Pedagoška Psihologija 1 - Uvod, Učenje; Educational Psychology - Learning


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Pedagoška Psihologija 1, Predavanje na Oddelku za psihologijo, Univerza v Mariboru

Educational Psychology, Lecture at the Department of Psychology, The University of Maribor

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  • There are many different types of learning. From simple to very complex. The simplest form of learning is called habituation. So imagine that you’re walking down a street and you hear a loud car horn. You’ll probably jump. However, if you then hear lots of car horns you probably won’t jump at all. Many other types of learning are by association – relating one object or event with another. This is what is termed associative learning and is associated with behaviourism. We also learn very complex skills and concepts. Why is it important to understand learning? Well learning underlies virtually all of our behaviour. It helps us to both survive and realise our dreams. We learn to eat, talk, to acquire knowledge, to interact with others and to live in society. So what I want you to do after this and the next lecture is to think about ways in which an understanding of learning can be applied.
  • Okay, so what do we mean by learning. Well, in a general sense we can think of learning as discovery. This need to discover and learn is what drives us from birth and is the reason why you’re all here. Learning helps us to survive, it helps us to realise our goals and it underlies virtually everything that we do – what we eat, how we eat it, how we dress and how we live in society with other people. If we think about a more specific, psychological definition of learning, then it can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that can be attributed to experience. This definition excludes temporary changes caused by things like motivation, fatigue, disease, injury or drugs. All of these can alter behaviour but none of them qualify as learning. So, for example, once you have learned to tie your shoelaces, you will be able to do it for the rest of your life (unless you are unlucky enough to undergo brain trauma!). This durability is true of all learned behaviours, in virtually every area of life, from riding a bicycle to participating in a conversation. So, what do we mean by pre-existing behaviour and understanding and does it differ depending on what we’re learning? If we think about learning language, are we pre-programmed to learn language at birth? Or does language develop through maturation…as we get older and develop we get better at it, or does pre-existing mean that we’re just building on something that we learned earlier…perhaps last week or last month?
  • Well, there are different types of learning. Deliberate learning is an example of where we actively set out to learn something, a new task, a new skill. This could be learning how to use some computer software or learning a new sport. However, we don’t deliberately acquire bad habits, they develop more gradually. We have learnt in an inappropriate pattern of behaviour – inappropriate because it’s not good for us. We learn a whole host of positive and negative behaviour including addictions, fears/phobias and we also learn through the process of socialisation. So, not all learning is positive. Sometimes we learn to do things which may not be good for us. Similarly, we may have learnt things that we hadn’t wanted to learn – patterns of behaviour that have developed over time.
  • Okay, so we’re going to focus on behaviourist theories of learning today. And as you’ll see, Behaviourists view learning as a simple stimulus-response function. As you’ll remember from your earlier classes, behaviourists reject all internal mental states in favour of only studying what can be directly observed. So all cognition, all thoughts, emotions are rejected and are essentially treated as a black box.
  • Classical conditioning is sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning. He was a Russian physiologist who was examining digestive processes in dogs which won him a Nobel Prize. He studied salivation in dogs and he measured the amount of saliva that was produced when dogs were given meat powder and he collected the saliva in tubes. He found that while the dogs usually salivated when they were eating, they also started to salivate before they were fed. When they saw their food bowls or even when they heard the feeder’s footsteps. So the dogs had learnt an automatic association between the sight of the bowl, the sound of the footsteps and food. Pavlov was intrigued by this and began a series of experiments. In these experiments he conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork.
  • Once you have conditioned a response to one stimulus you can get a similar classical conditioning effect with a second stimulus. So lets look at the diagram – the tone of the bell is the original conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response is salivation. We have conditioned the dog to salivate at the sound of the bell. Now we can pair the original conditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell with a new stimulus, say a ball. So we repeatedly present the ball with the bell in the same way as we did before. After repeated pairings the ball will elicit the same response as the bell. So the dogs will salivate when the see the ball. While the ball will elicit the same conditioned response – salivation – it will be a weaker effect then to the bell, the original conditioned stimulus. We’re lessening the effect by using 2 stimuli.
  • Is all learning reflexive and based on automatic responses? Are we simply passive creatures that respond to stimuli? What about thoughts, emotions, insight? Well, it’s very simple learning, using instinctual drives, survival mechanisms – hunger, fear. So far we’ve only looked at animals, can classical conditioning explain learning in humans. Well, we can be classically conditioned, but only primarily using stimuli that elicit basic biological, reflexive responses.
  • Well, it can explain very simple, instinctual learning based on automatic processes - positive/negative emotions- survival mechanisms. Eye blink experiments are quite fun experiments especially if you’re not the victim! You have an unconditioned stimulus, a little air puffer which you use to puff air into someone’s eye. Obviously when you do this the person blinks, this is the unconditioned response. The air puffer is then paired with a little flashing light. So after repeated presentations of the light and the puffer, the person starts to blink when they just see the light. This is an instinctual automatic response. Food poisoning is a good example of taste aversion. If you’ve ever eaten something that’s given you food poisoning, chances are that you might have developed a classically conditioned taste aversion in that you now avoid that food. This type of learning occurs after just a single pairing of the food and either nausea or vomiting. Watson and Raynor illustrated how classical conditioning can produce a straightforward conditioned emotional response of fear, and how fear can lead to a phobia. Watson and Raynor classically conditioned fear and then a phobia in an 11 month old infant called Albert, who they called Little Albert. They created a fear of rats in Albert and when he saw a rat, Albert would cry and exhibit signs of fearfulness.
