6. Capital: Sana'a dates back to the first century with Population: 926,595 (199...
Fig. (1.20): Yemen Administrative Divisions Map


8. Language: Arabic. English is spoken in some urban areas.

9. Religion...
1.3. ECONOMIC OVERVIEW

     In 1998, Yemen's real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was 2.7%, and it is expected to cli...
Fig. (1.21) Crude Oil Export and Destinations
         (Nedham, M. Darsi, 2000)




                     44
Fig. (1.22): Yemen Economic Activity Map




                   45
1.4. ENERGY OVERVIEW

1. Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/99): 4 billion barrels

2. Oil Production (1998E): 385,000 barrels per d...
15. Major Environmental Issues:

Very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgra...
1.7. GEOGRAPHY

         Yemen is predominantly mountainous, supporting terraced agriculture. The Hadramaut is a range of ...
Fig. (1.24) Geographic Map of the Republic of Yemen
1.8. DRAINAGE

         With only three exceptions, the drainage syste...
3. The Hadramaut-Masila and Wadi Jeza systems




                                     Fig. (1.25) The Yemeni Drainage Sys...
Southern Plateaus. The tributary wadis entering Wadi Hadramaut-Masila are usually long and deeply cut canyons

with a gent...
agricultural areas. These episodes were apparently related to the violent weather experienced throughout Asia and

Europe ...
Fig. (1.26): Yemen Land Use Map
1.11. Accessibility

     Yemen is important to world energy markets because of its oil an...
Fig. (1.27) Show the locations of the major roadways, ports, etc. in Yemen, as well as the
                               ...
CHAPTER 2:

REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN                                   30



2.1. INTRODUCTION                           ...
CHAPTER 2
                   REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN
       Based on my personal research work on the Yemeni Geology dur...
2.1 INTRODUCTION
       It is known that the Republic of Yemen geologically occupies the southern edge of the

Arabian Shi...
Fig. (2.1) Index map showing location of Fig. (2.1A) and (2.1B)
                    in the regional context.




  Fig. (2...
Fig. (2.1B) Yemen: Location Map (Eastern Sheet)




Fig. (2.2) The Concession Map of the Republic of Yemen




           ...
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems
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A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems

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ABSTRACT
This is the first work, which introduce a new look to the Yemeni Geology. My interest in the Yemeni geology
started in 1987, when I wrote my first geological and technical report on Al-Kharg well, drilled in Al-Jawf Marib
Shabwa basin (Moscow, 1987; (Unpublished)). And my work on the former South Yemen regional geology
(Moscow, 1990; (Unpublished)) as a result of my fieldwork visits to the above-mentioned area.
During my work in the Republic of Yemen, (the research study area), for 8 years (1992-1999), I collected variably
detailed information of hundreds publications references on the pervious and the present geological activities in
Yemen for the period from 1852 until Today. That work led to the first classification and division for what I called the
Geological Research History Work (G.R.H.W) of the Republic of Yemen.
At the same time, I was highly interested in the whole pervious and present stratigraphic research related to the
Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature, because stratigraphic research pursued by different organizations,
companies and groups on different and indipendent lines was on the point of leading to choas. Studing a huge material
and data related to the pervious and the present geological activities in Yemen; such as final reports on geological
survey, different kinds of geophisical works, wells data (for more than 210 wells drilled in different area of the
republic of Yemen, where most of those wells located in the north-northeastern, east and south-southeastern part of
the Republic of Yemen(~75% of Yemeni sedimentary cover located in this area)), dry and wet sample analysis, well
site geologist geological descriptions, background gas indicatores, drillig results, log interpretations, core analysis, well
completion reports, lithostratigraphic units history (first time publication of the unit, its current meaning and definition),
lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic description and indication of age; This research study work led at the beginning
to my work done on diferent geological wells data tables, geological well sections, correlation between wells (local
and regional), different kind of geological maps for spesific areas (this happened during my work in the Adeni Branch
of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources) and led also to the first table on the whole Yemen Lithostratigraphic
Units and Nomenclture; my mapping and modelling to the whole eastern part of Yemen with the adjacent areas (this
happened during my research study work in Jilin University). This work is an extent to the great work done by many
4
interested geologists, scientific expeditions, organizations, local and forieghn companies, variably detailed information
of hundreds publications and references on the Yemeni geology.
The Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature table is projected to be a kind of huge encyclopedia. The
new thing is that names of all Yemeni lithostratigraphic units are presented in the above mentioned table in
accordance to their proven and high checked geological age. It is the first electronic and attributed table. Just point
your Computer mouse on the red triangle located on the right-upper corner of an interested lithostratigraphic units and
you are going to receive a brief geological information about it, especially in which Yemeni basins penetrated (Basin
name, It’s lithology, description and age).
The most important thing that this table led to my new explanation to the anomaly in the Yemeni
Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature, having the same geological time line (the same age), by relating such
anomaly to the geological history of the area, especially the anomaly in tectonic activities and the process of
sedimentation; this table also gave me the right to suggest a new subdivision to the Yemeni Paleozoic sediments, into
two new depositional sequences, i.e. from young to old:
b. UPPER PALEOZOIC (Devonian – Permian) / TRIASSI

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  • This is great Mr. Mohamed like always, it's priceless work, can we have a soft-copy for learning purpose only. Thank you so much
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  • it is a very good contribution for the geology of Yemen
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  • Thank you for the insightful information. Your research is a good start for anyone interested in studying environmental science and the geography of Yemen.
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A new look to the yemeni geology based on new solutions to the most chaotic yemeni geological problems

