Whitepaper revolutionize modern snacks

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Twenty percent of American teenager are overweight. This may be the first generation where the parents will out-live their children. Snacks are heavy with calories, but are convenient and everyday life is fast-paced. Developing a healthy snack that is affordable may the best way to go.

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Whitepaper revolutionize modern snacks

  1. 1. WHITE PAPERRevolutionizeModern Reducing Incidence of Obesity in American YouthSnacks INTRODUCING HEALTHY VEGETABLE SNACKS TO REPLACE EMPTY CALORIES FOODSEPIPHANY ENTERPRISE I, LLC: | VELVA BOLES, MD 2/18/2012
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYWith the prevalence of adolescent obesity approaching 20% in the United States, it is unfortunatethat the effectiveness of pediatric obesity treatment is only modest in young children anddeclines in adolescents. It is estimated that children in the United States are spending 35 percentof their waking hours watching television, talking on cell phones and playing video games andstatistically, very sedentary children have the highest incidence of obesity. The statistics on foodadvertising to children indicate that annual sales of foods and beverages to young consumersexceeded $27 billion in 2002; food and beverage advertisers collectively spend $12 billionannually to reach children and youth: more than $1 billion is spent on media advertising tochildren; more than $4.5 billion is spent on youth-targeted public relations; and $3 billion isspent on packaging designed for children. Fast food outlets spend $3 billion in televisionadvertisements targeted to children.The causes of obesity are multiple, interactional, and complex with many causal contributors:cheap calorie-dense food, the glitzy marketing of super-sized portions, few sidewalks in urbanenvironment making residents car dependent, students being bused to school rather than walking;dependence on computers for recreation and television entertainment are contributing barriers toa child‘s healthy lifestyle, all fueling the obesity crisis. Bureaucrats have followed the tenet thatpoor food choice interventions must involve an increase in an individual‘s personal valuation ofhealth and that by understanding adolescents‘ perceptions towards food and nutrition along withfactors that influence their food behavior, nutrition intervention models can be designed andadolescents can be convinced to follow them. Federally sponsored nutrition literacy training andexercise incentive programs intended to motivate a change in adolescent eating behavior areproving ineffective.This treatise proposes engineering a low-cost nutrient-filled health-sustaining snack thatcompetes with the nutrient-poor snacks readily available to teenagers and children, thus paving atrue avenue towards achieving a decrease in the prevalence of obesity among American youth.Marketing the alternative snack to the snacking generation at a price that they can afford willcircumvent the obvious resistance shown to the obesity prevention recommendations made bythe United States Department of Agriculture, World Health Organization, Center For DiseaseControl and Prevention and other federal and state agencies. As a nation, we need to makesolving childhood obesity a top priority.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 2
  3. 3. Revolutionize Modern Snacks: Reducing Incidence ofObesity in American YouthMuch of adult obesity has its roots in childhood; in fact, the principal predictor of adult obesity ischildhood obesity. Obesity is a chronic multidimensional problem and is not only a measure ofthe amount of body fat in an individual. The World Health Organization established a simpleinexpensive and reasonably objective method of indirectly estimating total subcutaneous andvisceral fat content referred to as body mass index (BMI). For adults who have obtained theirmaximal height, a BMI of 25-30 kg/m2 is ―overweight‖ and >30 kg/m2 is ―obese‖. It should benoted that BMI is not an accurate measure for everyone, particularly people who have muchmuscle mass (like athletes), elderly people with less muscle mass or people less than 5 feet tall...Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 3
  4. 4. A practical definition of obesity is excess body fat sufficiently large to It is necessary to use theadversely affect good health or cause premature death. In an obese more complex computationperson as fat cells increase in size, the adipose tissue begin to produce for children body mass indexbioactive substances, hormones, in excess of levels experienced by because BMI exhibits nonlinear variation duringpersons with BMIs less than 25. The presence of bioactive substances pre-adolescent growth.causes insulin resistance Type II Diabetes. The effects of accumulationof adipose tissue deposits vary as a function of age, ethnicity and sex. Pediatric obesity charts have been developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) that factor in the child waist circumference, sex , birth date (to get exact age in months),and age-specific clinical growth charts data to generate a BMI scale. The percentile curvesgenerated apply to youth ages 2-20 years. PEDIATRIC BMI CHARTS FOR GIRLS AND BOYSThe CDC chart identifies children possessing BMI in the 5th to 85th percentile as having ―healthyweight‖. BMI in the 85th to 95th percentile indicates ―at risk for overweight‖ while 95th to 99thpercentile is recorded as ―overweight‖ and greater than 99th is considered pediatric obesity.Research indicates that a decrease in daily energy expenditure without a concomitant decrease intotal energy consumption is an underlying factor for the increase in childhood obesity. The use ofRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 4