  • 5 days later Albert was given a number of other objects, such as familiar wooden blocks, a rabbit, a dog, a Santa Claus mask, fur coat and white cotton. He displayed a fear response to the dog, the coat and the rabbit but not to the other objects. This is called generalisation . The initial conditioned response had generalised to other similar objects. Obviously there are serious ethical problems here but the rigorous ethical guidelines that we have today, didn’t exist in the 1920’s when this experiment was conducted. Watson and Raynor never mentioned what happened to Little Albert and they did nothing to help the child overcome the fear of white furry objects that they had conditioned in him.
  • Classical conditioning in an advertising sense is about trying to control and predict behaviour. Trying to ensure that you buy a certain product over all of the others available. Watson actually formalised the use of behavioural principles when he took a job in advertising. The use of ‘sex’ appeal to sell products stems from Watson’s ideas. Sex isn’t the only unconditioned stimulus that can work to produce a desired response. In a study by Razran in 1940, when political slogans were paired with people eating food, the slogans were viewed favourably. Classical conditioning continues to be used in adverts today to try and sell products. Classical conditioning serves as the basis for many therapy techniques, including systematic desensitisation, which has been used to treat phobias. This is the structured and repeated presentation of a feared stimulus in circumstances designed to reduce anxiety. It works to extinguish the phobia response by teaching people to be relaxed in the presence of the feared stimulus or situation, such as a lift, a snake, a plane or heights. So if someone has a snake phobia you might introduce them to an imagined event where there is a snake, then build up to introducing a snake in a box, then very slowly work up to the point where the person is able to touch the snake. Systematic desensitisation is used in conjunction with progressive muscle relaxing, where the client relaxes every muscle in their body step by step until they feel completely relaxed. Classical conditioning can also play a role in the effectiveness of medicines. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy may experience nausea and vomiting as side effects of the treatment. But some patients develop anticipatory nausea, a classically conditioned response to chemotherapy triggered by a previously neutral stimulus. Such a stimulus might be a shop that’s en route to the hospital. For others just the thought of the hospital where they are receiving treatment is enough to trigger feelings of nausea. What’s happening is that the activity of the neurons in the brain becomes paired with other previously neutral stimuli, such as the shop and some peoples nervous systems are just more reactive than others.
  • Advertisements - just because we might like a particular advert it doesn’t necessarily mean that we’ll buy that product. Do we all buy a product just because an advert elicited positive feelings in us? Decision-making/problem solving/memory – all cognitive processes. We might think of Johnny Depp when we see a packet of biscuits and smile but it doesn’t necessarily mean that we’ll actually buy them! It is likely that there will be other cognitive processes at work. We all have our own mental model or schema, so one person might think of Johnny Depp and remember the last film they saw him in, perhaps they were with their boyfriend or girlfriend, so they think about them and then buy their favourite packet of biscuits! What about the example of the Cancer drugs – associating the stimulus with something that’s meaningful to you. What about children who develop a phobia of spiders just because they’ve seen that their mum is scared of them? Or even becoming scared of something because of something someone has told you? You haven’t been conditioned to the stimulus but you may still have a similar response. This invloves This is cognition, you’re thinking!
  • Operant conditioning is different to classical conditioning in that we learn to associate responses with their consequences. The basic principle of operant conditioning, or instrumental learning as it’s sometimes called, is acts that are followed by reinforcing consequences tend to be repeated. Thorndike called this the Law of Effect. According to Thorndike, learning is strengthened every time a response is followed by a satisfying state of affairs. So whereas classical conditioning is passive – something happens to the learner when an unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are paired, in operant conditioning the learner actively operates on the environment. So operant conditioning refers mainly to learning voluntary responses.
  • The things that occur before a behaviour are known as the stimuli or antecedents. They prod the behaviour to occur. The behaviour occurs and that behaviour is either strengthened or weakened by the consequences – either positive or negative consequences. Show video clip – 26.31 – rats and reinforcement
  • There are 3 main types of consequences that will affect how often the behaviour will occur. In positive reinforcement, a reinforcer is presented after a response. So if you say thank-you to your Mum, she might positively reinforce your behaviour by smiling. The usual positive reinforcers are praise, attention, money and valuable things. Sometimes, even bad attention, such as scolding, can be a positive reinforcer, if the only time a child receives attention is when he/she misbehaves. In contrast, negative reinforcement is the removal of something unpleasant following a desired behaviour. An example is, a child whines to get his way; the father gives in to the whining, the child stops whining! What’s happened is the unpleasant stimulus, the whining has been removed, so the fathers behaviour of giving in to the child has been negatively reinforced. Dad is therefore more likely to give in the next time the child whines. Another example is pressing the mute button on the t.v. to get rid of the sound of a really annoying advert! Punishment and negative reinforcement are commonly confused although they are not the same . Punishment decreases the probability of a behaviour occurring again, whereas as negative reinforcement increases the probability by removing an unpleasant consequence of the behaviour.
