 Please note, my new Mobile number:
9742619734
Companies that fail to develop new
products are putting themselves
at great risk.
Their existing products are vulnerable t...
 At the same time new-product
development is risky.
 New products are failing at a very high
rate.
What are the reasons ...
What is a brand ?
 American Marketing Association defines a brand as
follows:
Brand is
• A name
• A term
• A sign
• A sym...
 Branding decision: To brand or not to
brand.
 Today hardly anything goes unbranded.
Even salt oranges etc.
 Brand –Name decisions
1. Individual Names: The strategy permits the firm to search the
best name vfor each new product. ...
 Devising a branding strategy
Branding strategy reflects the number and nature of common
and distinctive brand elements a...
 Brand extensions can be line extensions or category
extensions. Extensions in line can be in the form of colour, size,
a...
 Branded variants , are specific brand lines supplied to
specific
retailers or distribution channels. A camera company ma...
Packaging :
 Most physical products have to be
packed and labelled.
 Well designed packages can create
convenience value...
Labelling
 Physical products also require labelling
for identification and possible grading,
description, and product pro...
Packaging and Labelling :
• Packaging is all the aspects of designing and producing
the container for a product
• Packagin...
Factors influencing the growth of packaging:
• Need for self service is on the rise, given modern
retailing formats. Hence...
The company and brand image increases if the
packaging and labeling is done for the product. It
provides more authenticity...
Pricing
 Price is all around us.
 You pay the price almost any anything and
everything
 In fact the income tax you pay ...
 Price is the marketing –mix element that
produces revenue; whereas the others
produce cost.
 Price is highly fexible. I...
Pricing is handled in a varied way :
1. In small companies prices are often set by the
companies boss.
2. In large compani...
Setting the price
 A firm must set the price for the first
time when it develops a
1. new product,
2. when it introduces ...
The firm must decide where to position its product on
quality and price.
For example in an automobile market eight price p...
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  1. 1.  Please note, my new Mobile number: 9742619734
  2. 2. Companies that fail to develop new products are putting themselves at great risk. Their existing products are vulnerable to changing customer needs and tastes, new technologies, shortened product life cycles and increased foreign & domestic competition.
  3. 3.  At the same time new-product development is risky.  New products are failing at a very high rate. What are the reasons to fail ?
  4. 4. What is a brand ?  American Marketing Association defines a brand as follows: Brand is • A name • A term • A sign • A symbol • A design or a combination of all these intended to identify and differentiate from competition
  5. 5.  Branding decision: To brand or not to brand.  Today hardly anything goes unbranded. Even salt oranges etc.
  6. 6.  Brand –Name decisions 1. Individual Names: The strategy permits the firm to search the best name vfor each new product. Head and Shoulders, Ariel, Tide 2. Blanket family name: Development cost less and the the sales will be good if the name is already popular.Tata 3. Separate family name for all products:The Aditya Birla group uses this approach. Graviera, Grasim, Ultra Tech, Hindalco, are all their brand names, tagged with a Birla name 4. Company trade name combined with individual product names:Kelloggs, Sony, HP
  7. 7.  Devising a branding strategy Branding strategy reflects the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements applied to the different products sold by the firm.  When a firm uses an established brand to introduce a new product, then it is a brand extension Existing brand combines with another, the brand extension can also be called as sub brand. E.g. Amul Masti Dahi, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance  The existing brand that lent its name to the extension is a parent brand. If the parent brand already has extensions then it becomes a family brand.
  8. 8.  Brand extensions can be line extensions or category extensions. Extensions in line can be in the form of colour, size, added ingredients. Lifebuoy soap extending into Lifebuoy Gold is a line extension. A category extension is when the parent brand extends into a different category from the one it is currently in. Honda lends its name to different categories of automobiles, other than cars.  A brand line is a combination of all products, line and category extensions , sold under a particular brand.  A brand mix / brand portfolio is the assortment , a set of all brand lines that a particular seller makes available to the buyer.
  9. 9.  Branded variants , are specific brand lines supplied to specific retailers or distribution channels. A camera company may supply low end cameras, to a mass merchandiser, while supply the high end to specialty stores.  A licensed product is one for which a brand name has been licensed to that product. Nike a shoe company primarily, has extended itself to all associated products, like, bags, track pants, shorts, t-shirts etc. Tata has licensed its name to a whole host of products.
  10. 10. Packaging :  Most physical products have to be packed and labelled.  Well designed packages can create convenience value for customers and promotional value for producers.  In effect it can act as a “Five second commercials” for produdcts.
  11. 11. Labelling  Physical products also require labelling for identification and possible grading, description, and product promotion.  Sellers may be required to present certain information on the label to protect and inform consumers.
  12. 12. Packaging and Labelling : • Packaging is all the aspects of designing and producing the container for a product • Packaging is both an art (design) and a science(engineering) • Packaging should fulfill all needs in respect to social and legal requirements Labelling : • A label is a simple tag which designates, gives an identity to a package • Labels perform several functions • Identification • Grading • Description • Promotion • Legal Compliance
  13. 13. Factors influencing the growth of packaging: • Need for self service is on the rise, given modern retailing formats. Hence convenience, handling and attractiveness become important. • Consumer affluence is more nowadays, what with the additional disposable incomes. People are willing to pay more for a properly packed item, even though it may be a little expensive. Even rice, salt and other commodities today are preferred in a packaged format.
  14. 14. The company and brand image increases if the packaging and labeling is done for the product. It provides more authenticity of source. • Packaging and labeling provide innovation opportunity. Many new formats of packaging have been explored and exploited. • Juices are packed in terapacks with spouts • Pickles, Beverages like tea, coffee and malted drinks are packed in poly pouches • Ready to eat noodles are packed in cups. • Reusable jars, is also another concept followed by many marketers
  15. 15. Pricing  Price is all around us.  You pay the price almost any anything and everything  In fact the income tax you pay is the price for making money  Throught the history the prices have been fixed by negotiations between buyers and sellers.  Price has operated as the major determinant of buyer choice.
  16. 16.  Price is the marketing –mix element that produces revenue; whereas the others produce cost.  Price is highly fexible. It can be changed quickly unlike the features of a product or promotion or place.  Price competition is the number one problem facing the companies.
  17. 17. Pricing is handled in a varied way : 1. In small companies prices are often set by the companies boss. 2. In large companies, the pricing is handled by division and product-line managers- the policy of pricing is set by top management and has to approve. 3. In industries where pricing is a key factor, companies will establish a separate department which collects information for pricing from marketing finance and top management. 4. Others who exert influence on pricing are sales managers, production managers, finance managers, accountants, etc.
  18. 18. Setting the price  A firm must set the price for the first time when it develops a 1. new product, 2. when it introduces its regular product into a new distribution channel or geographic area and 3. when it enters bids on new contract work.
  19. 19. The firm must decide where to position its product on quality and price. For example in an automobile market eight price points can be found: Segment Example 1. Ultimate Roll-Royce 2. Gold Standard Mercedes-Bens 3. Luxury Audi 4. Special needs Volvo 5. Middle Buick 6. Ease/Convenience Ford Escort 7. Me too but cheaper Hyundai 8. Price alone Kia

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