  5. 5. the term ―epidemic‖ is apt when applied to the prevalence of obesity in America. Among thetragedies of the current obesity epidemic is the increasing prevalence of obesity in the veryyoung; obesity is evident in children in the first year of life. MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITYBeing overweight during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of developing highcholesterol, hypertension, respiratory ailments, orthopedic problems, depression and Type 2Diabetes as a youth. The hospital costs alone associated with childhood obesity were estimated at$127 million during 1997–1999 up from $35 million during 1979–1981. Researchers at theUniversity of Michigan found that an increased fat mass accelerates puberty in girls; girls withhigher BMI reach puberty earlier than normal-weight counterparts.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 5
  6. 6. Adolescents are at risk for nutritional problems both from a physiological and a psychosocialstandpoint because there is a dramatic increase inphysical growth and development which creates a high The statistics on food advertising todemand for nutrients and energy. Psychosocial children indicate that annual sales ofchanges, such as the adolescent‘s search for foods and beverages to youngindependence and identity, concerns about appearance, consumers exceeded $27 billion inand active peer-pressure-driven lifestyles, can have a 2002; Food and beverage advertisersstrong impact on nutrient intake and food choices. collectively spend $10 to $12 billionNutrition and health educators find that implementing annually to reach children and youth:educational programs promoting healthy eating more than $1 billion is spent onpatterns to secure change in dietary behavior among media advertising to childrenadolescents challenging and frustrating. I. Mary Story (primarily on television); more thanand Michael D. Resnick, Adolescent Health Program, $4.5 billion is spent on youth-University of Minnesota investigated the opinions and targeted public relations; and $3views of adolescents and found that adolescents were billion is spent on packagingknowledgeable about good health and nutrition designed for children. Fast foodpractices, but they did not translate this knowledge into outlets spend $3 billion in televisionchoosing nutritious food behavior. Adolescents ads targeted to children.revealed that their dietary behaviors are driven by lackof time, lack of discipline, and lack of a sense ofurgency to do the right thing.The primary appeal of junk foods, according to the students, is the taste. Most stated they likedand ate such foods despite the consequences of ―getting fat,‖ ―acne,‖ ―bad health,‖ ―poornutrition,‖ ―cavities,‖ and ―getting sick.‖ The second most popular reason given for eating junkfood snacks was that junk foods are convenient. Always seeming to be in a hurry, adolescentsfind junk food to be a necessary part of their busy lives. This choice is made despite the students‘ understanding that junk food is high in sugar, fat and calories; Nutrient-poor and calorie- high in additives; fattening and lacking nutritional value. laden snacks are more Betty Ruth Carruth, et.al. at the University of Tennessee available to the low income conducted a survey questionnaire which addressed adolescents population than fresh fruit. television viewing habits, snacking frequency and usual foods consumed while watching television, and frequency ofcommunication with parents and peers regarding food advertisements and food purchasing. Eighthundred and eighty seven students enrolled in 10th through 12th grades revealed that the mostfrequently consumed snacks were soft drinks, sweets, chips, and popcorn. Snacks purchased andconsumed by adolescents were rarely discussed with parents.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 6
  7. 7. Bureaucrats have followed the tenet that nutrition interventions must involve an increase in anindividual‘s personal valuation of health and by understanding adolescents‘ perceptions towardsfood and nutrition along with factors that influence adolescent food behavior, nutritionintervention models can be designed and adolescents can be convinced to follow them. In 2003,the National Assessment of Adult Literacy set USDA RECOMMENDED FOOD CHARTout to establish a basis upon which to framethe nutrition literacy problem in the UnitedStates. A scale that measures ―the degree towhich individuals have the capacity to obtain,process and understand basic healthinformation and services needed to makeappropriate health decisions was developed.The study revealed that 44% of adultAmericans have ―basic‖ to ―below basic‖ levelof health literacy and that health literacy wasgreatest for the high school graduates and post-secondary educated persons. People livingbelow the levels of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it.Federal and state organizations have invested heavily in supporting nutrition literacy: 1. The Family Nutrition Program is a free nutrition education program serving low-income adults; helping families, participating in the Food Stamp Program, stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits. This program is funded by the Food Nutrition Service‘s branch of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) usually through a local state academic institution which runs the program. 2. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program is a program that currently operates in all 50 states and in American Samoa, Guam, Micronesia, Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being. 3. Smart Bodies is a public-private partnership between Louisiana State Agricultural Center and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana Foundation which formed to promote nutrition literacy. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise. To date, advancing ―nutrition literacy‖ has done little to improve the eating habits of adolescentsand low socioeconomic citizens. Adolescents view time as a major factor in choosing what theyeat because they see themselves too busy to worry about food, nutrition, meal planning, andeating right. Expressing these views, teenagers said, ―People our age are so busy that we don’tRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 7