  1. 1. EARTH SCIENCE COLLEGE OF JILIN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF GEOENERGY A NEW LOOK TO THE YEMENI GEOLOGY BASED ON NEW SOLUTIONS TO THE MOST CHAOTIC YEMENI GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IMPORTANT NOTICE: This Thesis include two patent: 1. The (3D.Y.G.M. – Tin For All): The Three Dimension Yemeni Geological Model – Tin For All 2. The (T.G.T.C.): Al-Tohaita (Ser Ya Kaos) Geological Time Clock Advisers : Prof. Wang Dong Po & Prof. Xue Lin Fu Student’s Name : Mohammed Darsi Abdulrahman Nedham Major : Geology Specialization : Geology (Subsurface Geology) 1
  2. 2. CHANGCHUN – 2002 EARTH SCIENCE COLLEGE OF JILIN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF GEOENERGY A NEW LOOK TO THE YEMENI GEOLOGY BASED ON NEW SOLUTIONS TO THE MOST CHAOTIC YEMENI GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IMPORTANT NOTICE: This Thesis include two patent: 1. The (3D.Y.G.M. – Tin For All): The Three Dimension Yemeni Geological Model – Tin For All 2. The (T.G.T.C.): Al-Tohaita (Ser Ya Kaos) Geological Time Clock Advisers : Prof. Wang Dong Po & Prof. Xue Lin Fu Student’s Name : Mohammed Darsi Abdulrahman Nedham Major : Geology Specialization : Geology (Subsurface Geology) 2
  3. 3. CHANGCHUN – 2002 ABSTRACT This is the first work, which introduce a new look to the Yemeni Geology. My interest in the Yemeni geology started in 1987, when I wrote my first geological and technical report on Al-Kharg well, drilled in Al-Jawf Marib Shabwa basin (Moscow, 1987; (Unpublished)). And my work on the former South Yemen regional geology (Moscow, 1990; (Unpublished)) as a result of my fieldwork visits to the above-mentioned area. During my work in the Republic of Yemen, (the research study area), for 8 years (1992-1999), I collected variably detailed information of hundreds publications references on the pervious and the present geological activities in Yemen for the period from 1852 until Today. That work led to the first classification and division for what I called the Geological Research History Work (G.R.H.W) of the Republic of Yemen. At the same time, I was highly interested in the whole pervious and present stratigraphic research related to the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature, because stratigraphic research pursued by different organizations, companies and groups on different and indipendent lines was on the point of leading to choas. Studing a huge material and data related to the pervious and the present geological activities in Yemen; such as final reports on geological survey, different kinds of geophisical works, wells data (for more than 210 wells drilled in different area of the republic of Yemen, where most of those wells located in the north-northeastern, east and south-southeastern part of the Republic of Yemen(~75% of Yemeni sedimentary cover located in this area)), dry and wet sample analysis, well site geologist geological descriptions, background gas indicatores, drillig results, log interpretations, core analysis, well completion reports, lithostratigraphic units history (first time publication of the unit, its current meaning and definition), lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic description and indication of age; This research study work led at the beginning to my work done on diferent geological wells data tables, geological well sections, correlation between wells (local and regional), different kind of geological maps for spesific areas (this happened during my work in the Adeni Branch of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources) and led also to the first table on the whole Yemen Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclture; my mapping and modelling to the whole eastern part of Yemen with the adjacent areas (this happened during my research study work in Jilin University). This work is an extent to the great work done by many 3
  4. 4. interested geologists, scientific expeditions, organizations, local and forieghn companies, variably detailed information of hundreds publications and references on the Yemeni geology. The Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature table is projected to be a kind of huge encyclopedia. The new thing is that names of all Yemeni lithostratigraphic units are presented in the above mentioned table in accordance to their proven and high checked geological age. It is the first electronic and attributed table. Just point your Computer mouse on the red triangle located on the right-upper corner of an interested lithostratigraphic units and you are going to receive a brief geological information about it, especially in which Yemeni basins penetrated (Basin name, It’s lithology, description and age). The most important thing that this table led to my new explanation to the anomaly in the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature, having the same geological time line (the same age), by relating such anomaly to the geological history of the area, especially the anomaly in tectonic activities and the process of sedimentation; this table also gave me the right to suggest a new subdivision to the Yemeni Paleozoic sediments, into two new depositional sequences, i.e. from young to old: b. UPPER PALEOZOIC (Devonian – Permian) / TRIASSIC (Lower Triassic) (?) a. LOWER PALEOZOIC (Cambrian (?) - Lower Silurian (Llandoverian)) And led to my new subdivision to the whole Phanerozoic sedimentary sequence of the Republic of Yemen into five depositional sequences, i.e. from young to old: e. OLIGOCENE / MIOCENE-RECENT d. CRETACEOUS (Lower Hauterivian to Maastrichtian) / PALEOCENE – MIDDLE EOCENE c. JURASSIC – CRETACEOUS (Lower Berriasian to Lower Valanginian) b. UPPER PALEOZOIC (Devonian – Permian) / TRIASSIC (Lower Triassic) (?) a. LOWER PALEOZOIC (Cambrian (?) - Lower Silurian (Llandoverian)) And led also to my new idel lithostratigraphic column suggested for the Whole Yemeni Phanerozoic sequence, and to my new suggestion, implies that the North Hadhramawt Arch became pronounced during the Lower Paleozoic as a result of uplift in Cambrian (?) - Lower Silurian (Llandoverian) times. 4
  5. 5. At the end, I would like to fix in minds, that my personal field notices and records show, that the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units characterised by some important factors, such as Lithology changes, Rate of Penetration (increase and decrease), background gas (increase and decrease) and the chromatographic analysis. I am sure, that this work with the two projected patent methods (Chapter 9. 10 ) raised many important and interesting issues that required a great deal of continuous attention. In my opinion, to achieve a high result of my work, we must make things happen, didnot shirk from the tough decisions, and had a clear vision for entering into the 21st century. 5
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the Ministry of High Education (China),the Yemeni Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources (Yemen), and the Earth Science College of Jilin University for everything they have done for me. I would like to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to my supervisors, Professor Wang Dong Po & Professor Xue Lin Fu, for their supervision, including their helpful guidance with all aspects of the work. Their consistent encouragement through my research work, constructive criticism and patient corrections of my manuscript during my thesis writing (the entire preliminary and final manuscript in exhaustive). I especially enjoyed many discussions, which we had during the past three years, which usually sparked many new ideas. Really, their supervision and enthusiasm throughout this project was greatly appreciated. I am also very grateful to Professor Wang Xi Kui for his Satellite images interpretation lectures and discussion, Professor Sun Feng Yue and Professor Yun Xuan Zhou. I wish to thank Dr. Rasheed S. Ba-Rabbah (the Minister of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resource), Dr. Ahmed Ali Abdella (Vice-President of P.E.P.B.- Sana’a), Dr. Nani A.O (the P.E.P.B President ’s Consultant & Advisor), Mr. Haitam F. M. Saeed (General Director of the Petroleum Exploration and Production Board, P.E.B.B- Aden), Mr. Abdella M. Ali (Exploration Manager, P.E.P.B.) Mr. H. Fadel (Database Center Manager, P.E.B.P), Mr. Jamil Al-Ariki (Administration & Govt. Relations Manager, C.P.Y.L. (Canadian Petroleum Yemen Limited)), Mr. Mohammed A. Rageh (Exploration Coordinator. C.P,Y.L.), Engs.,: M. Maheob, S. Al-Khalaki, T. Bakhdar, A. Rashad, A. Ahmed, S. Khamis and Miss. Wafa & Fatimah Khamis for their help during various stages of my research and who have helpped make this work possible. I have to thank Miss. Zhang Xin Rong, for her help and support, Mr. Ma Xiao Gang, Mr. Wang Qinjun for notations of computer programs and also due to Mrss. Li Mingxiao for redrawing the suggested Yemeni stratigraphic coloumn using Corel Drew. Special thanks go to Mr. Bian Quicheng for help and encouragement; to other staff members of Foreighn Affairs Office of Earth Science College of Jilin University, especially to Mrs., Fan Xuirong and Mrs. Jiang Yan. Someone said that "many people will walk in & out of your life, but only true friends will leave footprints in your heart." I'm so glad that all above metioned people lift theirs in mine. 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION My interest in the Yemeni Geology started on my first investigation practise in Al-Kharj area Marib Al-Jawf Shabwah Basin (former South Yemen) during my master degree studies in Moscow (Russia) on 1987. And also during my work in the Adeni Branch of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resource (the Petroleum Exploration and Production Board) from 1992 to 1999. Science my assignment to follow up office and field exploration works for a number of blocks granted to foreign companies working in most of Yemeni territory, particularly blocks granted to companies worked, work and still work in the north northeastern, eastern and south southeastern part of the Republic of Yemem. I did my best to use the huge material, data and the whole pervious work done by others and by me during my work in the area as an interance on a new look to the Yemeni geology as a whole. Important Notice: The north northeastern, eastern and south southeastern contains about more than 75% of Yemeni sedimentary cover and occupies an area of more than 40.000 square kilometers (It’s included the Yemen Sector of Rub al Khali basin in the north and northeastern part of Yemen). THESIS TOPICS I found that one of the most famous and more complex topics problem, which face any researcher who would like to make any kind of geological studies on the Yemeni Geology are: 1. How to introduce the previous and present geological activities work in the area? (Yemen have a very rich Geologicl Research History 1852 - till Today) 2. How to solve the chronic problem releted to the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature? (There are many companies worked, work and stil work in different areas in Yemen and every company have its Lithostratigraphic column, units and nomenclature in accordance to their study to the area in which they worked, work) 3. How to image the phanerozoic geology of the north northeastern, eastern and south southeastern parts of Yemen in a 3D model, based on mapping the interested area by different geological maps from the basement till the surface? Two New Patent Methods: 1. What is the best effective method, which make it easy to do a 3D Geological Model? 7
