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Mc Call Presentation Lancaster.07

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McCall Presentation ICAME 2009: Deutschmann, Ädel, Garretson and Walker

McCall Presentation ICAME 2009: Deutschmann, Ädel, Garretson and Walker

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  • 1. Introducing Mini-McCALL: A pilot version of the M id-Sweden C orpus of C omputer- A ssisted L anguage L earning Mats Deutschmann, Gregory Garretson, Annelie Ädel, Terry Walker Mid Sweden University
  • 2. Overview
    • Part 1: A corpus of online student learning
    • Part 2: Building the corpus
    • Part 3: Studies underway on the corpus
    • Part 4: Conclusion and outlook
  • 3. Part 1 A corpus of online student learning
  • 4. Background: Collaborative e-learning
    • CMC: Communication with computers  Communication with others via computers (Kern & Warschauer 2000)
    • CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning; Salmon 2004)
    • Used at Mid-Sweden University since 2004
    • Learning Management System = WebCT
    • Interactive methods
      • peer-reviewing
      • group discussions
      • group problem-solving
      • group productions
      • self-reflection
  • 5. The call for Mini-McCALL
    • CMC research growing
    • But… relatively little linguistic research
    • Language is the ‘oil of the collaborative machinery’
    • Investigation needs:
      • the role played by language in online education
      • the efficiency of online communication
      • language and learning processes
    • With a few exceptions (see for example the LETEC corpus - Chanier, Thierry and Lamy) , there are hardly any CMC corpora based on learner data.
  • 6. A typical assignment model in the course Individual solutions deposited in discussion group room forums ( student exercises ) Individual reflection ( student memos ) For example: Decide on article use (definite/indefinite/ zero article) and motivate. The/a/zero_ Italian food is healthy. General discussion boards E-mail correspondence Discussion Exercise Reflection Students reflect over how discussions changed their original answers, the group process etc Participant 4 Participant 3 Participant 2 Participant 1
  • 7. Negotiating meaning in McCALL
    • Message HT04N.D.118
    • Time: Thursday, September 16, 2004 20:03
    • Author: Tina Kock
    • Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg
    • Hello Jonna! I have an opinion about 1d : "I'll have done it by tonight." You wrote that will + base form is used here, but "have done" is not the base form of the verb. That's why I think the tense is Future Perfect. The sentence is about an activity that will be completed before a specific time. Am I right? /Tina
    • Message HT04N.D.147
    • Time: Saturday, September 18, 2004 10:30
    • Author: Melinda Jensen
    • Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg
    • OK.... I think you're right! ( I wonder why I thought it was will + base form?), now when you have explained it to me everything seems so clear.... :-) bye Melinda
  • 8. Part 2 Building the corpus
  • 9. Overview of Mini-McCALL
    • 1-million-word CMC corpus
    • From online undergraduate English course
    • Written (students-students/teachers)
    • 4 types of text
    • Metadata: sociolinguistic, pedagogical, and textual information
  • 10. Who’s in the corpus
    • 235 students
      • First-term undergraduates
      • Age ranges from 18 to 57
      • 87% L1 Swedish speakers
      • 79% female, 21% male
    • 3 teachers
      • Highly proficient L2 speakers of English
      • 2 male, 1 female
      • 1 teacher does the bulk of the teaching
  • 11. Age of the students
  • 12. Composition of the corpus by role and sex Note: duplicate e-mails excluded from counts
  • 13. What’s in the corpus
    • 1,008,000 words of student and teacher writing
      • Plus 470,000 words of repeated e-mails (marked as such)
    • 8 sections of a full-time 5-week course (Grammar A)
      • 2 per term from autumn 2004 to spring 2006
    • 4 types of text
      • E-mail messages
      • Discussion forum messages
      • Student exercises
      • Student memos (reflections)
    • We have marked up:
      • repeated e-mails with attribute: <email duplicate=“yes”>
      • assignment text with tags: <exer></exer>
  • 14. Composition of the corpus by text type Note: duplicate e-mails excluded from counts
  • 15. 3 kinds of metadata
    • Participant information
      • Group membership, sex, age, language background, activity level, role, final grade (student), teaching experience (teacher)
    • Pedagogical information
      • Course descriptions, task descriptions, course evaluations
    • Textual information
      • Type of text, date of creation, sequencing information
  • 16. Anonymisation of the data
    • Consent from all participants, provided real names withheld
      • Includes first names as well as last names (unlike BNC)
    • Didn’t want to use placeholders like <NAME> or <F21>
      • Corpus is particularly useful for studies of discourse, group collaboration, ultimate student achievement, etc.