  8. 8. have enough time to try to change habits.‖ ―We don’t have the time – too many pressures.‖―There’s a lot more than food that’s really important to us‖. The fast food generation expects toeat a well-advertised meal within ten minutes of requesting it. There is little incentive to spendhours in a grocery store selecting and purchasing products that must be washed and cookedbefore it can be consumed. Today much of what is purchased in the grocery store is a pre-packaged frozen entree that can be micro-waved into a hot meal in less than 10 minutes.Numerous parental influences shape the eating habits ofyouth through the foods they make available and Health and nutrition haveaccessible, the amount of time children are left been proven to have closeunsupervised and their eating interactions with others in links with overall educationalthe social context. Studies suggest that parental food success. Better nutrition haspreferences directly influence and shape those of their been shown to have an impactchildren. Parents who ate diets high in saturated fats also on both cognitive and spatialhad children that ate diets high in saturated fats. This is memory performance.not merely due to the foods parents fed their children,but also the preferences in food selection that childrensaw their parents exhibit. Many taste preferences form during the window prior to learning towalk. Family meal time has been a time-honored convention in our society; however over thepast two decades, family structure has changed significantly in the United States with an increasein single-parent families and home-makers employed outside the home. These factors profoundlyinfluence family communalism especially eating meals together. In a Minnesota study, urbanstudents tended to be more indifferent to family meals than rural or suburban youth. Althoughstudents valued the concept of family communalism, many stated that their work schedules,sports, and other extracurricular activities (or their parents‘ schedules) often prevented sit-down family meals. Responsibility for obesity is In the U.S. and abroad, globalization has been linked to divided into behaviors fewer home cooked meals, more calories consumed in characterized as individual restaurants, increased snacking between meals, and increased and those attributed to the availability of fast foods in schools. Children and adolescents environment. Dr. Kelly are eating more food away from home, drinking more sugar- Brownell, a Yale Obesity sweetened drinks, and snacking more frequently. Center scientist and author of Convenience has become one of the main criteria for Food Fight, believes American‘s food choices today, leading more and more individuals are responsible people to consume ‗away-from-home‘ quick service or for 40% of obesity and the restaurant meals or to buy ready-to-eat, low cost, quickly environment is responsible accessible meals to prepare at home. Energy intake from for 60%. away-from-home food sources increased from 32% to 55 %. Average portion sizes increased for salty snacks from 1.0ounce to 1.6 ounces and soft drinks volumes from 12 ounces to 20 ounces. Children as young asseven months old are consuming soda.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 8
  9. 9. Debates about how and to what extent The food processing industry, indifferent dietary factors, such as, the intake of industrialized nations, has grown toprocessed carbohydrates, total protein, fat, and dominate the presentation andlow intake of vitamins/minerals, contribute to consumption mode of food. The foodthe development of hormonal disturbances processing industry is a major part ofsuch as insulin resistance has been on-going modern economy, and as such it isfor decades. Virtually all obese people and influential in political decisions such asmost Type 2 diabetic individuals have marked nutritional recommendations, agriculturalinsulin resistance. The association between subsidizing. In any known profit-drivenoverweight and insulin resistance is clear. economy, health considerations are hardlyNewer studies show that obesity also increases a priority; effective production of cheapthe body‘s resistance to the hormone leptin. foods with a long shelf-life is more theLeptin is a hormone that is synthesized in the trend.stomach but acts on receptors in the brainwhere it inhibits appetite. Both insulin andleptin normally function as satiety signals to thebrain. In obese people, insulin-leptin resistances reduce satiety signals and allow overeating.Several lines of evidence indicate an increased level of circulating insulin is a decisive factor inchronic inflammation, which is strongly linked to arterial micro injuries and clot formation, seenin heart disease and uncontrolled cell division, seen in cancer and is characterized by