  8. 8. 2. Which way we must use to make it easy to unsderstand the whole earth history evolution? (and in a short time) NATURE OF THE PROBLEM Prompted largely by this interest, my research plan was concentrated on its achievement on the following important point: 1. Study and examination of all primary information connected with the subject from various sources. 2. Sorting of this information in accordance with its importance. 3. Making a number of tables, charts, maps and 3D Models. 4. Checking of all data and making necessary tests on them. 5. Follow-up of the historical development on the formation of the geological structures through the making of varying three dimentional models from the bottom of the interested area to its surface. * Personal Activities (Patents) 1. It is known that to make a geological section, a coorellation or a three dimension geological model using the traditional drawing manual way methods or a computer software programm methods means a spicial preparation. What is the new method and the more effective way, which make it easy to do the above mentioned subjects and cheap? 2. It is known also that it is difficult to fix in other people minds the whole earth history evolution by using the traditional ways . So, which way we must use to make it easy to unsderstand the whole earth history evolution in a short time? AIM OF THIS STUDY The study was aimed at the problems outlined in the previous two sections: This Ph.D. thesis is the first investigation work thesis study, which aims to: 1. Help understanding of the pervious and present geological activities in the Republic of Yemen. 2. Help understanding of the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units (The Yemeni Stratgraphic Nomenclature) by introducing the first tabel on the whole Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units. 3. Help understanding of the Yemeni Phanerozoic geology by studing the eastern part as a whole, 4. Introduce two new projected methods (Patents). 8
  9. 9. CONTENTS ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v INTRODUCTION vi THESIS TOPICS NATURE OF THE PROBLEM vii AIM OF THIS STUDY CONTENTS viii LIST OF FIGURES xii LIST OF TABLES xviii CHAPTER 1: THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK (G.R.H.W.) OF THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN (1852- UNTIL TODAY), (A NEW PART WITH NEW TERMS, NAMES, CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION) 2 1.2 COUNTRY OVERVIEW 15 1.3 ECONOMIC OVERVIEW 18 1.4 ENERGY OVERVIEW 21 1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW 21 1.6 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES 22 1.7 GEOGRAPHY 22 1.8 DRAINAGE 25 1.9 CLIMATE 26 1.10 VEGETATION 27 1.11 ACCESSIBILITY 29 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER 2: REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN 30 2.1. INTRODUCTION 31 2.2 PRECAMPRIAN 37 2.3 PHANEROZOIC 44 2.3.1 EVOLUTION OF YEMEN ’s PHANEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY BASIN 46 2.3.1.1 PALEOZOIC BASINS 47 2.3.1.2 MESOZOIC BASINS 48 2.3.1.3 TERTIARY BASINS 49 2.3.2 DEVELOPMENT OF PHANEROZOIC BASIN AND PLATFORM COVER 50 2.3.2.1 INFRA-CAMBRIAN/ PALEOZOIC 50 2.3.2.2 MESOZOIC 55 2.3.2.3 CENOZOIC 59 CHAPTER 3: GEOLOGY OF YEMEN 61 3.1 INTRODUCTION 62 3.2 ARCHEAN-PROTEROZOIC BASEMENT 63 3.3 PHANEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 69 3.4 STRUCTURE AND TECTONICS OF YEMEN 95 3.5 SURFACE UPLIFT AND DENUDATION 100 3.5.1 SEDIMENTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE UPLIFT HISTORY 100 3.5.2 FISSION TRACK ANALYSIS OF THE EXHUMATION HISTORY 101 3.5.3 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR UPLIFT AND DENODATION HISTORY 101 3.6 GEOLOGICAL HISTORY 105 CHAPTER 4: THE WHOLE YEMEN LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND NOMENCLATURE TABLE 107 4.1 INTRODUCTION 108 10
  11. 11. 4.2 STRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES: A SUMMARY 108 4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND NOMENCLATURE IN YEMEN 111 4.4 THE FIRST ELECTRONIC AND ATTRIBUTE TABLE ON THE WHOLE YEMENI LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND NOMENCLATURE 122 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHY 148 5.1 INTRODUCTION 149 5.2 BASEMENT 153 5.3 PHANEROZOIC COVER 153 5.3.1 PALEOZOIC 153 5.3.2 MESOZOIC 154 5.3.2.1 TRIASSIC 157 5.3.2.2 JURASSIC 157 5.3.2.3 CRETACEOUS COASTAL AREA 159 5.3.2.4 CRETACEOUS: HADRAMUT AREA 161 5.3.3 CENOZOIC 162 5.3.3.1 PALEOCENE-MIDDLE EOCENE 164 5.3.3.2 OLIGOCENE-MIOCENE 165 5.3.3.3 PLIOCENE – RECENT 165 5.3.4 IGNEOUS ROCKS 165 CHAPTER 6: PHANEROZOIC SIDIMENTARY SEQUENCE SUBDIVISION /STRATIGRAPHIC/SEDIMENTOLOGIC ANALYSIS 226 6.1 INTRODUCTION 227 11
  12. 12. 6.2 PALEOZOIC 228 6.2.1 Lithology 228 6.2.2 Source rock/reservoir characteristics 230 6.3 TRIASSIC (?) – JURASSIC 230 6.3.1 Lithology 230 6.3.2 Source rock/reservoir characteristics 231 6.4 CRETACEOUS 232 6.4.1 Lithology 232 6.4.2 Source rock/reservoir characteristics 232 6.5 PALEOCENE – MIDDLE EOCENE 233 6.5.1 Lithology 233 6.5.2 Source rock/reservoir characteristics 233 6.6 OLIGOCENE / MIOCENE – RECENT 234 6.6.1 Lithology 234 6.6.2 Source rock/reservoir characteristics 235 CHAPTER 7: PRESENCE OF THE WHOLE EOCENE AND TRIASSIC ON THE YEMENI ISLAND OF SOCOTRA 236 7.1 INTRODUCTION 237 7.2 THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK OF SOCOTRA ISLAND 237 7.3 GEOLOGY OF SOCOTRA ISLAND 238 7.4 STRATIGRAPHIC SUMMARY OF SAMAH-1A 239 7.5 OIL AND GAS PREDICTION 240 CHAPTER 8: OIL AND GAS PROSPECT IN THE YEMENI SECTOR OF RUB AL-KHALI BASIN 242 8.1 INTRODUCTION 243 12
  13. 13. 8.2 THE YEMENI SECTOR OF RUB AL KHALI BASIN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK 244 8.3 THE RUB AL-KHALI SAND DESERT 246 8.4 THE YEMENI SECTOR OF RUB AL-KHALI BASIN 247 8.5. SATELLITE IMAGES INTERPRETATION 247 8.6 NEW LOOK TO THE AREA 248 8.7 CONCLUSION 249 8.8 RECOMMENDATION 249 CHAPTER 9: THE (3D.Y.G.M. – TIN FOR ALL): THE THREE DIMENSION YEMENI GEOLOGICAL MODEL – TIN FOR ALL 277 CHAPTER 10: THE (T.G.T.C.): AL-TOHAITA (SER YA KAOS) GEOLOGICAL TIME CLOCK 283 CHAPTER 11: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 287 11.1 Discussion 288 11.2 Conclusion 289 11.3 Recommendation 290 REFERENCES 292 LIST OF FIGURES Fig. (1.1) The Republic of Yemen Geological Research History Work New Division. 4 13
  14. 14. Fig. (1.2) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous geologists and their most famous works during the first stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 4 Fig. (1.3) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the famous scientific expedition and their famous works during the first stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 5 Fig. (1.4) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous companies and their most famous works during the first stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 5 Fig. (1.5) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous geologists and their most famous works during the second stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 6 Fig. (1.6) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the famous scientific expedition and their famous works during the second stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 6 Fig. (1.7) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous companies and their most famous works during the second stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 7 Fig. (1.8) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous geologists and their most famous works during the third stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 7 Fig. (1.9) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the famous scientific expedition and their famous works during the third stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 8 Fig. (1.10) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous companies and their most famous works during the third stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 8 Fig. (1.11) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous geologists and their most famous works during the fourth stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 9 Fig. (1.12) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the famous scientific expeditionand and their famous works during the fourth stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 9 Fig. (1.13) Show the way must be used by authors to write about the most famous companies and their most famous works during the fourth stage of the Geological Research History Work of Yemen 10 Fig (1.14), Fig. (1.15) and Fig. (1.16) Show different forms of the New Classification and Division to the Geological Research History Work of the Republic of Yemen. 11 Fig. (1.17) The official Map of the Republic of Yemen 15 14