  • At the same time that Pavlov was working with dogs, Thorndyke was investigating a different type of learning with puzzle boxes. His puzzle box was a cage with a latched door that a cat could open by pressing a pedal inside the cage. Food was placed outside the cage door. The cat took a while to press the pedal, trying to reach for the food and pressing around the pedal, but once it had pressed the pedal once, the cat was quicker to press the pedal in subsequent sessions. It had learnt that pressing the pedal opened the door. Thorndike called this type of learning ‘trial and error’ learning.
  • Skinner developed the concept of operant conditioning more fully because he also showed how conditioning could explain how conditioning could explain much of our daily behaviour.
  • Okay, so we can use these different schedules of reinforcement to shape behaviour. Operant conditioning using different schedules of reinforcement is often used to train animals – one example of this is training dolphins to perform tricks. When the dolphin touches a target on the surface of the water it is rewarded with some fish. Then the target is raised slightly out of the water, and the dolphin is rewarded again for touching it. The target is continually raised until the dolphin’s body has to come out of the water in order to touch it and it’s rewarded again. So, Shaping is the gradual process of reinforcing either an animal or a human for behaviour that gets closer and closer to the behaviour you wish to produce. Shaping behaviour using different schedules of reinforcement is often used in education and clinical psychology to modify behaviour.
  • Behaviourism is about associative learning. It’s reflective, automatic and doesn’t take into account any internal mental processes. It can explain simple learning, emotional responses – the fear and phobia in Little Albert and it’s principles are used today in advertising, education and behaviour modification. Operant conditioning can also explain some aspects of behaviour through reinforcement, which is helpful in terms of thinking about basic skill learning. In contrast, cognition is about the internal mental processes. It concerns things like problem solving, memory, perception etc. It’s also about forming a mental structure/map that represents the various elements of a problem and how they relate to each other. Behaviourism was the dominant approach in the earlier part of the 1900’s and what we’re going to do today is to start by looking at some of the experiments that challenge this idea that simple, associative learning could explain all types of learning and we’re going to talk more about complex learning and cognition. We’re going to look at other forms of learning such as observation, student learning, and talk a little about combining behaviourism and cognition in therapy.
  • Behaviourists had previously rejected all internal mental processes and referred to them as a black box. After experiments like this, many researchers then began to look at the mediating processes, to look at what was in the black box. So you can start to see here the development of cognition from Behaviourism. It wasn’t a sudden shift from Behaviourism to Cognition. Instead the research findings over a number of years began to suggest that we needed to find out more about cognitive processes. They said that there are obviously internal mental processes that occur between the stimulus and response but what are they? And we’re going to look at a couple of them – Kohler and Bandura.
  • Show 1 and 2 Tolman taught rats to run through mazes. He was a Behaviourist but he was an expert at designing experiments that produced results that traditional Behaviourist learning theory could not explain. As you can see in the figure, there were three possible routes from the start box to the food box. After learning their way around the maze, the rats preferred the routes in order of length. So they preferred the shortest routes. When Route 1 was blocked at point A, the rats backed up to the start box and took the shorter of the remaining two routes, Route 2. When the block was put at point B, which blocks an alleyway common to Routes 1 and 2, the rats backed up to the start box and took Route 3 . Show 3, 4 and 5 Tolman's theorizing has been called purposive behaviorism and is often considered the bridge between behaviourism and cognitive theory. According to Tolman's theory of learning, an organism learns by pursuing signs to a goal, i.e., learning is acquired through meaningful behaviour . Rats may have learnt a cognitive map of the spatial layout of the environment.
  • So how important is reinforcement in learning and what part does it play in the learning process? This is demonstrated in another of Tolman’s experiments where he found that rats show evidence of latent learning. This experiment again involved teaching rats in a complex maze (one with many choices) how to find the goal box. One group started out the very first day with food in the box at the end of the maze, while the other group didn’t receive any no food, but were allowed to explore the maze. Tolman counted the number of errors made in the maze (wrong turns). Not surprisingly, the rats who had no food in the goal box made lots of “errors.” This is consistent with behaviourist theory, operant conditioning and reinforcement. They needed reinforcement in order to learn the correct route. On Day 11 Tolman started rewarding half of the rats who had not been rewarded on the first 10 days . Their performance immediately improved to a level comparable to that of the rats that had been rewarded all along . So the rats had learnt the maze, they just didn’t display it in their behaviour. Learning that occurs without any behavioural signs is called latent learning. Tolman reasoned that that the un-reinforced rats, in their wanderings around the maze had developed a cognitive map of the maze, storing information about it’s spatial layout. So the rats were using cognitive processes. This study and the concept of latent learning, also reminds us of the important distinction between learning something and performing it. Just because you don’t perform something doesn’t mean that you haven’t learnt it.