      • Need to distinguish and track individuals
      • 1c. Jonna and Josephine found that &quot;life&quot; is uncountable and that it therefore shouldn't have an article, whilst I and Regina answered that it was a general statement and that it didn't required an article because of that. I agree with the uncountable-statement. Josephine also took up that the word &quot;surprises&quot; is an abstract noun and therefore shouldn't have an article.
  • 17. Anonymisation of the data
    • Solution: systematic anonymisation of first and last names using Swedish census data
      • Sven Enqvist  J örgen Stenström
      • Hedda Friberg  Tindra Skoog
      • Student IDs are also anonymized.
  • 18. (Dis-)advantages of anonymisation process
    • Advantages:
      • Anonymization is almost totally transparent.
      • Text remains highly legible and just as easy to process.
      • Individuals still trackable with both name and ID.
      • Gender stays the same.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Takes a lot of work (computational and manual).
      • Easy to forget it’s anonymized.
      • Character of names may change (e.g., apparent nationality)
        • Nigel Jones  G öran Lindgren
        • But N.B.: Metadata on individuals is available.
      • The corpus is rife with misspellings.
      • Nicknames and initials are tricky.
  • 19. 3 versions of Mini-McCALL
    • XML version
      • best for processing on your own computer
    • HTML version
      • best for reading the files
    • CQPWeb online searchable version
      • best for online searching
    See handout for the URLs!
  • 20. Part 3 Studies underway on the corpus
  • 21. Research based on Mini-McCALL
    • Initial exploration of three lines of research:
      • Adaptation of language to new technologies
        • CMC address phrases in discussion boards (Walker & Anglemark, WIP)
        • Cultural comparison of Italian and Swedish CMC discourse (Deutschmann & Helm, WIP)
      • Communicative strategies in a collaborative learning environment
        • Rapport-building in discussion boards (Ädel, WIP)
        • “ But” and hedging in written peer-review dialogue (Popaditch, WIP)
      • Pedagogical aspects of teacher-student communication
        • Effect of teacher input—formal versus informal style—on student activity (Deutschmann & Lundmark 2008)
  • 22. CMC address phrases in discussion boards
    • Walker & Anglemark, WIP
    • A CMC address phrase is defined as a salutation (e.g. Dear Birgitta ) or a vocative (e.g. I agree with you Natanael )
    • The study focuses on the use of CMC address phrases in discussion board messages - compared with that of e-mail and chatroom data from Walker and Anglemark’s Corpus of CMC
    • Hypotheses:
      • use of CMC address phrases in discussion boards will resemble e-mail (as both types of communication are asynchronous) but also resemble chatroom communication (as both have messages which may be read by the whole group)
      • use of CMC address phrases in discussion boards will be affected by participant’s role and native language, and teacher input
  • 23. CMC address phrases
    • Results so far:
      • discussion boards and e-mail favour the same structure of CMC address phrase i.e. first names (e.g. Dear Birgitta )
      • discussion boards and e-mail favour the same function of CMC address phrase i.e. greetings (e.g. Hello fellow students )
      • discussion boards and chatrooms favour the same position of CMC address phrase i.e. final position (e.g. Have a nice weekend everybody ! )
      • a group of students who are native speakers of English, and the teacher, are responsible for there being a larger number of CMC address phrases in one class compared with the other
  • 24. Rapport-building in discussion boards
    • Ädel, WIP
    • Most research into classroom discourse is based on teacher talk or teacher-student talk, but Mini-McCALL offers an opportunity to examine student-student communication .
    • Research question: What linguistic strategies for social interaction are used
      • in a collaborative learning environment
      • which is written and asynchronous (discussion boards)?
    • Model for ‘social interaction’
      • Partly based on Tannen (1990:77) and Spencer-Oatey (2000:3), the present study defines rapport-building as communicative acts promoting social concord .
  • 25. Rapport-building
    • Qualitative aim of study: to create a taxonomy of rapport-building linguistic units based on naturally-occurring data.
      • This taxonomy will be used in quantitative comparisons of rapport-building
        • across different populations and across different genres
    • Starting point: frequency word list with a cut-off point of 100
      • Produced almost 700 types for analysis
        • Concordancing used as an aid in finding which of the most frequent expressions function as rapport-building
    • The expressions which these high-frequency words are part of were categorised and then fed into the taxonomy.