abdominalobesity, elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reducedHDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol.Fast food consumption is associated with inexpensive calorie-dense diets, and the price disparitybetween the low-nutrient/ high-calorie foods and healthier food options continues to grow. Fatsand sweets cost only 30% more than they did 20 years ago, whereas the cost of fresh produce hasincreased more than 100%. Studies in Seattle supermarkets showed that foods with the lowestenergy density (mostly fresh vegetables and fruit) increased in price by almost 20% over 2 years,whereas the price of energy-dense foods high in sugar and fat remained constant.Data collected in a 2009-2010 study performed by the National Healthand Nutrition Examination Survey show that there is a significant Type 2 Diabetesdifference in obesity prevalence by race/ethnicity. There are cultural has increasedinfluences and socioeconomic constraints, such as low levels of dramatically ineducation and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for children andhealthful eating and living. Links between low health literacy and poor adolescents.health outcomes have been widely documented. The complexitiessurrounding the lack of positive response from teaching nutrition literacy are embedded in thesocial structure, the lack of information about food choices, the lack of understanding ofnutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, as well as limited accessto healthful foods are secondary to the convenience of acquiring a meal.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 9
  10. 10. Culture is a system of shared understandings that shapes an individual‘s perspective and providesmeaning to rules for behavior that are normative – expected to be what everyone should do.Culture, unlike instinct, is learned; is distributed within a group such that everyone possesses thesame knowledge, attitudes, and practices; thereby enabling members of the group tocommunicate with one another and behave in ways that are mutually interpretable. Sharedunderstandings embodied by a culture include the perception of obesity and the extent to whichthe group views obesity as a problem. Culture contributes to disparities in childhood obesity innumerous ways. First, body image development occurs in a cultural context, and ethnic/culturalgroups differ in their shared understandings as to valued and disvalued body image. For instance,perceived ideal body size for African American women is significantly larger than it is for whitewomen, and African American men are more likely than white men to express a preference forlarger body size in women. The mean BMI at which white women typically express bodydissatisfaction is significantly lower than that for African American women. For many yearsAfrican-American culture developed separately from mainstream American culture, bothbecause of slavery and the persistence of racial discrimination in America, as well as African-American slave descendants desire to create and maintain their own traditions. Traditionally-prepared ―soul‖ foods tend to be very high in starch, fat, sodium, cholesterol, and calories –qualities once necessary for sustainingthe physically grueling life of a captiveworker in slavery-era America. Giventhat women typically assume primaryresponsibility for the care, feeding, andeducation of children, including thetransmission of shared culturalunderstandings, the beliefs that women More than 2,500 yearspossess with respect to their own body ago the physicianimage have implications for their Hippocrates, often calledperception of and response to the body the father of medicine, recognized that peopleimage of their children. who were overweight were at higher risk forObesity, as defined by pediatric BMI sudden death.charts, disproportionately affectsminority youth populations: 21%African American adolescents ages 12-19 are overweight compared to 14% ofwhite adolescents. In children 6-11 yearsold, 20 percent of African Americanchildren and 14 percent of white children were overweight.The current understanding of obesity by the public at large consists mainly of two positions. Oneposition equates obesity with poor character, lack of self-control, laziness, and gluttony. It viewsRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 10
  11. 11. obesity as the result of an individuals choice of behavior, like smoking or driving without aseatbelt, that has relatively little effect on others—a lifestyle choice. Reduction in body weightfor its own sake is often associated with vanity or seen as a cosmetic issue. The other positionsees obesity as a risk factor for heart disease or diabetes. In this view, a reduction in obesity isseen as useful in reducing the risk of other diseases.Nutrition’s Role in ObesityThere is no argument against the belief that eating It was in 1920s, that Herman Lay, anutrient-filled foods sustains good health and helps traveling salesman, helped popularizeavoid diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and obesity the potato chip snack from Atlanta toand establishing long-term healthful eating habits have Tennessee. Lay peddled potato chips toa positive effect on the quality of life. However, Southern grocers out of the trunk of hisAmericans are eating more potato chips, more fatty car, building a business and a name thatmeats, and more fried fast food than ever before. There would become synonymous with theare more fast food restaurants in this country per capita thin, salty snack. And as thin, salted,than at any other time in history. Studies show that the crisp chips, they are Americas favoriteaverage