  • Tolman's version of behaviorism emphasised the relationships between stimuli rather than just between the stimulus and response (Tolman, 1922). According to Tolman, a new stimulus becomes associated with already meaningful stimuli through a series of pairings; there was no need for reinforcement in order to establish learning. Tolman has also demonstrated that rewards can affect what animals do more than what they learn . The unrewarded rats clearly had learned their way around the maze, but had no motivation to go directly to the food box until there was food in it. Their learning was latent until the motivation was provided. So the rats had no intrinsic motivation to learn – instead they needed an extrinsic motivator – which was the food. So reinforcement may play a more important part in performing a task rather than just learning it.
  • The most famous psychological experiments regarding insight learning and problem solving were conducted by a German Gestalt psychologist called Kohler . Kohler put a chimpanzee named Sultan in a cage; outside the cage and out of reach he put some fruit. Also outside the cage and out of reach, but slightly closer than the fruit he placed a long stick. Inside the cage he placed a short stick. Sultan showed signs of frustration as he tried to reach the food . Then he stopped. He seemed to have a sudden insight into how to get the fruit. He used his short stick to get the long one and then used the long one to get the fruit. In another experiment Kohler put bananas in the cage but high out of Sultan’s reach. He also put stacks of boxes in the cage. At first Sultan tried to jump up to get the bananas. Eventually, he looked round at the objects in the cage and again appeared to have a flash of insight. He stacked the boxes up, climbed on top of them and got the bananas. Insight learning consists of suddenly grasping what something means – that eureka moment when you’ve been trying to assimilate lots of new information then you suddenly see how it all fits together. It’s a sudden flash of awareness.
  • Harlow said that simple associative learning proposed by the behaviourists and insight learning were related. He said that you learn to associate things first then you start to use internal processes, memory, insight etc to learn the rule, once you’ve learnt the rule you can generalise this rule.
  • I’m going to show you an experiment to demonstrate Harlow’s point. This isn’t his experiment, it’s just an example.
  • This is to ensure that the chimp can’t be correct all the time by always choosing the card on one side.
  • The behaviourist focus is on associative learning, the chimp is learning an association between the Antecendent/stimuli/event, which in this case is the card on the box- the behaviour –the box he pushes away– and the consequences – whether he receives food or not. Cognitive View : A mental structure is formed that represents the various elements of a problem and how they relate to each other. We learn by discovering how things are related. We form a mental map. So in this task the chimp would be discovering relationships between the 2 cards not just between the cards and the reward he receives for pushing it away.
  • To assess these different views a test phase is conducted. Here another pair of cards are presented and what we’re assessing here is what the chimp has learned. Only a few trials are conducted to see if the animal has a preference based on what he learned in the training phase.
  • Behaviourism and cognition make different predictions about which card the chimp will choose. So the chimp had already formed an association between the light grey card, pushing the box away and receiving food. The ABC.
  • Okay, so here we can see what Harlow was talking about. Simple associative learning was the first step in this experiment. The chimp learnt the association between the card, his behaviour and then the food. However, the chimp then began to use cognitive processes to start to learn the relationship between the 2 cards. He quite possible had that ‘ah ha’ moment of insight when he learnt the rule, then he could generalise the rule he had learnt to a new situation.
  • Bandura’s social learning theory is based on observation. That we learn both positive and negative things from other people’s behaviour. Both humans and other animals have been shown to learn by watching others. For example, in some colonies of chimpanzees the youngsters learn how to crack hard-shelled nuts by watching their elders do it. Everyone has had the experience of watching someone else’s behaviour and then being able to repeat it. The behaviour might not have been conditioned in you, but you’d learnt it nonetheless. In some circumstances, such as learning a new practical skill or a new sporting technique, we have to watch someone perform it first. Observational learning has also been an important part of research, however it’s become particularly important over the last few years, with the debate on the effect of violent t.v. programs and films.
  • Albert Bandura is well-known for his research on observational learning in humans. In one of his famous experiments in 1963, he asked young children to watch an adult with an inflated “Bobo” doll -- the kind that has sand in its base so you can punch it and it will stand back up. For one group, the adult was both physically and verbally aggressive towards the doll. In the 2 nd group it was the same but on film. For the 3 rd group, it was a cartoon depiction and no adult. For the 4th group, the adult was very gentle with the doll.
  • Adult behaves aggressively towards ‘Bobo doll’ (punching it, hitting it with a hammer, shouting at it) Same, but on film Same, but cartoon depiction Adult not behaving aggressively Importantly, later studies have shown that aggression is less likely to happen if the violent adult is shown to be punished
  • Now this involves operant conditioning, you learn by the behaviour of others but what determines whether you actually act out the behaviour is dependent on the consequences, whether you’ll be punished or not. So it’s the ABC of operant conditioning – consequences will determine whether the behaviour will occur again – when the adults were seen to be punished the children were less likely to be violent. However, it’s not only operant conditioning, it also involves attention – the more attention you pay the more you learn. Perception - how you perceive the behaviour will affect how you interpret it. We’re observing, perceiving, remembering and interpreting. Observation and these complex mental processes are therefore an important part of learning.