      • See handout for the preliminary taxonomy
  • 26. Preliminary taxonomy of rapport Type of unit Function Example Message-structuring units Greeting Hi there Closing Have a good week-end; Hugs Yasmin!!! Intertextual units Referring to in-group discourse So yes, just just like someone else mentioned ...; I still think it should be &quot;She smells&quot; like Klara writes . Face-saving units Apologising Here are my answers. A little late â?? sorry for that!. Mitigating criticism I just have some small comments to your answers, hopfully it might be useful:) Bonding units Aligning with in-group I also found myself unsure on 2L. In the end, I settled for…; It seems like our group is a little bit small but I think we will manage anyway. Agreeing Looks like I agree with you on most answers. Commiserating … and just like you I would appreciate a key for the old exam. Complimenting Very good indeed! I have no comments to add really. =) Soliciting feedback am i the only one who found this really hard??; This is the way I try to think of it...Does it make sense? Offering encouragement Great Job!!!!!!; GL with everything !; We can only do our best and try. Thanking Thank you! Responding to thanks no problem, glad to be at your service :)
  • 27. Part 4 Conclusion and outlook
  • 28. The more, the merrier
    • Mini-McCALL will be one of the first of many corpora of online learning to come.
      • Needed: more corpus resources that enable empirical and systematic studies of both linguistic and pedagogical aspects of online learning environments
      • To promote such research, Mini-McCALL will be made freely available to the research community.
        • See handout for contact information.
    • Mini-McCALL is the 1st stage of the proposed Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (McCALL)
  • 29. Future plans: the real McCALL
    • A comprehensive four-year snapshot of the various types of communication that take place in an online learning environment
    • ALL the online English courses from four years, including courses in language, cultural studies, literature, and linguistics
      • Over 100 courses involving 16 teachers and over 900 students
      • Will also include spoken data, from both teachers and students, at various levels, and of various genres
      • Large amount of material: more than 10 million words
  • 30. References
    • Hot-off-the-press paper with more information:
      • Deutschmann, M., A. Ädel, G. Garretson & T. Walker. 2009. Introducing Mini-McCALL: A pilot version of the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning. ICAME Journal 33:21-44.
    • Further references on handout
    • http://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk/mccall/
  • 31. Thanks very much!
  • 32. Extra slides
  • 33. Discussion forum messages
    • Message HT04N.D.118
    • Time: Thursday, September 16, 2004 20:03
    • Author: Tina Kock
    • Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg
    • Hello Jonna! I have an opinion about 1d: &quot;I'll have done it by tonight.&quot; You wrote that will + base form is used here, but &quot;have done&quot; is not the base form of the verb. That's why I think the tense is Future Perfect. The sentence is about an activity that will be completed before a specific time. Am I right? /Tina
    • Message HT04N.D.147
    • Time: Saturday, September 18, 2004 10:30
    • Author: Melinda Jensen
    • Subject: Re: Discussion 2 - Jonna Östeberg
    • OK.... I think you're right! (I wonder why I thought it was will + base form?), now when you have explained it to me everything seems so clear.... :-) bye Melinda
  • 34. E-mail messages (1)
    • Message HT04N.E.3
    • Time: Tuesday, September 7, 2004 19:06
    • Author: Lilja Sjögren
    • Recipient: George Sederstedt
    • Subject: Assignments!
    • Hello George!
    • I have been in and out of the discussion room a couple of times and it seems that noone is there to
    • discuss the assignment that is due on friday. I need some tips how to start the discussion. I have
    • never done this before. And what do I do if noone is discussing before friday?
    • Lilja Sjögren
  • 35. E-mail messages (2)
    • Message HT04N.E.5
    • Time: Wednesday, September 8, 2004 11:50
    • Author: George Sederstedt
    • Recipient: Lilja Sjögren
    • Subject: Re: Assignments!
    • Dear Lilja,
    • For the discussion assignments you actually make your comments in the discussion
    • forum, which is not a simultanous chat. You simply mail your contribution and wait for someone
    • to respond. The mails can be read by all. In the chat you can talk more
    • informally. Get back to me if this is still unclear.
    • George
  • 36. Attachments
    • Document ID: VT06S.D.16.1
    • Attached to message: VT06S.D.16
    • Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2006 15:17
    • Author: Lina Holmström
    • Subject: Determiners and pronouns
    • Discussion 1: Determiners and Pronouns
    • 1. Discuss the use or absence of the article in the following sentences:
    • a. I met an interesting chap at a party last night.
    • Comment: The speaker uses indefinite articles to &quot;an interesting chap&quot; and &quot;a party last night&quot;.
    • This can mean that the referents (chap and party) are not known to the hearer.
    • b. Why are you still in bed? You should be at school.
    • Comment: We can say &quot;the bed&quot; when we mean a particular piece of furniture. Otherwise it is
    • not combined with the definite article &quot;the&quot;. We say at school when the hearer goes there as a
    • pupil.
    • c . Life is full of surprises.
    • Comment: Life (U) in this case required a zero article because here (c) it is a generic reference.
    • All (c) is widely generic.