  15. 15. Fig. (1.18): The Republic of Yemen (Location Map) 15 Fig. (1.19): Yemen Population Density Map 16 Fig. (1.20): Yemen Administrative Divisions Map 17 Fig. (1.21) Crude Oil Export and Destinations (Nedham, M. Darsi, 2000) 19 Fig. (1.22): Yemen Economic Activity Map 20 Fig. (1.23: The Organization Chart of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources in Yemen 23 Fig. (1.24) Geographic Map of the Republic of Yemen 24 Fig. (1.25) The Yemeni Drainage System 25 Fig. (1.26): Yemen Land Use Map 28 Fig. (1.27) Show the locations of the major roadways, ports, etc. in Yemen, as well as the governorate boundaries. 29 Fig. (2.1) Index map showing location of Fig. (2.1A) and (2.1B) in the regional context. 32 Fig. (2.1A) Yemen: Location Map (Western Sheet) 33 Fig. (2.1B) Yemen: Location Map (Eastern Sheet) 34 Fig. (2.2) The Concession Map of the Republic of Yemen 35 Fig. (2.3) Sedimentary Basin Map of the Republic of Yemen (Nedham M. Darsi, 2001; after As-Saruri and Baraba, 1995) 38 Fig. (2.4) Regional structural framework 39 Fig. (2.5) Structural elements outline map with principal highs/uplifts and basins. 42 Fig. (2.6A) Selected well correlation across different sedimentary basins and highs (Western Part) 52 Fig. (2.6B) Selected well correlation across different sedimentary basins and highs (Eastern Part) 53 Fig. (3.1) Geographic map of Yemen 63 Fig. (3.2) Index to geological mapping in Yemen 65 Fig. (3.3) Precambrian basement geology of Yemen (Menzies, et al., 1994; after A – Northwest Yemen (Geomin 1985); B – Northeast Yemen (Christmann et al., 1984); C – Sana’a – Al-Bayda (Kruck et al., 1991); D: Yaffa (Strojexport. 1988); 15
  16. 16. E – Lawder – Wafid – Beyhan (Lobunets et al., 1988); and F – Habban-Al-Mukalla (Scharamm et al., 1986)). 66 Fig. (3.4) Correlation of Precambrian units in northern Yemen (Menzies, et al., 1994; after GEOMIN, 1985 and Chrismann et al., 1984) 68 Fig. (3.5) Geology of Yemen modified by Menzies, et al., 1994; after Robertson Group (1992) 68 Fig. (3.6) Stratigraphy of Yemen (By Menzies, et al., 1994; after Beydoun, 1964) 70 Fig. (3.7) Stratigraphy column of the Akbra Shale, Yemen (Davison et al., 1994) 71 Fig. (3.8) Stratigraphy column of the Kohlan Sandstone, Yemen (Davison et al., 1994) 74 Fig. (3.9) Major Jurassic palaeographic and tectonic features of Yemen 76 Fig. (3.10) Nomenclature pertinent to Jurassic stratigraphy across Yemen from the Bayda area (Al-Thour, 1992), the graben shoulder northwest of Dhamar-Marib (Kruck et al., 1991), the Ramlat As Sabatayn graben (Schlumberger, 1992) and the eastern platform (Beydoun and Greenwood, 1968; Haitham and Nani, 1990). 77 Fig. (3.11) Stratigraphy of the Amran Limestone from Al-Ayen area, Yemen (By Menzies, et al., 1994; after Al-Thour, 1993) 78 Fig. (3.12) Stratigraphy of the Tawilah Group at Jabal Marmer, Al Ghiras, Yemen (Al-Subbary and Nichols 1991; Al-Subbary et al., 1993) 82 Fig. (3.13) Cretaceous-Tertiary paleogeography of Yemen (Al-Subbary and Nichols 1991 and 1993 unpublished data) 84 Fig. (3.14) Stratigraphy of the Tawilah Group to Yemen Volcanics transition, Yemen (Al-Kadasi and Minzies, 1993 unpublished data) 90 Fig. (3.15) Histogram of K-Ar Ages for the Yemen Volcanic Group (Al-Kadasi et al., 1992; Al-Kadasi, Rundle and Menzies, 1993, unpublished data) 93 16
  17. 17. Fig. (3.16) Stratigraphy of the Yemen Volcanics from Al Qanawis to San’a, Yemen (Baker and Menzies, 1993, unpublished data) 94 Fig. (3.17) Tectonic feature of Yemen (McClay 1993, unpublished data) 97 Fig. (3.18) Distribution of apatite fission track ages from Yemen. Apatites were extracted from outcroping gneissic basement and Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments (Yeland et al., 1994, Yeland et al., 1994 unpublished data) 98 Fig. (3.19) Annual precipitation and temperature distribution in western Yemen (Menzies, et al., 1994; after Dequin, 1976) 103 Fig. (3.20) Geomorphological profile across western Yemen (Menzies, et al., 1994; after Davison et al., 1994). 104 Fig. (4.1) Yemen: Historical development of selected Jurassic stratigraphic nomenclature schemes. 117 Fig. (4.2) Yemen: Historical development of selected cretaceous stratigraphic nomenclature schemes. 118 Fig. (5.1) Simplified geological map of the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. 151 Fig. (5.2) Major tectono-stratigraphic elements of the former south Yemen. 152 Fig. (5.3A) Thickness Map for the Youngest Sediment or Formation (Layer No. 1)166 Fig. (5.3B) 3D Model for the Youngest Sediment or Formation ( Layer No. 1 ) 167 Fig. (5.4A) Thickness Map for Sarar Formation ( Layer No. 2 ) 168 Fig. (5.4B) 3D Model for Sarar Formation ( Layer No. 2 ) 169 Fig. (5.5A) Thickness Map for Taqah/Hami Formation ( Layer No. 3 ) 170 Fig. (5.5B) 3D Model for Taqah/Hami Formation ( Layer No. 3 ) 171 Fig. (5.6A) Thickness Map for Ghaidah Formation ( Layer No. 4 ) 172 Fig. (5.6B) 3D Model for Ghaidah Formation ( Layer No. 4 ) 173 Fig. (5.7A) Thickness Map for Habshyia Formation ( Layer No. 5 ) 174 Fig. (5.7B) 3D Model for Habshyia Formation ( Layer No. 5 ) 175 Fig. (5.8A) Thickness Map for Rus Formation ( Layer No. 6 ) 176 Fig. (5.8B) 3D Model for Rus Formation ( Layer No. 6 ) 177 Fig. (5.9A) Thickness Map for Jiza Formation ( Layer No. 7 ) 178 Fig. (5.9B) 3D Model for Jiza Formation ( Layer No. 7 ) 179 17
  18. 18. Fig. (5.10A) Thickness Map for Umm Er Radhuma Formation ( Layer No. 8 ) 180 Fig. (5.10B) 3D Model for Umm Er Radhuma Formation ( Layer No. 8 ) 181 Fig. (5.11A) Thickness Map for Simsima/Sharwayn Formation ( Layer No. 9 ) 182 Fig. (5.11B) 3D Model for Simsima/Sharwayn Formation ( Layer No. 9 ) 183 Fig. (5.12A) Thickness Map for Fiqah Formation ( Layer No. 10 ) 184 Fig. (5.12B) 3D Model for Fiqah Formation ( Layer No. 10 ) 185 Fig. (5.13A) Thickness Map for Mukalla Formation ( Layer No. 11 ) 186 Fig. (5.13B) 3D Model for Mukalla Formation ( Layer No. 11 ) 187 Fig. (5.14A) Thickness Map for Sufla Member ( Layer No. 12 ) 188 Fig. (5.14B) 3D Model for Sufla Member ( Layer No. 12 ) 189 Fig. (5.15A) Thickness Map for Fartaq Formation ( Layer No. 13 ) 190 Fig. (5.15B) 3D Model for Fartaq Formation ( Layer No. 13 ) 191 Fig. (5.16A) Thickness Map for Harshiyat Formation ( Layer No. 14 ) 192 Fig. (5.16B) 3D Model for Harshiyat Formation ( Layer No. 14 ) 193 Fig. (5.17A) Thickness Map for Wasia Group ( Layer No. 15 ) 194 Fig. (5.17B) 3D Model for Wasia Group ( Layer No. 15 ) 195 Fig. (5.18A) Thickness Map for Qishn Formation ( Layer No. 16 ) 196 Fig. (5.18B) 3D Model for Qishn Formation ( Layer No. 16 ) 197 Fig. (5.19A) Thickness Map for Qishn Carbonate Member ( Layer No. 17 ) 198 Fig. (5.19B) 3D Model for Qishn Carbonate Member ( Layer No. 17 ) 199 Fig. (5.20A) Thickness Map for Qishn Clastic Member ( Layer No. 18 ) 200 Fig. (5.20B) 3D Model for Qishn Clastic Member ( Layer No. 18 ) 201 Fig. (5.21A) Thickness Map for Biyad ( Layer No. 19 ) 202 Fig. (5.21B) 3D Model for Biyad ( Layer No. 19 ) 203 Fig. (5.22A) Thickness Map for Sa'ar Formation ( Layer No. 20 ) 204 Fig. (5.22B) 3D Model for Sa'ar Formation ( Layer No. 20 ) 205 Fig. (5.23A) Thickness Map for Nayfa Formation ( Layer No. 21 ) 206 18
  19. 19. Fig. (5.23B) 3D Model for Nayfa Formation ( Layer No. 21 ) 207 Fig. (5.24A) Thickness Map for Sab'atayn Formation ( Layer No. 22 ) 208 Fig. (5.24B) 3D Model for Sab'atayn Formation ( Layer No. 22 ) 209 Fig. (5.25A) Thickness Map for Lam Member ( Layer No. 23 ) 210 Fig. (5.25B) 3D Model for Lam Member ( Layer No. 23 ) 211 Fig. (5.26A) Thickness Map for Madbi Formation ( Layer No. 24 ) 212 Fig. (5.26B) 3D Model for Madbi Formation ( Layer No. 24 ) 213 Fig. (5.27A) Thickness Map for Shuqra Formation ( Layer No. 25 ) 214 Fig. (5.27B) 3D Model for Shuqra Formation ( Layer No. 25 ) 215 Fig. (5.28A) 3D Model for Kohlan Formation ( Layer No. 26 ) 216 Fig. (5.28B) 3D Model for Kohlan Formation ( Layer No. 26 ) 217 Fig. (5.29A) Thickness Map for (Permian – Triassic?) Formation( Layer No. 27 ) 218 Fig. (5.29B) 3D Model for (Permian – Triassic?) Formation ( Layer No. 27 ) 219 Fig. (5.30A) Thickness Map for the (Devonian - Carboniferous) Formation ( Layer No. 28 ) 220 Fig. (5.30B) 3D Model for the (Devonian - Carboniferous) Formation ( Layer No. 28 ) 221 Fig. (5.31A) Thickness Map for the Oldest Sediment or Formation (Cambrian (?) – Ordovician – Lower Silurian) ( Layer No. 29) 222 Fig. (5.31B) 3D Model for the Oldest Sediment or Formation (Cambrian (?) – Ordovician – Lower Silurian) ( Layer No. 29) 223 Fig. (5.32A) Thickness Map for the drilled parts of the Basement ( Layer No.30 ) 224 Fig. (5.32B) 3D Model for the drilled parts of the Basement ( Layer No.30 ) 225 Fig. (7.1): Socotra Island (Republic of Yemen) 241 Fig. (7.2): Socotra Island (Republic of Yemen); 1886 241 Fig. (8.1) Satellite Images No.1: Arabian Sea (N19.25-E58.71) 250 Fig. (8.2) Satellite Images No.2: Arabian Sea (N19.15-E58.77) 251 Fig. (8.3) Satellite Images No.3: Yemen 14, Sanaw (N18.17-E50.78) 252 Fig. (8.4) Satellite Images No.4: Yemen 15, (N17.51-E51.23) 253 19
  20. 20. Fig. (8.5) Satellite Images No.5: Yemen 16, (N17.38-E51.31) 254 Fig. (8.6) Satellite Images No.6: Yemen 17, (N18.46-E51.05) 255 Fig. (8.7) Satellite Images No.7: Yemen 18, Wadi Rakhawt (N17.79-E51.50) 256 Fig. (8.8) Satellite Images No.8: Yemen 19, (N17.69-E51.57) 257 Fig. (8.9) Satellite Images No.9: Yemen 20, Desert (N17.69-E50.28) 258 Fig. (8.10) Satellite Images No.10: Yemen 1, Desert (Latitude Longitude at Image center N17.11-E50.67) 259 Fig. (8.11) Satellite Images No.11 Yemen 2, Desert (N16.66-E50.96) 260 Fig. (8.12) Satellite Images No.12: Yemen 3, Al Mujaza’ah (N17.28-E49.65) 261 Fig. (8.13) Satellite Images No.13: Yemen 4, (N16.36-E50.08) 262 Fig. (8.14) Satellite Images No.14: Yemen 5, (N16.52-E50.16) 263 Fig. (8.15) Satellite Images No.15: Border Saudi Arabia-Yemen (N18.57-E49.43) 264 Fig. (8.16) Satellite Images No.16: Yemen 6, (N18.22-E49.67) 265 Fig. (8.17) Satellite Images No.17: Yemen 7, (N17.90-E49.89) 266 Fig. (8.18) Satellite Images No.18: Yemen 8, (N17.58-E50.12) 267 Fig. (8.19) Satellite Images No.19: Yemen 9, (N17.25-E50.36) 268 Fig. (8.20) Satellite Images No.20: Yemen 10, Jabal Mahrat (N16.93-E50.57) 269 Fig. (8.21) Satellite Images No.21: Yemen 11, Jabal Mahrat (N16.77-E50.67) 270 Fig. (8.22) Satellite Images No.22: Border Saudi Arabia-Yemen (N18.64-E51.36) 271 Fig. (8.23) Satellite Images No.23: Yemen 12, (N17.97-E51.81) 272 Fig. (8.24) Satellite Images No.24: Yemen 13, (N17.85-E51.88) 273 Fig. (8.25) Interpreted satellite Images No.6: Yemen 17, (N18.46-E51.05) 274 Fig. (8.26) Satellite Images No.25: show first projected point 275 Fig. (8.27) Satellite Images No.26: show second projected point 276 Fig. (9.1): The 3DYGM-For All Tin; (Outer View) 279 Fig. (9.2): The 3DYGM-For All Tin; (Inner View) 280 Fig. (9.3): The 3DYGM-For All Tin; (A Column Construction) 281 20