  • Okay, so if you were suffering from depression and you saw a behaviour therapist, they would say that the depressive behaviours – sleeping all of the time, not washing, no energy were the cause of the depression, so they would try and change those behaviours. However, if you saw a cognitive therapist they would say that it was negative thought processes that caused the depressive behaviour and would try to change those. However, one of the most common forms of therapy today is cognitive-behavioural. It combines the 2 approaches. It examines the stimuli or the trigger, but unlike a strict behavioural approach, it doesn’t say that the trigger directly leads to behaviour. It examines the black box – the thought processes, perceptions and interpretations
  • The cognitive component identifies irrational or faulty thoughts and tries to change them. The behavioural approach tries to obviously change behaviour.
  • Anxiety – altering negative or distorted thought patterns. In sports settings, thought patterns can affect performance, so negative thought patterns can decrease performance and positive thought patterns can increase performance. The goal of altering thought processes can also be to focus thoughts and attention on the task and to reduce stress. Life skills coaching – assertiveness training. So here the cognitive component would try to change thought processes such as, ‘I can’t say what I’m thinking because people will laugh at me’ and the behavioural component would aim to get the person to try out assertive behaviours with the coach and in different situations. About learning how to deal with other people’s reactions. Self efficacy theory is another useful theory here. This states that basically that if you believe that you can do something then you will do it. If you believe that you’ll be good at something then you’ll be good at it. The cognitive aspect here is all about having positive thoughts which can lead to positive behaviour.
  • Operant conditioning – reinforcement – positive/negative reinforcement could be marks on assignments/feedback from tutorials.
  • Deep learning is the desired approach in higher education. It is sometimes called holistic learning because learning is connected into a single understanding. Instead of trying to extract facts, someone who takes a deep approach to learning will constantly be asking ‘how does this fit in? what is the argument? Are there alternative explanations? A deep learner will try to link together topics, ideas and themes by thinking about them, discussing them with others and relating them to your own experiences. So assessment becomes more of an active engagement with ideas rather than a simple reproduction of the course content.
  • Surface learning is sometimes referred to as ‘atomistic’ learning, because when we take a surface approach we view learning as separate chunks of knowledge. Therefore, when it comes to assessment, you need to use techniques such as memorising separate chunks of facts and procedures. The main problem with this approach is that because things are learnt as separate chunks, it becomes really difficult to cope as the course content and number of assessments increase.
  • Strategic learning places more emphasis on the technique of learning. It’s about using the most appropriate study method for the particular learning situation or assignment. Rational balancing, so balancing the effort required for each of your modules. So balancing time and resources.
  • So, if the basic principles of learning in higher education could be explained by behaviourism, then operant conditioning would suggest that reinforcement we get from our feedback, our marks in assignments, feedback in tutorials and from our peers, would determine the likelihood of us achieving your goal of a degree. However, it’s fairly obvious to us all that learning involves complex mental processes and it can’t just be explained by behaviourist principles. It involves memory, motivation, decision making, planning, prioritising, rationalising. And it’s affected by motivation, goals and intentions.
  • Okay, so what is the best theory of human learning or rather, is there one single theory that can explain all learning? No. Gagne suggests that there are 8 different levels of human learning, ranging from simple up to learning how to be extremely creative in problem solving tasks. Here they are…read them!!!
  • Pedagoška Psihologija 1 - Uvod, Učenje; Educational Psychology - Learning

    1. 1. Pedagoška Psihologija 1 Učenje <ul><li>Dr. Daša Grajfoner </li></ul><ul><li>Oddelek za psihologijo </li></ul><ul><li>Filozofska Fakulteta </li></ul><ul><li>Univerza v Mariboru </li></ul><ul><li>20.12.2010 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Gradivo <ul><li>Pedagoška psihologija http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Gersch, I. S. (2004). &quot;Educational Psychology in an age of uncertainty.&quot; The Psychologist 17(3): 142-145. </li></ul><ul><li>Kognitivne mape (Tolman) </li></ul><ul><li>Predavanje in materiali bodo na voljo na </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    3. 3. Načrt <ul><li>Predavanje 1 – Uvod, učenje </li></ul><ul><li>Predavanje 2 – Motivacija, spomin, mišljenje in čustva </li></ul><ul><li>Predavanje 3 – Komunikacija in diagnosticiranje problema </li></ul><ul><li>Predavanje 4 – Konflikti, strategije reševanja konfliktov, soočanje učencev in komunikacija s starši </li></ul>
    4. 4. Kaj je pedagoška psihologija?
    5. 5. Definicija <ul><li>Pedagoška psihologija razlaga mehanizme učenja in motivacije v izobraževanju </li></ul><ul><li>Se ukvarja z odkrivanjem načel, ki so potrebna in ustrezna za učenje in poučevanje </li></ul><ul><li>Fokusira na otrokov razvoj, učenje, osebnost otroka ali učenca </li></ul>
    6. 6. Definicija <ul><li>Pedagoška psihologija pokriva diagnostično in prognostično delo, področje svetovanja, prevencijo in intervencijo in ocenjevanje rezultatov dela </li></ul>
    7. 7. Kako definirati učenje?
