Answer from the pre-class reading only.
Negative marks will be applicable for wrong answers.
Answer in one or two sentence...
Two marks each
 1.Which are the two factors the firm must look into
while evaluating different market segments ?
 2.What...
Product Differentiation
 Companies constantly need to think up
new value-adding features and benefits
to win the attentio...
 Differentiatiation is the act of
designing a set of
meaningfuldidfferences to distinguish
the company’s offering from
co...
 Product Differentiation: Physical products vary in their potential
for differentiation.
 Form
 Features
 Performance ...
 Services Differentiation: When product cannot be
differentiated easily adding value services and
improving quality becom...
 Personnel Differentiation:
In an age when competitors can knock off productsa or
services in an instant, sosme savy comp...
 Channel Differentiation:
 Companies can achieve
competitive advantage thro’
the way they design their
distribution chan...
 Image Differentiation
 Buyers respond differently to company
and brand images.
 Products’ character and value
proposit...
 Symbols: strong signals
 Media:must be worked out into ads and
media
 Atmosphere:physical space occupied.
 Events: ev...
Target marketing
 Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers
who might require separate products or
product mixes (ma...
Positioning
 Positioning is the act of designing the
company’s offering and image to occupy a
distinctive place in the ta...
 How many differences to promote?
 Each company must decide how many
differences to promote to its target customers.
 M...
 The companies must avoid four major
positioning errors
1. Underpositioning
2. Overpositioning
3. Confused positioning
4....
Market targeting
 Once the firm has identified the market-
segment opportunities, it has to decide
how many and which one...
Selecting the market
segments
 Single segment concentration
The company may select single segment and if
it captures segm...
Single segment concentration
p1
p2
p3
m1 m2 m3
Selective specialisation
p1
p2
p3
m1 m2 m3
 Product specialization
The firm specialises in making a certain
product that it sells to several segments
 Market speci...
Product specialisation
p1
p2
p3
m1 m2 m3
Market specialisation
p1
p2
p3
m1 m2 m3
 Full market coverage
Here a firm attempts to serve all customer
groups with all the products they might
need
Full market coverage
p1
p2
p3
m1 m2 m3
Full market coverage
Undifferentiated marketing: ignore maket-
segment differences and goes after the
whole market with on...
 Differentiated marketing
1. Product modification costs
2. Manufactiring costs
3. Administrative costs
4. Inventory costs...
Additional considerations
 Marketers must choose target markets
in a socially responsible manner.
1. Ethical choice of ma...
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  1. 1. Answer from the pre-class reading only. Negative marks will be applicable for wrong answers. Answer in one or two sentences.  Presidency Business School, QUIZ no. 4  Name : Date:  Sem: 1(MKU) Marketing Management
  2. 2. Two marks each  1.Which are the two factors the firm must look into while evaluating different market segments ?  2.What is the use of concentrating on a single segment ?  3. Which pattern of target market selection has the advantage of diversifying firm’s risk ?  4.When is the product specialisation come under risk?  5. In which type of marketing the firm focuses on a basic buyer need rather than on differences among buyers ?
  3. 3. Product Differentiation  Companies constantly need to think up new value-adding features and benefits to win the attention and interest of choice-rich, price prone consumers.  Most competitive advantages last only a short time as they get copied as soon as possible.  Company must differentiate its offering.
  4. 4.  Differentiatiation is the act of designing a set of meaningfuldidfferences to distinguish the company’s offering from competitors’ offerings  Product Differentiation  Services Differentiation
  5. 5.  Product Differentiation: Physical products vary in their potential for differentiation.  Form  Features  Performance Quality  Conformance Quality  Durability  Reliability  Repairability  Style  Design: Integrating Force
  6. 6.  Services Differentiation: When product cannot be differentiated easily adding value services and improving quality becomes the key to differentiation  Ordering Ease  Delivery  Installation  Customer training  Maintenance & Repair  Miscellaneous Services
  7. 7.  Personnel Differentiation: In an age when competitors can knock off productsa or services in an instant, sosme savy companies are marketing their employees’ unique know how.  Competence  Courtesy  Credibility  Reliability  Responsiveness  Communication
  8. 8.  Channel Differentiation:  Companies can achieve competitive advantage thro’ the way they design their distribution channels’ coverage, expertise and performance.
  9. 9.  Image Differentiation  Buyers respond differently to company and brand images.  Products’ character and value proposition  Convey's this character in a distinct way sop as not to confuse with competitors  It delivers emotional power beyond a mental image.
  10. 10.  Symbols: strong signals  Media:must be worked out into ads and media  Atmosphere:physical space occupied.  Events: events it sponsors
  11. 11. Target marketing  Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or product mixes (market segmentation)  Select one or more market segments to enter (market targeting)  Establish and communicate the products’ key distinctive benefits in the market (market positioning)
  12. 12. Positioning  Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the target market’s mind.  It is not what you do to the product, but what you do to the mind of the prospect.  Positioning requires that every tangible aspect of product, price, place and promotion must support the chosen positioning strategy.
  13. 13.  How many differences to promote?  Each company must decide how many differences to promote to its target customers.  Many marketers advocate promoting only one central benefit (Unique selling proposition)  Double benefit positioning may be necessary if two or more firms claim to be the best on the attribute.
  14. 14.  The companies must avoid four major positioning errors 1. Underpositioning 2. Overpositioning 3. Confused positioning 4. Doubtful positioning
  15. 15. Market targeting  Once the firm has identified the market- segment opportunities, it has to decide how many and which ones to target  Evaluating the market segments the firm must look into two factors: The segment’s overall attractiveness and the company’s objectives and resources.
  16. 16. Selecting the market segments  Single segment concentration The company may select single segment and if it captures segment leadership, the market can earn a high return on its investment.  Selective specialisation Here the firm selects a no. of segments, each objectively attractive and approporiate
  17. 17. Single segment concentration p1 p2 p3 m1 m2 m3
  18. 18. Selective specialisation p1 p2 p3 m1 m2 m3
  19. 19.  Product specialization The firm specialises in making a certain product that it sells to several segments  Market specialisation Here the firm concentrates on serving many needs of a particular customer group.
  20. 20. Product specialisation p1 p2 p3 m1 m2 m3
  21. 21. Market specialisation p1 p2 p3 m1 m2 m3
  22. 22.  Full market coverage Here a firm attempts to serve all customer groups with all the products they might need
  23. 23. Full market coverage p1 p2 p3 m1 m2 m3
  24. 24. Full market coverage Undifferentiated marketing: ignore maket- segment differences and goes after the whole market with one market offer. Differentiated marketing: The firm operates in several market segments and designs different programs for each segment.
  25. 25.  Differentiated marketing 1. Product modification costs 2. Manufactiring costs 3. Administrative costs 4. Inventory costs As Differentiated marketing leads to both higher sales and higher costs, nothing general can be said regarding this strategy’s profitability.
  26. 26. Additional considerations  Marketers must choose target markets in a socially responsible manner. 1. Ethical choice of market targets 2. Segment interrelationships and supersegments 3. Segment by segment invasion plans 4. megamarketing 5. Intersegment cooperation

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