American gets in excess of 40% of his calories snack food. The success of crisp friedfrom fat. In industrialized countries, traditional diets potato chips also gave birth to fried cornhigh in complex carbohydrates and fiber have been chips, with such brands as Fritos andreplaced with high-fat, energy-dense diets. Rural Doritos dominating the market.immigrants abandon traditional diets rich in vegetables Americans today consume more potatoand cereal in favor of processed foods and animal chips than any other people in theproducts. The newer, more improved, methods of food world.processing have blossomed despite clear scientificevidence that processing natural foods remove muchneeded nutrients. Most interventions have used only health education, awareness, and behavior change approachesto improve individual and small-group behaviors, with minimal long-term success. Someorganizations have worked with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors tomandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeteriasfrom primary to university level institutions. However, current medical education pays minimalattention to the problem of obesity, and even that is geared to the concept of obesity as a lifestylechoice rather than a physiological problem. Lifestyle modification is rarely taught to medicalstudents, whether it be for smoking, drug abuse, alcoholism, or obesity. Obesity itself is usuallythe subject of very limited, often optional presentations. There has never been a federally-fundedinitiative to create a nutrient-rich snack priced to fit in the low income population budget; onethat can successfully compete with aggressively advertised potato and corn chips.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 11
  12. 12. . Glycemic Index Each food is assigned an index number from 1-100, 100 with 100 as the reference 80 60 score for pure glucose. 40 20 Typically, foods are rated 0 Carbohydrates high (greater than 70), low (less than 55) or moderate (56-69).There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, andwater. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relativelylarge amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients includecarbohydrates, fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals, vitamins/phytochemicals.Most processed snacks are carbohydrates with high glycemic index values. Glycemic indexmeasures how much a 50-gram portion of carbohydrate raises a persons blood-sugar levelcompared with the control, 16 ounces of water. All carbohydrates are digested into glucose andthe rise in blood glucose levels defines glycemic response. This response is affected by manyfactors: the quantity of food, degree of processing, the amount and type of carbohydrate and thecooking method. Good management of blood glucose level is one of the keys to lifelong health.Choosing low glycemic index carbohydrates – the ones that produce low glycemic response -reduce the risk of Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Nutritionists have preached the benefits of a low-fat diet; stating that reducing the amount of fatin the diet is the key to losing weight, managing cholesterol, and preventing health problems.Research shows that the type of fat that is consumed is what is really important. ―Bad‖ fatsincrease cholesterol and the risk of certain diseases, while ―good‖ fats have the opposite effect.Saturated fat (bad fat) should be limited to 10% of calories consumed daily. Saturated fats arefound in animal products such as butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, fatty meats andsome vegetable oils -- coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils. Saturated fats elevate LDL (lowdensity lipoprotein) cholesterol, referred to as ―bad cholesterol‖. Saturated fats are often found infast foods and inexpensive snacks.Dietary fats are found in both plant and animal foods. Fats play a vital role in maintaininghealthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, andpromoting healthy cell function. Fat helps the body absorb and move vitamins A, D, E, and KRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 12
  13. 13. through the bloodstream. The bodyprocesses ingested fat into glycerol, which It has been demonstrated, conclusively, that appropriate exercise along with reduced glycemicis converted to glucose and used as a index foods can reverse insulin resistance insource of energy. Omega-3 fats and overweight individuals and thereby lower bloodessential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic sugar levels in those who have Type 2 Diabetes.acid) have important roles in controllinginflammation, blood clotting, andsupporting brain development. Conjugated linoleic acids are being studied and show an ability toreduce total body fat and increase lean body mass by 1% per week while increased restingmetabolic rates. Dietary fat in excess of that used to supply energy is stored in the body as either"visceral fat" located within the abdominal cavity, beneath the wall of abdominal muscle, or"subcutaneous fat" located beneath the skin. Visceral fat was recently discovered to be asignificant producer of signaling chemicals, hormone-like substances, which adversely affect thebiochemical processes of the body.Proteins are found in both plant and animal foods; they are composed of amino acids. Proteinsare the building components of muscles, skin, and hair and enzymes that control chemicalreactions throughout the body. Each protein is composed of amino acids. A diet rich in essentialamino acids is particularly important during pregnancy, fetal development, lactation, earlychildhood growth, and