    8. 8. Načrt – Del 1 <ul><li>Kaj je učenje? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioristične teorije </li></ul><ul><li>Klasično pogojevanje </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentalno ali operantno pogojevanje </li></ul><ul><li>Kritika </li></ul>
    9. 9. Kaj je učenje? <ul><li>Kakšna vedenja so naučena? </li></ul><ul><li>Zakaj je pomembno, da razumemo učenje? </li></ul><ul><li>Razmislite o situacijah v katerih lahko uporabimo razumevanje učenja </li></ul>
    10. 10. A je učenje <ul><li>Adaptacija na okolje? </li></ul><ul><li>Proces v katerem naše izkušnje modificirajo obstoječe vedenjske vzorce in razumenvanja? </li></ul><ul><li>Kdaj se začne? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ob rojstvu? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ko odraščamo? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ko se izobražujemo? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Primeri učenja <ul><li>‘ Namerno’ učenje </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Slabe’ navade (naučene namerno?) </li></ul><ul><li>Odvisnosti </li></ul><ul><li>Strahovi/ fobije </li></ul><ul><li>Socializacija </li></ul>
    12. 12. Teorije učenja Behavioristične Kognitivne/ Kompleksne <ul><li>Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike </li></ul><ul><li>Tolman </li></ul><ul><li>Kohler </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne </li></ul>Kakšna je vloga kompleksnih kognitivnih procesov? Do kakšne mere je učenje avtomatsko? Okolje in geni?
    13. 13. Behavioristične teorije Črna škatla Dražljaj Odziv
    14. 14. Klasično pogojevanje (Pavlov, 1902) <ul><li>Študiral prebavne procese pri psih </li></ul><ul><li>Naključno odkritje </li></ul><ul><li>Vklučuje reflekse (vrojeni odzivi) </li></ul><ul><li>Učenje avtomatskih asociacij med dogodki </li></ul>
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Klasično pogojevanje višjega reda Pogojni dražljaj 1 - Zvonec Pogojni odziv: Slinjenje Pogojni dražljaj 1 Pogojni dražljaj 2 Pogojni dražljaj 2 Pogojni odziv: Slinjenje
    17. 17. Ali je to začetna točka za vse oblike učenja? <ul><li>Učenje bazira na refleksih? </li></ul><ul><li>Mentalni procesi niso vpleteni? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Klasično pogojevanje pri ljudeh <ul><li>Zastrupitev s hrano </li></ul><ul><li>Razlaga fobij (Watson & Raynor, </li></ul><ul><li>1920) </li></ul><ul><li>‘Mali Albert & bela podgana’ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    19. 19. Posploševanje odziva <ul><li>Bel krznjen plašč </li></ul><ul><li>Bel pes, bel zajec </li></ul><ul><li>Ni odziva na leseno škatlo in masko </li></ul><ul><li>Etični problemi? </li></ul>
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Aplikacija - uporaba teorije za razumevanje in kontrolo <ul><li>Reklamiranje in marketing (asociacija pozitivnih občutkov z izdelkom - določena glasba, toplina, privlačnost, seks) </li></ul><ul><li>Sistematična desenzitizacija </li></ul>
    22. 22. Aktivnost <ul><li>V parih opišite situacijo/ svoje vedenje v kateri razpoznate klasično pogojevanje. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Kritika <ul><li>Ali se učimo le enostavnih asociacij, ki vklučujejo reflekse? </li></ul><ul><li>Kaj pa kognitivni procesi? </li></ul><ul><li>Kaj pa če formiramo mentalne modele o tem kako so stvari povezane? To bi predstavljalo kompleksne mentalne procese. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Operantno pogojevanje <ul><li>Bazira na spontanem vedenju in ne refleksih </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike predstavi Zakon učinka </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Verjetnost nagrajenega vedenja se bo zvišala’ </li></ul>
    25. 25. Pomembnost podkrepitev pri učenju Antecedens Vedenje Posledica B A C Vzvod Pritiskati na vzvod Dobiti hrano
    26. 26. Posledice <ul><li>Pozitivne podkrepitve = Nagrada po odzivu </li></ul><ul><li>(reci ‘hvala’, je rekla mati z nasmehom) </li></ul><ul><li>Negativne podkrepitve = nekaj negativnega izgine, ko se primerno odzovemo </li></ul><ul><li>(budilka utihne, ko pritisnemo na gumb; Bolečina izgine, ko vzamemo tablete) </li></ul><ul><li>Kazen = odziv ima negativne posledice (Voziti vinjen = odvzem vozniškega dovoljenja) </li></ul><ul><li>Je kazen primerna za kriminalna dejanja in prestopke? </li></ul><ul><li>Ugašanje = frekvenca odzivov se zmanjša, če dražljaja oz podkrpiteve ni več. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaj pa če podkrepitev nastopi občasno in nepredvideno (igre na srečo)? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Thorndike <ul><li>Učenje s poskusom in napako </li></ul><ul><li>Poskusi z živalmi </li></ul><ul><li>Lačne mačke in v škatlah (puzzle box) </li></ul><ul><li>1911 izdal “Animal Intelligence” </li></ul>
    28. 28. B.F.Skinner <ul><li>Podgane v Skinnerjevi škatli </li></ul><ul><li>Golob v Skinnerjevi škatli </li></ul>