  21. 21. Fig. (9.4): Using the 3DYGM-For All Tin to make a Geological Well Section 282 Fig. (10.1): Al-Tohaita Geological Time Clock (TGTC); (Type No.1) 285 Fig. (10.2): Al-Tohaita Geological Time Clock (TGTC); (Type No.2) 286 21
  22. 22. LIST OF TABLES Table. (1.1) Crude Oil Export and Destinations 18 Table. (3.1) Summary of geological mapping in the Republic of Yemen. 64 Table. (4.1) The Republic of Yemen Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature Table 124 (Attaced) Table (5.1) Infra-Cambrian to (?) Lower Cambrian Basement Units 153 Table (5.2) Paleozoic Units 154 Table (5.3) Mesozoic Units 155 Table (5.3A) Cretaceous: Coastal Area Units 159 Table (5.4) Cenozoic Units 163 . 22
  23. 23. CHAPTER 1: 1 THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN GENERAL GEOLOGY 2 1.1 THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK (G.R.H.W.) OF THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN (1852- UNTIL TODAY), (A NEW PART WITH NEW TERMS, NAMES, CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION) 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.2 NEW CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION 3 STEP N0. 1 FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE THIRD STAGE FOURTH STAGE STEP N0. 2 4 HOW TO WRITE ABOUT THE FIRST STAGE AS A WHOLE STEP N0. 3 6 HOW TO WRITE ABOUT THE SECOND STAGE AS A WHOLE STEP N0. 4 7 HOW TO WRITE ABOUT THE THIRD STAGE AS A WHOLE STEP N0. 5 9 HOW TO WRITE ABOUT THE FOURTH STAGE AS A WHOLE STEP N0. 6 11 HOW TO WRITE ABOUT THE FOUR STAGES AS A WHOLE 1.2 COUNTRY OVERVIEW 15 1.3 ECONOMIC OVERVIEW 18 1.4 ENERGY OVERVIEW 21 1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW 21 1.6 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES 22 23
  24. 24. 1.7 GEOGRAPHY 22 1.8 DRAINAGE 25 1.9 CLIMATE 26 1.10 VEGETATION 27 1.11 ACCESSIBILITY 29 24
  25. 25. CHAPTER 1 THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN GENERAL GEOLOGY 1.1 THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK IN THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1852 UNTIL TODAY (A NEW PART WITH A NEW TERMS, NEW NAMES, NEW CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION) 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION This part of my Ph.D. thesis is one of the most important parts of my work. It is a new part done by me. This new part I called it the Geological Research History Work of Yemen (G.R.H.W.). It is a new part with a new look to the previous and present geological activities in the area. This new part must be added to any kind of geological works about Yemen in the future. It must be written after the introduction directly as an independent part of the general part (Chapter 1). It is known that it is so difficult for any persons to do the following kind of works: First, to read about previous and present activities in Yemen. Second, to speak about previous and present activities in Yemen. Third, to keep in mind informations related to previous and present activities in Yemen. Fourth, to teach student in schools institutes collages and universities about previous and present activities in Yemen. Fifth, to introduce to others previous and present activities in Yemen. If you, read any books about Yemeni geology with an aim to know more about the previous and present geological activities in Yemen, you will notice the following most important notices: 1. Most of authors in their scientific works about Yemen like to write about perivious and present activities in Yemen as a part of their introduction. 2. Different authors have different ideas and different ways to write about perivious and present geological activities in Yemen, because they know very nice, that Yemen have a very rich geological research history. So in their introduction about the Yemeni geology, they cannot wrote about perivious and present geological activities as a whole. So different group of authors likes to write about different branches of pervious and present activities in Yemen. This make it so difficult to have a conclusion about pervious and present geological activities in Yemen. 25
  26. 26. 2 Yemen has a very rich and long geological research history work aged 150 years. During those 150 years, many Geologists, Expedition and different Companies worked, work and still work in Yemen. In my opinion, it is time now to stop writing about perivious and present activities in Yemen as a part of any introduction on the Yemeni Geology, which means more difficulties in the future. So to solve this problem I decided to write about perivious and present geological activities in Yemen as an independent part which I called it, the Geological Research History Work (G.R.H.W.). The Term (G.R.H.W.): means the Geological Research History Work. It is a new term, which first time used by me, when I published my first, second, third scientific papers on the Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen in the Yemen Times News paper and also my fourth paper on the same subject in World Geology, China. The term G.R.H.W. means the Geological Research History Work (The Pervious and the Present activities) as a whole, in accordance with my new classification and division to the G.R.H.W. in Yemen. 1.1.2 NEW CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION It is known that rich geological research history work in any country is largely depended upon written documents, whereas the G.R.H.W. must be inferred from the careful study. Based on variably detailed information of hundreds publications references. I found that the best way to make the Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen (The New Part) to be easy to read, to write, to speak, to keep in mind, to teach and to introduce to others is to do the following new steps: Step No.1: I decided to divide the geological research history work in the Republic of Yemen as a whole to four stages: (See, Fig. (1.1)) First Stage: 1852-1901. I gave it two new names: First name: The First Systematic Geological Observation Stage. Second name: Carter’s Stage. Second Stage: 1902-1946. I gave it the following name: The Hinterland Studies Stage. 26
  27. 27. Third Stage: 1947-1967. I gave it two new names: First name: The First systematic more detailed Stratigraphic and Geological Studies Stage. Second name: Beydoun, Z.R., 's Stage. Fourth Stage: 1968 - until Today. I gave it the following name: The Yemeni Geologists Stage Fig. (1.1) The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen First Stage: 1852- Second Stage: Third Stage: 1947-1967. Fourth Stage: 1901. 1902-1946. 1968 - Until Today. I gave it two new names: I gave it two new I gave it the I gave it the following names: following name: (1) The First systematic more name: (1) The First detailed Stratigraphic and Systematic The Hinterland Geological Studies Stage. The Yemeni Geological Studies Stage. Geologists Stage Observation (2) Beydoun, Z.R., 's Stage. Stage. 27
  28. 28. Step No.2: 1. To write about the First Stage (The First Systematic Geological Observation Stage or Carter’s Stage) as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equivalent new terms. F IR S T S T A G E T H E F IR S T S Y S T E M A T IC G E O L O G IC A L O B S E R V A T IO N S T A G E O R C A R T E R ’s S T A G . 1 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S G E O L O G I S T S A N D T H E I R M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E F IR S T S T A G E 1.1. To write about the 1 .1 . Y E M E N I G E O L O G I S T S 1 .2 . A R A B G E O L O G I S T S Most Famous Geologists 1 .3 . F O R E I G H N G E O L O G I S T S and their most famous N O T E (1 ): IF A N Y O N E W A N T T O W R IT E A B O U T T H E F IR S T S T A G E O F T H E G E O L O G IC A L R E S E A R C H H I S T O R Y W O R K I N Y E M E N ,H E M U S T W R I T E A B O U T T H E A B O V E M E T I O N E D STEPS A S A W H O LE. Work (M.F.G.& W. 1) during the first stage As whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.2) Fig. (1.2) F IR S T S T A G E T H E F IR S T S Y S T E M A T IC G E O L O G IC A L O B S E R V A T IO N S T A G E O R C A R T E R ’s S T A G . 2 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S S C IE N T IF IC E X P E D IT IO N A N D T H E IR M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E F IR S T S T A G E 2 .1 . Y E M E N I S C IE N T IF IC E X P E D IT IO N 2 .2 . A R A B S C IE N T IF IC E X P E D IT IO N 1.2. To write about the 2 .3 . F O R E IG H N S C IE N T IF IC E X P E D IT IO N N O T E ( 1 ): IF A N Y O N E W A N T T O W R I T E A B O U T T H E F IR S T S T A G E O F T H E G E O L O G IC A L Famous Scientific R E S E A R C H H I S T O R Y W O R K I N T H E R E P U B L I C O F Y E M E N , H E M U S T W R IT E A B O U T T H E A B O V E M E T IO N E D S T E P S A S A W H O L E Expeditionand their famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 1) during the first stage as whole authors must 28
  29. 29. Work with Fig. (1.3) Fig. (1.3) F IR S T S T A G E T H E F IR S T S Y S T E M A T IC G E O L O G IC A L O B S E R V A T IO N S T A G E O R C A R T E R ’s S T A G . 3 . T H E M O S T F A M O U S C O M P A N IE S A N D T H E IR M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E F IR S T S T A G E 1.3. To write about the 3 .1 . Y E M E N I C O M P A N IE S 3 .2 . A R A B C O M P A N IE S Most Famous Companies 3 .3 . F O R E IG N C O M P A N IE S and their most famous Work H IS T O R Y O F E X P L O R A T IO N , P R O D U C T IO N , ? A C T IV IT IE S N O T E (1 ): IF A N Y O N E W A N T T O W R IT E A B O U T T H E F IR S T S T A G E O F T H E G E O L O G IC A L R E S E A R C H H IS T O R Y W O R K IN T H E R E P U B L IC O F Y E M E N , H E M U S T W R IT E A B O U T T H E (M.F.C.& W. 1) during the A B O V E M E T IO N E D S T E P S A S A W H O L E first stage as whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.4) Fig. (1.4) 29