recovery from injury. Most meats such as chicken contain all the essentialamino acids needed for humans. Proteins participate in every process within cells acting asenzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions vital to metabolism. Proteins also have structural ormechanical functions in muscle, cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cellrepair. Other amino acids are used to synthesize enzymes, hormones and signaling proteinsnecessary for biochemical processes that maintain life. Many proteins are involved in theprocess of cell signaling, transmitting chemical signals from one cell to another or acting asreceptors, binding signaling molecules that induce a biochemical response in the cell. Antibodiesare protein components that bind foreign substances in the body and target them for destruction.Some amino acids produced by protein digestion is converted to glucose and utilized for energy.The use of protein as a fuel is particularly important under starvation conditions.Plants absorb/ uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots. Trace chemicals,identified as phytochemicals, are found in edible plants, colorful fruits and vegetables,seafood, algae, and mushrooms. They provide health benefits to the cardiovascular system,immune system and are helpful in the prevention and treatment of age-related maculardegeneration (a major cause of blindness), and cataracts. Ingestion of these trace mineralsserve to protect the rods and cones within the eye against the destructive effects of oxidation.Dietary minerals (also known as mineral nutrients) are the chemical elements that, wheningested, act as electrolytes that support biochemical reactions within the body.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 13
  14. 14. DIETARY MINERALS Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally (for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, some forms neutralize acidity, may help clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions) Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity) Phosphorus-essential for energy processing; component of bones Potassium-heart and nerve health Sodium very common in food Sulfur found in many proteins which make up skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas Cobalt is required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 which is an essential vitamin for humans. Copper required component of many reducing-oxidizing enzymes Chromium required for sugar metabolism Iodine required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, thyroid hormone, and other agents in glandular organs- breast, stomach, salivary glands. Iron required for many enzymes and for hemoglobin in blood Manganese(processing of oxygen within tissue Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases Nickel present in urease Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE (RDA) IS 200 mg/day or GREATERRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 14
  15. 15. VITAMINS ARE VALUABLE NUTRIENTS Recommended Vitamin Chemical dietary generic Deficiency disease Food sources name(s) allowances name Retinol, Night-blindness, Orange vegetables carrots, Vitamin A retinal, and 900 µg Hyperkeratosis, and pumpkin, squash, spinach beta carotene Keratomalacia Oatmeal, rice, vegetables, Beriberi, Wernicke- Vitamin B1 Thiamine 1.2 mg kale, cauliflower, potatoes, Korsakoff syndrome liver, eggs Dairy products, bananas, Vitamin B2 Riboflavin 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosis popcorn, green beans, asparagus Vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients; deficiencies result in disease conditions, such as goiter, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, cancer, premature aging, and poor psychological health Some vitamins function as antioxidants and enzyme cofactors that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 15
  16. 16. B-CLASS OF VITAMINS ARE THE LARGEST CLASS OF VITAMINS Vitamin Recommended Generic Chemical name dietary allowances Deficiency disease name Meat, fish, eggs, many Vitamin B3 Niacin, niacinamide 16.0 mg Pellagra vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid 5.0 mg Paresthesia Meat, broccoli, avocados Anemia peripheral Meat, vegetables, tree Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, 1.3–1.7 mg neuropathy. nuts, bananas Raw egg yolk, liver, Vitamin B7 Biotin 30.0 µg Dermatitis, enteritis peanuts, certain vegetables Cyanocobalamin, Megaloblastic Meat and other animal Vitamin B12 hydroxycobalamin, 2.4 µg anemia products methylcobalaminB vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism andare found in whole unprocessed foods. Processed carbohydrates such as sugar and white flourtend to have lower contents of B vitamins than their unprocessed counterparts. B vitamins areparticularly concentrated in meat such as turkey, tuna and liver. Good plant sources for Bvitamins include whole grains, potatoes, bananas, lentils, chili peppers, beans, brewers yeast,and molasses.Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics are advised to supplement thiamine (B1) because of the highprevalence of low plasma thiamine concentration and increased thiamine clearance associatedwith diabetes. Vitamin B9 (folic acid) deficiency in early embryo development has been linkedto spina bifida, a spinal cord birth defect; women trying to become pregnant are encouraged toincrease daily dietary folic acid intake.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 16