    29. 29. Aplikacije <ul><li>Treniranje živali </li></ul><ul><li>Vzgoja otrok? (Super varuška) </li></ul><ul><li>Izobraževanje </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posebne zahteve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Klinična psihologija </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vedenjska modifikacija </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Igranje na srečo, reklamiranje? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Vrednotenje in kitika <ul><li>Ali ti dve teoriji upoštevata pomembnost </li></ul><ul><li>misli, načrtovanja, introspekcije? </li></ul><ul><li>Ali ti dve teoriji razložita kompleksno učenje </li></ul><ul><li>računanje, branje in razumevanje, pridobivanje jezika? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Aktivnost <ul><li>V čem se razlikujeta klasično in operantno pogojevanje? </li></ul><ul><li>Ali je učenje avtomatsko? </li></ul><ul><li>Kako bi znanje o behavioristični razlagi vedenja aplicirali na konkreten primer težavnega učenca, ki izostaja, in nima podpore staršev? </li></ul><ul><li>Ali imamo svobodno voljo? Ali smo odgovorni za svoja dejanja? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Kognitivne / kompleksne teorije teorije
    33. 33. Učenje <ul><li>Behaviorizem – Enostavno asociativno učenje Klasično pogojevanje </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brezpogojni dražljaj (BD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brezpogojni odziv (BO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pogojni dražljaj (PD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pogojni odziv (PO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operantno pogojevanje </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antecedens – vedenje – posledice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kognicija – spomin, zaznavanje, shema </li></ul>
    34. 34. Kognitivni procesi in učenje <ul><li>Cilj je najti posredovalne procese </li></ul><ul><li>Kaj je v “črni škatli”? </li></ul><ul><li>Procesiranje informacij – mentalne funkcije med dražljajem in odzivom </li></ul><ul><li>Veliko raziskovalcev…Tolman, Kohler, Bandura… </li></ul>
    35. 35. Edward Tolman <ul><li>Poskusi z živalmi </li></ul><ul><li>Kognitivne mape </li></ul><ul><li>Učil podgane kako najti hrano v labirintu </li></ul><ul><li>Rezultati kažejo na to, da podgane uporabljajo kompleksne mentalne procese in fleksibilnost </li></ul><ul><li>Učenje je več kot serija avtomatskih asociacij </li></ul>
    36. 36. Dokazi <ul><li>Podgane demonstrirajo </li></ul><ul><li>latentno učenje learning </li></ul><ul><li>učenje brez podkrepitev </li></ul><ul><li>Podgane v labirintu nekaj časa vsak dan 10 dni </li></ul><ul><li>11. dan hrana na koncu labirinta </li></ul><ul><li>Te podgane enako uspešne kot podgane nagrajene prvi dan </li></ul><ul><li>Simulator labirinta: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    37. 37. Tolman je demonstriral <ul><li>Podkrepitve niso nujne za učenje </li></ul><ul><li>Razlikuje med učenjem (pridobivanjem znanja) in izvrševanjem (performing) </li></ul><ul><li>Za nagrado so podgane izvršile nalogo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivacija </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Kohler Vir:
    39. 39. Šimpanzi - Reševanje problemov <ul><li>Šimpanzi lahko rešijo zahtevne naloge </li></ul><ul><li>Sestavili palico, nakopičili škatle za doseg banane </li></ul><ul><li>Učenje z vpogledom - uporaba inteligence </li></ul><ul><li>Rešitev je nenadna </li></ul><ul><li>Prenos znanja na druge situacije </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    40. 40. Harlow <ul><li>Enostavno učenje je povezano z učenjem z vpogledom </li></ul><ul><li>Enostavno učenje je zgodnja faza </li></ul><ul><li>Vmesni korak je “učiti se naučiti” </li></ul><ul><li>… razvoj pravil, posploševanje spretnosti </li></ul>
    41. 41. Učenje Če odkrije svetlo sive dobi banano Šimpanz ima pred sabo dve škatli z nalepkami različnih barv Bela škatla Svetlo siva Če odkrije belo ne dobi nič. X
    42. 42. Učenje Poskus 1 Nalepke na škatlah so pri vsakem poskusi porazdeljene slučajno Poskus 2 Poskus 4 Poskus 3
    43. 43. Učenje Šimpanz poskuša dokler ni pravilna izbira škatle konsistentna Kaj se je šimpanz naučil? ?
    44. 44. Učenje Kako behavioristi in kognitivisti definirajo učni proces? Behavioristi : Formacija asociacije med Antecendentom + Vedenjem + Posledico Kognitivist : Formacija mentalne mape, ki vsebuje različne elemente problema in njihovo povezanost
    45. 45. Učenje Šimpanz dobi nov par Svetlo sivo Temno sivo Šimpanz dobi nagrado če izbere eno ali drugo škatlo
    46. 46. Kaj bi predvidel behaviorist? <ul><li>Svetlo sivo </li></ul><ul><li>Temno sivo </li></ul>
    47. 47. Zakaj? <ul><li>Naučena associacija med barvo in nagrado, izbira barve in podkrepitev </li></ul><ul><li>Učenje pravila </li></ul>
    48. 48. Kaj pa kognitivist? Zakaj? Kaj pa šimpanz?