  30. 30. Step No.3: 2. To write about the Second Stage (The Hinterland Studies Stage) as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equivalent new terms. SEC O N D STA G E T H E H IN T E R L A N D S T U D IE S S T A G E . 2.1. To write about the 1 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S G E O L O G I S T S A N D T H E I R M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E S E C O N D S T A G E Most Famous Geologists 1 .1 . Y E M E N I G E O L O G I S T S 1 .2 . A R A B G E O L O G I S T S and their most famous 1 .3 . F O R E I G H N G E O L O G I S T S Work (M.F.G.& W. 2) N O T E (1 ): IF A N Y O N E W A N T T O W R IT E A B O U T T H E S E C O N D S T A G E O F T H E G E O L O G I C A L R E S E A R C H H I S T O R Y W O R K I N Y E M E N ,H E M U S T W R I T E A B O U T T H E A B O V E M E T IO N E D STEPS AS A W H OLE. during the second stage As whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.5) Fig. (1.5) Fig. (1.5) SEC O N D STAG E T H E H IN T E R L A N D S T U D IE S S T A G E 2 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S S C IE N T IF IC E X P E D IT IO N A N D T H E IR M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E S E C O N D S T A G E 2 .1 . Y E M E N I S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N 2 .2 . A R A B S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N 30 2 .3 . F O R E I G H N S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N
  31. 31. 2.2. To write about the Famous Scientific Expedition and their famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 2) during the second stage as whole authors must Work with Fig. (1.6) Fig. (1.6) 2.3. To write about the Most Famous Companies and their most famous Work (M.F.C.& W. 2) during the second stage as whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.7) Fig. (1.7) 31
  32. 32. Step No.4: 3. To write about the Third Stage (The First systematic more detailed Stratigraphic and Geological Studies Stage or Beydoun, Z.R., 's Stage) as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equivalent new terms. T H IR D S T A G E T H E F IR S T S Y S T E M A T IC M O R E D E T A IL E D S T R A T IG R A P H IC A N D 3.1. To write about the G E O L O G I C A L S T U D I E S S T A G E O R B E Y D O U N , Z .R ., 's S T A G E . Most Famous Geologists 1 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S G E O L O G I S T S A N D T H E I R M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E T H IR D S T A G E and their most famous 1 .1 . Y E M E N I G E O L O G I S T S 1 .2 . A R A B G E O L O G I S T S Work (M.F.G.& W. 3) 1 .3 . F O R E I G H N G E O L O G I S T S during the first stage N O T E (1 ): IF A N Y O N E W A N T T O W R IT E A B O U T T H E T H IR D S T A G E O F T H E G E O L O G IC A L R E S E A R C H H I S T O R Y W O R K I N Y E M E N ,H E M U S T W R I T E A B O U T T H E A B O V E M E T I O N E D STEPS AS A W H OLE As whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.8) Fig. (1.8) T H IR D STAG E T H E F IR S T S Y S T E M A T IC M O R E D E T A IL E D S T R A T IG R A P H IC A N D G E O L O G IC A L S T U D I E S S T A G E O R B E Y D O U N , Z . R . , 's S T A G E . 2 .T H E M O S T F A M O U S S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N A N D T H E I R M O S T F A M O S W O R K IN Y E M E N D U R IN G T H E T H IR D S T A G E 2 .1 . Y E M E N I S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N 2 .2 . A R A B S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N 32 2 .3 . F O R E I G H N S C I E N T I F I C E X P E D I T I O N
  33. 33. 3.2. To write about the Famous Scientific Expeditionand their famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 3) during the third stage as whole authors must Work with Fig. (1.9) Fig. (1.9) 3.3. To write about the Most Famous Companies TH IRD STAG E and their most famous Work THE FIRST SYSTEM ATIC M ORE DETAILED STRATIGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGICAL STUDIES STAGE OR BEYDOUN, Z.R., 's STAGE. (M.F.C.& W. 3) during the 3. THE M OST FAM OUS COM PANIES AND THEIR M OST FAM OS W ORK IN YEM EN DURING THE THIRD STAGE third stage as whole, 3.1. YEM ENI COM PANIES authors must Work with 3.2. ARAB COM PANIES 3.3. FOREIGN COM PANIES Fig. (1.10) HISTORY OF EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION, ? ACTIVITIES NOTE (1): IF ANYONE W ANT TO W RITE ABOUT THE THIRD STAGE OF THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY W ORK IN THE REPUBLIC OF YEM EN, HE M UST W RITE ABOUT THE ABOVE M ETIONED STEPS AS A W HOLE. Fig. (1.10) 33
  34. 34. Step No. 5: 4. To write about the Fourth Stage (The Yemeni Geologists Stage) as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equivalent new terms. FOURTH STAGE THE YEMENI GEOLOGISTS STAGE 1.THE MOST FAMOUS GEOLOGISTS AND THEIR MOST 4.1. To write about the FAMOS WORK IN YEMEN DURING THE FOURTH STAGE 1.1. YEMENI GEOLOGISTS Most Famous Geologists 1.2. ARAB GEOLOGISTS and their most famous 1.3. FOREIGHN GEOLOGISTS Work (M.F.G.& W. 4) NOTE (1): IF ANYONE WANT TO WRITE ABOUT THE FOURTH STAGE OF THE GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH HISTORY WORK IN YEMEN,HE MUST WRITE ABOUT THE ABOVE METIONED STEPS AS A WHOLE. during the Fourth Stage As whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.11) Fig. (1.11) 4.2. To write about the Famous Scientific FOURTH STAGE Expeditionand their THE YEMENI GEOLOGISTS STAGE 2.THE MOST FAMOUS SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION AND THEIR MOST FAMOS WORK IN YEMEN DURING THE FOURTH STAGE famous Work (F.S.E.& W. 4) 2.1. YEMENI SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION during the fourth stage as 2.2. ARAB SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION whole authors must 2.3. FOREIGHN SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION NOTE (1): IF ANYONE WANT TO WRITE ABOUT THE FOURTH STAGE OF THE GEOLOGICAL Work with Fig. (1.12) RESEARCH HISTORY WORK IN THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN, HE MUST WRITE ABOUT THE ABOVE METIONED STEPS AS A WHOLE. Fig. (1.12) 34
  35. 35. Fig. (1.12) 4.3. To write about the Most Famous Companies and their most famous Work (M.F.C.& W. 4) during the fourth stage as whole, authors must Work with Fig. (1.13) Fig. (1.13) 35
  36. 36. Step No. 6: To write about the Four Stages as whole, authors must write about the following activities and use the equivalent new terms. (See Figs. (1.14), (1.15) and (1.16)) The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen First Stage: Second Stage: Third Stage: 1947-1967. Fourth Stage: 1852-1901. 1902-1946. 1968 - until I gave it two new names: Today. I gave it two I gave it the new names: following (1) The First systematic I gave it the (1) The First name: more detailed following Systematic Stratigraphic and name: Geological The Geological Studies Stage. Observation Hinterland The Yemeni Stage. Studies Stage. (2) Beydoun, Z.R., 's Geologists (2) Carter’s Stage. Stage Stage. M F M M F M M F M M F M F S F F S F F S F F S F G E C G E C G E C G E C & & & & & & & & & & & & W W W W W W W W W W W W 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 The Geological The Geological The Geological Research History Research History Research History Work Work of the Most Work of the Most of the most Famous Famous Companies Famous Geologists Scientific and their most famous and their most Expeditions and their Work during the Four famous Work during most famous Work Stages as a whole the Four Stages as a during the Four Stages whole as a whole Fig. (1.14) 11 36
  37. 37. The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen First Stage: Second Stage: Third Stage: 1947-1967. Fourth Stage: 1852-1901. 1902-1946. 1968 - until I gave it two new names: Today. I gave it two I gave it the new names: following (1) The First systematic I gave it the (1) The First name: more detailed following Systematic Stratigraphic and name: Geological The Geological Studies Stage. Observation Hinterland The Yemeni Stage. Studies Stage. (2) Beydoun, Z.R., 's Geologists (2) Carter’s Stage. Stage Stage. M F M M F M M F M M F M F S F F S F F S F F S F G E C G E C G E C G E C & & & & & & & & & & & & W W W W W W W W W W W W 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 M M M M F F F F M M M M F F F F S S S S F F F F G G G G E E E E C G C C & & & & & & & & & & & & W W W W W W W W W W W W 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 The Most Famous The Scientific A Restudy on Exploration Activities Geologists Expeditions Companies and their Groups and their and their Geological Geological Geological Production Activities Research History Research History Research Work during the Work during the History Work Four Stages Four Stages during the Four Stages (I, II, III, IV) (I, II, III, IV) (I, II, III, IV) Fig. (1.15) 37
  38. 38. The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen (M.F.G.&W1) (F.S.E.&W1) (M.F.C.&W1) Most Famous Famous Scientific Most Famous Geologists and Expedition Companies and their most famous and their famous their most famous Work during the Work during the First Work during the First Stage Stage First Stage M M M F F F M M M F F F Y A F F F F Y A F S S S Y A F G G G E E E C C C & & & & & & & & & W W W W W W W w W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M M M M F F F F M M M M F F F F S S S S F F F F G G G G E E E E C G C C & & & & & & & & & & & & W W W W W W W W W W W W 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 The Most Famous The Scientific A Restudy on Exploration Activities Geologists Expeditions Companies and and their Groups and their their Geological Production Activities Geological Geological Research Research History Research History History Work Work during the Work during the during the Four Four Stages Four Stages Stages (I, II, III, IV) (I, II, III, IV) (I, II, III, IV) Fig. (1.16) 38
  39. 39. IMPORTANT NOTICE: To prove that we in Yemen are highly in need for such new part, with the new classification and division, and to show how it is easy now to use the new classification and division to write about the geological research history work of Yemen in parts or as whole. I published six scientific papers (the first five scientific papers published on the first and most famous newspaper in Yemen, Yemen Times and one in China on World Geology). (Nedham, M.Darsi (2000, 2001)) On my first published papers on the geological research history work of the Republic of Yemen I used my new classification and division. I used it not just to prove how it is easy now to write about our G.R.H.W in parts or as whole, but also to discuss and to answer one of the most important questions. Who are the most famous geologists, who play a great role in the geological research history work of the Republic of Yemen during the period from 1852 until Today? (Please, see the attached references). 1.2. COUNTRY OVERVIEW 1. Location: Southwest corners of the Arabian Peninsula, the Republic of Yemen is bordered in the northwest, north and northeast by Saudi Arabia, in the east by Oman and in the south by the Gulf of Aden. To the west lies the Red Sea. The islands of Soqotra, Abdul Kuri, Darsa, Perim, … and Kamaran in the Arabian Sea and southern Red Sea are also part of the Republic of Yemen. (Fig. (1.17), (1.18)) Fig. (1.17): The Official Map of the Republic of Yemen 39
