Hic residet Harold rex Anglorum; Stigant archiepiscopus
Norman army advances
Transcript of "Norman Conquest"
990s<br />968-1016<br />991<br />1016<br />1018<br />1035-1036<br />1036<br />Viking raids resume<br />Rule of Aethelred the Unready (Aethelrad, lit. ‘good counsel’; Unraed, lit., ‘bad counsel’)<br />Battle of Maldon (Essex)<br />Death of Aethelred; son and heir Edmund Ironside badly defeated by the Danes at Ashingdon in October 1016<br />November, Edmund Ironside unexpectedly dies; Danish leader and prince of Denmark, Cnut, assumes rule of Danelaw and Wessex<br />Promotion of Earl Godwin<br />Death of Cnut<br />Cnut’s two sons (Harthacnut and Harold Harefoot) war over succession<br />Alfred and Edward (later the Confessor), Emma’s sons, return to England from Normandy<br />Alfred betrayed by Earl Godwin and murdered by Harold Harefoot; Edward returns to Normandy<br />
1040<br />1041<br />1042<br />1043<br />1045<br />1051<br />1052<br />1050-60s<br />1064<br />Harold Harefoot dies; Harthacnut assumes throne, has his brother’s body exhumed and thrown in the river Thames<br />Harthacnut seeks reconciliation with Edward to gain allies against rival Vikings; Edward returns to England again<br />Harthacnut dies unexpectedly at a wedding feast, ‘falling to the ground with terrible convulsions’; Earl Godwin maneuvers Edward to the throne<br />Easter – Edward crowned at Winchester<br />Edward pressured into marrying Earl Godwin’s daughter (Edith)<br />Edward exiles Godwins, sends Edith to a nunnery; [promises inheritance to William the Bastard?]<br />Earl Godwin returns, resumes position of power but dies the following year (1053)<br />Godwinson brothers (Sweyn, Harold, Tostig, Leofwine, Gyrd) more or less run England<br />Harold Godwinson travels to Normandy (purpose unknown)<br />
‘The Normans were – and still are – proudly apparelled and delicate about their food, though not excessively. They are a race inured to war and scarcely know how to live without it…<br />They live in huge houses with moderation. They envy their equals and wish to excel their superiors. They plunder their subjects, though they defend them to others. They are faithful to their lords, though a slight offense makes them perfidious. They measure treachery by its chance of success.’<br />-William of Malmesbury, c. 1125<br />
‘At the level of literate and aristocratic society, no country in Europe, between the rise of the barbarian kingdoms and the twentieth century, has undergone so radical a change as England experienced after 1066.’<br /><ul><li>Sir Richard Southern, address to the Royal Historical Society</li></ul>‘If the Conqueror’s will had prevailed and the dukedom of Normandy had gone to his eldest son (Robert) and his line and the kingdom of England to his second son (William Rufus) and his line, the Norman Conquest would have been a transitory episode and the foreign element it introduced would, we make bold to say, have been absorbed into English society almost without a trace.’<br />- H. G. Richardson and G. O. Sayles, The Governance of Medieval England<br />
‘After this, the king had much thought and very deep discussion with his council about this country – how it was occupied or with what sort of people. Then he sent his men over all England into every shire and had them find out how many hundred hides there were in the shire, or what land and cattle the king himself had in the country, or what dues he ought to have in twelve months from the shire. Also he had a record made of how much land his archbishops had, and his bishops and abbots and his earls – and though I relate it at too great length – what or how much everybody had who was occupying land in England, in land or cattle, and how much money it was worth.<br />So very narrowly did he have it investigated, that there was no single hide nor virgate of land, nor indeed (it is a shame to relate but it seemed no shame to him to do) one ox nor one cow nor one pig which was there left out, and not put down in his record; and all these records were brought to him afterwards.’<br />- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, for the year 1085<br />