    49. 49. Učenje pravil Svetlo siva Temno siva Rezultat : šimpanz izbere temno sivo Rezultati tega in podobnih poskusov podpirajo kognitivno teorijo in predstavljajo izziv behavioristom
    50. 50. Aktivnost <ul><li>Kako bi lahko to znanje prenesli v šolsko okolje? </li></ul>
    51. 51. Učenje s posnemanjem <ul><li>Neonatalno učenje pri rezus opicah </li></ul><ul><li>Šimpanz in otrok </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura: Teorija socialnega učenja </li></ul><ul><li>Drugi ljudje kot modeli za učenje </li></ul><ul><li>Opazovanje in učenje </li></ul><ul><li>Pomembnost v medijih? </li></ul><ul><li>Kaj pa v šolah? </li></ul>
    52. 52. Bandura et al (1963) – ‘Bobo doll’ študija <ul><li>96 otrok starih 3-6 let </li></ul><ul><li>Razdeljeni v 4 skupine. Vsaka skupina opazuje: </li></ul><ul><li>Odraslo osebo, ki je agresivna do Bobo lutke (udarjanje s pestmi in kladivom, kričanje) </li></ul><ul><li>Enako, vendar na TV </li></ul><ul><li>Enako, vendar v risanki </li></ul><ul><li>Odrasla oseba, ki ni agresivna </li></ul>
    53. 53. Rezultati <ul><li>Otroci so v sobi z igračami in Bobo lutko </li></ul><ul><li>Določene igrače se odstranijo iz sobe(kar razburi otroke) </li></ul><ul><li>Zabeleženo število agresivnih vedenj </li></ul>
    54. 54. Število agresivnih vedenj <ul><li>83 </li></ul><ul><li>92 </li></ul><ul><li>99 </li></ul><ul><li>54 </li></ul>
    55. 55. Interpretacije <ul><li>Primer kompleksnega učenja </li></ul><ul><li>Vsebuje opazovanje vedenj, pomenje in izvajanje </li></ul><ul><li>Podkrepitve so lahko del tega procesa </li></ul><ul><li>Nujni komplesni kognitivni procesi </li></ul><ul><li>Primer podobnega poskusa </li></ul>
    56. 56. Kognitivno vedenjska terapija <ul><li>Sistematični pristop behavioristov </li></ul><ul><li>Vklučuje kognitivne procese </li></ul><ul><li>Dražljaj ne vodi neposredno do odziva </li></ul><ul><li>Vmesni del so: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interpretacije, prepričanja, zaznave </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Antecedens Interpretacije, prepričanja, zaznave Vedenje/občutki Posledice
    58. 58. Metode <ul><li>Avto sugestvni trening </li></ul><ul><li>Pozitivne misli </li></ul><ul><li>Spreminjanje negativnih, izkrivljenih misli </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Ne dobim službe – sem neuspešna, ničvredna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dokazi? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternativni pogledi? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kakšen je efekt mojih misli? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katere miselne napake delam? </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Aplikacije <ul><li>Klinične applikacije: anksioznost, stres, obsedenost </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>V športu: fokus, kontrola misli, zmanjševanje stresa </li></ul><ul><li>Psihotrening </li></ul>
    61. 61. Pristopi k učenju Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983; Tait et al 1998 <ul><li>Identifikacija različnih pristopov k študiju na univerzi </li></ul><ul><li>Uporaba vprašalnika </li></ul>
    62. 62. 3. pristopi <ul><li>Globok pristop: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivacija za razumevanje snovi pri študentu je visoka </li></ul><ul><li>Razmišlja o raziskavah, dodatno branje, povezuje ideje in diskutira </li></ul>
    63. 63. Površinski pristop <ul><li>Motivacija je strah pred neuspehom </li></ul><ul><li>Nizka motivacija in prisotnost na predavanjih </li></ul><ul><li>Memoriranje dejstev, čas posvečen študiju je kratek, pomnenje dejstev ni nujno povezano z globjo pomensko strukturo </li></ul><ul><li>Pričakuje od predavatelja, da bo vse “dano na krožniku” </li></ul>
    64. 64. Strateški pristop <ul><li>Visoko motivirani, organizirani, dobra uporaba časa </li></ul><ul><li>Uporaba primernih metod študija (včasih učenje na pamet, včasih globinsko razumevanje in integracija) </li></ul>
    65. 65. Interpretacija <ul><li>Učenje vključuje kompleksne mentalne procese in strategije </li></ul><ul><li>Vključuje tehnike za izboljšanje spomina in razumevanja </li></ul><ul><li>Odločitve, izbire in prioritete so pomembne </li></ul><ul><li>Odvisno od motivacije in ciljev </li></ul>
    66. 66. Aktivnost - Najučinkovitejša teorija učenja?
    67. 67. Do naslednjega predavanja <ul><li>Preberite Gersch, I. S. (2004). &quot;Educational Psychology in an age of uncertainty.&quot; The Psychologist 17(3): 142-145. </li></ul><ul><li>Napišite kritični sestavek o vlogi pedagoškega psihologa v Sloveniji </li></ul><ul><li>Razmislite kako motivacija in čustva vplivajo na učenje in spomin </li></ul>