  40. 40. Fig. (1.18): The Republic of Yemen (Location Map) 2. Area: 527,790 sq. kilometers (203,730 sq. miles); approximately the size of Wyoming and Colorado 3. Independence: May 22, 1990 (reunification) 4. Population: 16,483,000 (1997). 5. Population density: 30.7 per sq km. (Fig. (1.19)) 40
  41. 41. Fig. (1.19): Yemen Population Density Map 6. Capital: Sana'a dates back to the first century with Population: 926,595 (1993). 7. Major Cities: Sanaa (capital), Aden, Al Hudaydah, and Taizz. (Fig. (1.20)) 41
  42. 42. Fig. (1.20): Yemen Administrative Divisions Map 8. Language: Arabic. English is spoken in some urban areas. 9. Religion: Islam. 10. Time: GMT +3. 11. Economic & Commercial Capital: Aden. Population: 400,783 (1993). 12. Government: Republic. Head of State: President Ali Abdallah Saleh since 1990. Head of Government: Prime Abdulkader Ba-Gammal since 2001. 13. Electricity: 220/230 volts AC, 50Hz. 14. Communications: Country. Code: 967. Outgoing international code: 00. Press: English-language publications include The Yemen Times (weekly) and The Yemen Observer (monthly). Arabic dailies include Ash-Sharara and Al-Thaura. 15. The metric system is in general use throughout the country; however, some English weight and measures are also used. Note: The information contained in these Ph.D. theses is the best available as of July 1999 and can change. 42
  43. 43. 1.3. ECONOMIC OVERVIEW In 1998, Yemen's real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was 2.7%, and it is expected to climb to 4.2% in 1999, based mainly on the recovery in oil prices. Meanwhile, inflation has been reduced, but not completely brought under control. After reaching a high of 71% in 1995, inflation is projected at 10% for 1999. Income from oil sales account for approximately 40% of Yemen's total revenues and is the country's main source of foreign currency. 1. Currency: Yemeni Rial (YR), the current rate of exchange is about U.S.$1.00=YR 160. 2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - purchasing power parity exchange rate (1998E): $5.6 billion 3. Major Trading Partners: China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, United Arab Emirates, United States 4. Major Export Products: Crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish 5. Major Import Products: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals. (Table (1.1), Figs. (1.21), (1.22)) Table. (1.1) Crude Oil Export and Destinations COUNTRY QUANTITY PRICE PERCENTAGE (%) (Barrels) USD China 13138862 2.77E+08 27.88 % Korea 10259311 2.17E+08 21.77 % Japan 6,518,963 1.27E+08 13.83 % Thailand 6,212,318 1.23E+08 13.18 % Brazil 2,801,413 61592458 5.94 % South Africa 2,120,637 43176359 4.50 % Singapore 1,677,337 31532088 3.56 % Egypt 1,350,000 24560550 2.86 % Aden/Yemen 1,199,829 25934369 2.55 % Italy 799,518 15625668 1.70 % France 572,209 12756827 1.21 % Kenya 483,000 9,984,407 1.03 % Total 47,133,397 9.68E+08 100 % 43
  44. 44. Fig. (1.21) Crude Oil Export and Destinations (Nedham, M. Darsi, 2000) 44
  45. 45. Fig. (1.22): Yemen Economic Activity Map 45
  46. 46. 1.4. ENERGY OVERVIEW 1. Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/99): 4 billion barrels 2. Oil Production (1998E): 385,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) 3. Oil Consumption (1998E): 69,000 bbl/d 4. Net Oil Exports (1998E): 316,000 bbl/d 5. Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/99): 120,000 bbl/d 6. Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/99): 16.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) 7. Electric Generating Capacity (1/1/97): 810 megawatts 8. Electricity Generation (1997E): 2.1 billion kilowatt-hours 1.5. ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW 1. Total Energy Consumption (1998E): 0.15 quadrillion Btu* (0.04% of world total energy consumption). 2. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1998E): 3.0 million metric tons of carbon (0.05% of world carbon emissions). 3. Per Capita Energy Consumption (1998E): 10.6 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 350.7 million Btu). 4. Per Capita Carbon Emissions (1998E): 0.2 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon). 5. Energy Intensity (1997E): 11,300 Btu/ $1990 (vs U.S. value of 13,900 Btu/ $1990)** 6. Carbon Intensity (1997E): 0.22 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs U.S. value of 0.21 metric tons/thousand $1990)**. 7. Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1997E): Transportation (70.4%), Residential (18.8%), and Industrial (10.9%). 8. Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1997E): Transportation (69.9%), Industrial (10.1%), and Residential (19.8%). 9. Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (1997E): Oil (100.0%). 10. Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Oil (100.0%). 11. Renewable Energy Consumption (1997E): 1.6 trillion Btu* 12. Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1997): 29.4 (vs. U.S. value of 1.3). 13. Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United 14. Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified February 21st, 1996). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol 46
  47. 47. 15. Major Environmental Issues: Very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 16. Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban and Ozone Layer Protection * The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data. **GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 1998 1.6. OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES 1. Organizations: Yemen Petroleum Company (YPC) - production and refining; General Corporation for Oil and Mineral Resources (GCOMR) - investment and holding company; Yemen Refining Company (YRC) - refining; General Department of Crude Oil Marketing (GDCOM) - handles government shares of exports; Yemen Exploration and Production Company (YEPC) – contracts. (See the Organization Chart of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources in Yemen. (See Fig. (1.23): The Organization Chart of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources in Yemen). 2. Major oilfields: Alif, Asaad Al-Kamil, Camaal, and Azal. 3. Major Foreign Company Involvement: British Gas, Canadian Occidental, First Calgary Petroleum, Hunt Oil, Kerr- McGee, Nimir Petroleum, Total, TransGlobe Energy, and Yukong. 4. Major Refineries (Capacity): Aden (110,000 bbl/d), Marib (10,000 bbl/d) 5. Major Ports: Aden, Hisn an Nushaymah, Al Khalf, Mocha, Nishtun, Ra's Isa, Ra's Kathib, and Salif. Major Pipelines: Marib-Ra's Isa Pipeline (pipeline between the Marib fields and the deep-sea port of Ra's Isa on the Red Sea), Shabwa-Rudhum Pipeline (pipeline linking the Shabwa fields to the Rudhum terminal on the Gulf of Aden at Hisn an Nushaymah). 47
  48. 48. 1.7. GEOGRAPHY Yemen is predominantly mountainous, supporting terraced agriculture. The Hadramaut is a range of high mountains in the centre of the country. Highlands rise steeply in central Yemen, ranging in height from approximately 200m (656ft) to the 4000m (13,123ft) peak of Jabal Nabi Shoveb. In contrast is Tihama, a flat semi-desert coastal plain to the west, 50-100km (30-60 miles) wide. Surface water flows down from the mountains through the valleys during the rainy season and the area is cultivated for cotton and grain. In the east the mountains drop away to the Rub al-Khali or 'Empty Quarter' of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast sea of sand. The arid coastal plains are fringed with sandy beaches. Fig. (1.24) Fig. (1.23): The Organization Chart of the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources in Yemen 48
  49. 49. Fig. (1.24) Geographic Map of the Republic of Yemen 1.8. DRAINAGE With only three exceptions, the drainage system of Yemen consists of dry water courses or wadis which flow only in times of heavy rains during flash floods. Some wadis are very deeply cut, with sides more than 300 meters in elevation above the water course; others are wider with less steep sides; and still others are broad and flat. Wadi Tuban, north of Aden, and Wadi Hajr, east of Balhaf, are perennial from, their headwaters in the coastal mountains to the sea. Parts of Wadi Masila are perennial; though not, however, reaching the sea. (Fig. (1.25)) The Yemen drainage system can be divided into three groups: 1.Coastal wadis 2. Wadis flowing to the Rub al Khali sand desert 49
  50. 50. 3. The Hadramaut-Masila and Wadi Jeza systems Fig. (1.25) The Yemeni Drainage System 1.Coastal wadis: With some exceptions, flow in general northwest – southeast and northeast-southwest directions, turning more southerly and westerly near the coast; most are less than 100 kilometers long, rising in the Coastal Mountain belt or the Southern Plateau, and south of the axis of the South Hadramaut uplift. Most of these wadis are torrential, with steep gradients; they are not easily navigable by motor transport. 2. Wadis flowing to the Rub al Khali sand desert: Are usually long, and they trend in a north-northeast direction. They are often much shallower than those flowing into Wadi Hadramaut. Their heads are in the vicinity of the axis of the North Hadramaut uplift, which also is the highest part of the Northern Plateau. In the west, they cut through Paleocene limestone to Cretaceous sandstone in places, but eastward they expose only Eocene beds. 3. The Hadramaut-Masila and Wadi Jeza systems: Collect drainage from the greater part of both the Southern and Northern Plateaus. Except for the lower part of Wadi Masila, thet occupy roughly the structural depression between the North and South Hadramaut uplifts. Wadi Hadramaut, at its western end, is really a wide basin, some 50 kilometers in the width, that forms parts of the Western Plain and the Jaww Kudayf plain with the Ramlat Sabatayn dune area in between. The wadi narrows rapidly eastward until it becomes only two to three kilometers across, its canyon walls being the scarps of the Northern the 50
  51. 51. Southern Plateaus. The tributary wadis entering Wadi Hadramaut-Masila are usually long and deeply cut canyons with a gentle gradient; they are generally accessible to vehicular travel. The canyons, like the Wadi Hadramaut-Masila, are cut in Paleocene limestone with Cretaceous rocks exposed in places. The cliffs forming the sides of the wadis are 300 or more meters in height, but become lower eastwards. The heads of the tributaries rise near the axis of the South and North Hadramaut uplift, and the water collects in the Hadramaut depression, whence it flows east; and later, as Wadi Masila, cuts obliquely across the eastern plunge of the South Hadramaut uplift to reach the sea. The Wadi Hadramaut depression continues eastward across low-relief country to take in the Wadi Jeza system. This forms the gathering drainage for wadis from the eastern parts of the North and South Plateaus, the water flowing east to Qamar Bay. The Jeza basin is one of more gentle relief than that of Wadi Hadramaut, and the tributary wadis are less deeply incised. Wadis flowing to the north in the Jaww Kudayf plain and southward in the Western Plain die out in the Ramlat Sabatayn sand desert, but in the subsurface their flood waters join the Wadi Hadramaut – Masila system. 1.9. CLIMATE The Yemeni Climate in detail: The Republic of Yemen is affected by monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean region.the monsoon blow in two seasons: the winter monsoon from October to April, blowing from the southeast or east-southeast; and the summer monsoon which blows steadily from the west or southwest during June through August. During the winter monsoon, winds are moderate; and, although rough seas are frequent, but rain is sporadic, often occurring only as localized showers. The end of the winter monsoon may, at times, bring heavy rain over a great part of the area, but such heavy rain is the exception rather than the rule. During the summer, monsoon winds are violent and the seas very rough; gusts may reach 100kilometers per hour, but again only sporadic rain falls. Although the chances of widespread rain are greater during the winter monsoon, two or three years may pass between worthwhile rains. Along the coast, the recorded average annual rainfall is about 50 millimeters, while in the interior, an annual average as much as 400 millimeters has been recorded. During the late winter months of 1982 and 1983, however, exceptional conditions prevailed throughout the region: torrential rains of the “once in a hundred years” variety occurred throughout the country with resultant flood waters which swept away bridges and roads, collapsed dwellings, and flooded vast 51
  52. 52. agricultural areas. These episodes were apparently related to the violent weather experienced throughout Asia and Europe during these periods. The hottest months in Yemen are May to September, with a peak in June and July when temperature above 38OC (100OF) are frequent. Temperature of 54Oc (130OF) are reached in some localities. During the winter months, low temperature below 0OC (32OF) are reached in the interior, but it seldom falls below 15O (60OF) along the coast. The months May and September are those between the turn of the monsoons and experience very humidity and heat, with little or no breeze. In the interior, at various times during the winter, cold dust-laden winds blow in the summer. Sandstorms are relativly frequent, and dust devils and mirages are common. Dusty conditions are general in the summer, and visibility between June and September is generally poor. A Conclusion on the Yemeni Climate: The climate varies according to altitude. The coastal plain is hot and dusty throughout most of the year. The highlands are warm in summer and during winter, from October to March, nights can be very cold in the mountains. Annual rainfall is extremely low and temperatures, particularly in summer, are very high. The most pleasant time is from October to April. 1.10. Vegetation The vegetation of the Republic of Yemen is on the whole sparse, except in wadi beds, where bunch grass, camel thorn, acacia, tamarisk, and ilb grow; the mountain areas and the plateaus are mainly barren. In the main wadis and along parts of the coast where water is available for irrigation, or where floodwaters are utilized, millet and other grains, cotton, tobacco, vegetabls, oil and date palms, bananas, papayas, and citrus are cultivated. Concentrations of deciduous trees are found in a few places, and occasional frankincense and myrrh plants may be found in many parts of the region. Fig. (1.26) 52
  53. 53. Fig. (1.26): Yemen Land Use Map 1.11. Accessibility Yemen is important to world energy markets because of its oil and natural gas resources as well as its strategic location at the Bab el-Mandab strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of the world's most active shipping lanes. In 1954, and by 1964 only London, Liverpool, and New York surpassed port of Aden. Most of Yemeni roads are asphalt is the principal avenue of transportation in Yemen. Principal highways lead from San’a south to the north part of Aden and from San’a north to Saudi Arabia border. Traffic proceeds on the right-hand side of the road, with speed limits of 30 km/hr in the cities, and 60 km/hr on open roads. The country is linked to San’a by regular air services from Aden, Taiz, Hodeidah, Albuq, Sayun, Riyan, Alghaydah, Ataq, Socotra, and a few other towns, and flights can be arranged to more than fourteen scattered small airstrips. Alyamania is the national airline. Fig. (1.27) 53
  54. 54. Fig. (1.27) Show the locations of the major roadways, ports, etc. in Yemen, as well as the governorate boundaries. 54
  55. 55. CHAPTER 2: REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN 30 2.1. INTRODUCTION 31 2.2 PRECAMPRIAN 37 2.3 PHANEROZOIC 44 2.3.1 EVOLUTION OF YEMEN ’s PHANEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY BASIN 46 2.3.1.1 PALEOZOIC BASINS 47 2.3.1.2 MESOZOIC BASINS 48 2.3.1.3 TERTIARY BASINS 49 2.3.2 DEVELOPMENT OF PHANEROZOIC BASIN AND PLATFORM COVER 50 2.3.2.2 INFRA-CAMBRIAN/ PALEOZOIC 50 2.3.2.2 MESOZOIC 55 2.3.2.3 CENOZOIC 59 55
  56. 56. CHAPTER 2 REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF YEMEN Based on my personal research work on the Yemeni Geology during my work in the Adeni Branch of Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resource, (the Petroleum Exploration and Production Board), for 8 years. And my research studies on my Ph.D. Thesis on the same direction and with another main aim to solve the chronic problems related to the Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature. I made the first table on the whole Yemeni Lithostratigraphic Units and Nomenclature (See Table. (4.1); attached to this study). It is the first electronic attribute table, which I am going to introduce it later on this thesis as a real solution and a correct entranceway to solve the above-mentioned mater. Although my table is an easy to read and to understand, but it is so important and necessary to introduce the great previous activities done by different people on writing the Regional, Local Geology of Yemen. Especially the last great job and effort did by Beydoun, Z.R. and a group of most famous Yemeni geologists (Beydoun et al., 1998). And all of this due to variably detailed information of hundreds publications done on the Yemeni geology. (See the attached references). IMPORTANT NOTICE (1): I would like to drew the reader of my thesis attention on the following most important mater that one of the most important problem which make it so difficult to write on the Yemeni Geology as a whole is that the whole Yemen was divided to blocks. (Figs. (2.1), (2.1A), (2.1B) and (2.2)) In my opinion dividing Yemen as a whole to blocks is the real reason which, lead to the development of company-centered informal stratigraphic nomenclature schemes whose principal objective was to facilitate operations within the individual company’s concession area rather than facilitating scientific research and any ultimate communication in journals. So to solve this question, we must scientifically divide just the sedimentary basins in Yemen to blocks in accordance to their categorisation not the whole country to blocks (We must always choose the most effective scientific methods of work to draw a bright future for our grandchildren). 56
  57. 57. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is known that the Republic of Yemen geologically occupies the southern edge of the Arabian Shield, formed in Precambrian times from a tangled complex of ancient rocks. Though the shield has acted a rigid landmass since the beginning of 31 Cambrian time, consolidation was a long time in coming. Included within the basement complex are great belts of sedimentary rocks – now contorted, intruded, and metamorphosed – that record the growth and the decay of former mountain systems. Through the areas of Precambrian time, the shielded presumably was subjected several times to down warping, sedimentation, orogeny, injection by plutonic rocks, and leveling before becoming immobile – a complex, but little- known structural history comparable to that of other shields and former geosynclinal areas. In the western part of the Republic of Yemen, the Precambrian basement supports a relatively high, substantially faulted Plateau capped in part by patches of flat-lying Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks. After solidification and mature peneplanation, the Arabian Shield was tilted slightly to the northeast toward the ancestral Tethys trough. As subsidence continued, shallow seas advanced across the leveled surface of crystalline rocks, burying it beneath thin sheets of almost flat – lying sediment. This belt of low – dipping, relatively undisturbed beds form the stable region structural province – the Arabian Shelf. 57
  58. 58. Fig. (2.1) Index map showing location of Fig. (2.1A) and (2.1B) in the regional context. Fig. (2.1A) Yemen: Location Map (Western Sheet) 58
  59. 59. Fig. (2.1B) Yemen: Location Map (Eastern Sheet) Fig. (2.2) The Concession Map of the Republic of Yemen 59

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