  17. 17. Vitamin Chemical Recommended Deficiency Toxic Food Generic Name Dietary State Level Sources Name Allowance During pregnancy is Leafy vegetables, Vitamin B9 Folic acid 400 µg associated with 1,000 µg pasta, bread, cereal, birth defects liver Many fruits and Vitamin C Ascorbic acid 90.0 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg vegetables, liver Rickets and Fish, eggs, liver, Vitamin D Cholecalciferol 5.0 µg–10 µg 50 µg Osteomalacia mushrooms Mild hemolytic Tocopherols, Many fruits and Vitamin E 15.0 mg anemia in newborn 1,000 mg tocotrienols vegetables infants phylloquinone, Vitamin K 120 µg Bleeding diathesis menaquinonesFor the most part, vitamins are obtained through eating food, however, microorganisms in theintestine — commonly known as "gut flora" — produce Vitamin K and Biotin. Vitamin D issynthesized in the skin with the help of the natural ultraviolet wavelength of sunlight andVitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene, niacin, and the amino acid tryptophan. Vitaminsare essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of cells, tissues, and organs; they enableefficient use of chemical energy and help process proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required forrespiration.Phytochemicals have been researched widely over the last decade and found to have major rolesin maintaining good health. They are antioxidants and have been found to prevent inflammatoryinjuries within the veins, arteries and capillaries, decrease molecular free radicals that initiatecancerous processes. Polyphenols are a subtype of phytochemicals that have become of interestin the battle against obesity. It is a water soluble compound that is found in vegetables and fruit;most notably pomegranates and green tea leaves. This compound is most easily recognized by itsRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 17
  18. 18. tendency to turn fruit and some vegetables ―brown‖ quickly once the skin has been removed;good examples are sliced apples and shredded carrots. Several studies have shown that a groupof polyphenol antioxidant compounds found in grapes, green tea, soybeans and red wine maylower the risk of cancer. Other polyphenols, such as quercetin in onion extract, are able toincrease the intracellular concentration of glutathione by approximately 50%. Glutathione is anessential cellular molecule with an important role in oxidation-reduction processes that reducesthe risk of cell injury and cancer formation. There is now evidence that polyphenols are helpfulin mediating diabetic retinopathy (a major cause of blindness) PHYTOCHEMICAL GROUPS AND COMMON SOURCES Family Sources Possible benefits Berries, herbs, vegetables, General antioxidant, oxidation of LDLs, prevention of Flavonoids wine, grapes, tea arteriosclerosis and heart disease Isoflavones General antioxidant, prevention of arteriosclerosis and heart Soy, red clover, kudzu root (phytoestrogens) disease, easing symptoms of menopause, cancer prevention Isothiocyanates Cruciferous vegetables cancer prevention Citrus peels, essential oils, Monoterpenes Cancer prevention, treating gallstones herbs, spices, green plants, Organosulfur cancer prevention, lowered LDLs, assistance to the immune Chives, garlic, onions compounds system Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Antioxidant, cancer Saponins Beans, cereals, herbs prevention, Anti-inflammatory Capsaicinoids All capiscum (chile) peppers Topical pain relief, cancer prevention, cancer cell apoptosis A study performed at the Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh looked at the effects of greentea consumption on a group of students between the ages of 19–37. Participants were asked notto alter their diet but to add 4 cups of green tea per day for 14 days. The results showed thatshort-term consumption of commercial green tea reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure,total cholesterol, body fat and body weight. These results suggest a role for green tea indecreasing cardiovascular risk factors.For complete good health, adequate amounts of water must be consumed. Recommendations forthe quantity of water required for maintenance of good health are six to eight glasses of waterRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 18
  19. 19. daily. The current European Food Safety Authority guidelines recommend total water intakes of2.0 liters per day for adult females and 2.5 liters per day for adult males. These reference valuesinclude liquids from drinking water, other beverages, and from food. About 80% of our dailywater requirement comes from the beverages we drink, with the remaining 20% coming fromfood. Water intake varies depending on the type of food consumed; fresh fruit and vegetablescontain liquid more than cereals and nuts.Eating a variety of fresh, whole, unprocessed, foods have proven favorable for ones healthcompared to diets based on processed foods because consumption of whole-plant foods slowsdigestion and allows better absorption, there is a balance between essential nutrients, caloriecontent and natural fiber which better regulates appetite and blood sugar. Fiber from wholegrains lessens spikes of insulin release and therefore reduces the complexities of managing Type2 Diabetes. The United Healthcare/Pacificare nutrition guideline recommends a whole plant fooddiet and using protein only as a condiment with meals. A National Geographic cover article fromNovember 2005, entitled The Secrets of Living Longer, studied three populations, Sardinians,Okinawans and Adventists, who generally display longevity and suffer a fraction of the diseasesthat commonly kill people in other parts of the developed world. The recommendation comingout of the study was that everyone should "Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains" to enjoy thebenefits of a long disease-free life.In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produceand sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between moreexpensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionallyinferior, processed foods. Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient instorage, and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods make up a greaterproportion of the diet of lower-income individuals. In U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)studies, female recipients of food assistance had more energy-dense diets, consumed fewervegetables and fruit, and were more likely to be obese. In a 2010, CDC report, it was estimated that there are 67 million obese and 85 millionoverweight Americans and it predicted that if no action was taken to affect the obesity trend,60% of men, 50% of women and 25% of children would be obese by 2050. Accordingly, directcosts caused by obesity are estimated to be $4.2 billion per year and forecast to more than doubleby 2050. In adults (ages 20-74), obesity was measured at14.5% in 1980 and 30.4% in 2000.Diabetes prevalence, clinically linked to obesity, increased 53% in the same period. In 2002,health costs among obese adults averaged $1,244 more per person than for normal-weight adults.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 19
  20. 20. Time to Think Outside the BoxFirst Lady Michelle Obama is leading with the History holds dramatic examplesbanner calling for intervention against the of the adverse effects of foodincreasing obesity trend among America‘s processing on a populations health:youth. In a speech to congress, she stated that BeriBeri Epidemic among peoplethe obesity situation has become very serious, subsisting on polished riceespecially in black communities. She fears that (removing the outer layer of ricetodays children "might be the first generation in removes the essential vitamin,history on track to lead shorter lives than their thiamine). A deficiency inparents." The recent explosive introduction of thiamine causes BeriBeri. In theprocessed foods has overwhelmed the bodys late 19th century, infants in theability to maintain homeostasis and an obesity United States developed Scurvy.epidemic is raging. Processed foods have an The sufferers were being fed milkinferior nutritional profile, high glycemic index that had been heat-treated, asstarches, high sodium salt content, low fiber suggested by Dr. Louis Pasteur, tocontent, and saturated fatty acids. control bacterial disease; pasteurization is effective against bacteria, but it destroyed essential Vitamin C. The deficiency of Vitamin C resulted in the disease Scurvy.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 20
  21. 21. GETTING THE JOB DONE Chips made from sliced or pureed root vegetables are idealfor adolescents who need to lose weight, as well as, thosewho are at risk of being obese. There is an inherent sweet,starchy, vitamin-laden goodness in all vegetables. Rootvegetables are among the best diet choices for weight lossand healthy weight maintenance because they have suchlow energy densities and directly absorb minerals and othernutrients from the soil. The "hot" flavor associated with turnips makes them particularly wellsuited to mixing and matching with other root vegetables. Slightly sweet and super crunchy,white sweet potato taste very similarly to the popular Lays potato chip, parsnips are mild andearthy and beetroot has a strong salty quality to it after being baked .According to Mayo-Clinic, root vegetables are a source for high fiber, low fat and low calorienutrition. The presence of fiber facilitates the consumption of fewer net calories because its bulktriggers feelings of satiety. Root vegetables‘ natural sweetness emerges when they are roasted,soften and begin to caramelize. The calorie values for raw and roasted vegetables are the same.The white potato, ―Irish potato‖, the ―French Fry potato‖ is a root vegetable and it is second inhuman food consumption only to rice. The white potato‘s nutrient value is much less than otherroot vegetables. Vitamins and minerals not present in the white potato and processed corn snackscan be found in alternative root vegetables, all of which are the starchy roots of plantsVegetable Calories Carbohydrates Fat Fibers Sugar (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams)Roasted 30 7 0 2 3.5CarrotCup of 100 24 0.5 0 0ParsnipsLarge Radish 1 0.5 0 0 0Onion 60 14 0 2.5 6.5Roasted 50 11.5 0 11.5 0TurnipRoasted White 275 63 0.5 6.5 3.5PotatoRoasted Red 160 37 0.25 6 11.5Sweet PotatoRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 21
  22. 22. Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States and all parts ofthe public and private sectors must take action. Working with National Institute of Food andAgriculture, a nutritious chip and other ―hand-held‖ foods can be developed, presented to thetarget population and the cost subsidized to ensure that the products reach the target populationuntil the market is established. 3 THINGS THAT MUST BE DONE 1. Develop a delicious recipe for a nutrient-mineral rich crispy snack using root vegetables rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants working with a land- grant university Nutrition Department proficient in applied nutrition science and product manufacturing. 2. Secure federal assistance with packaging, marketing and distributing the nutritious snack to ensure that the products are affordable by the target population. 3. Establish agreements with chain stores most often located in low- income neighbors, to stock and sale product thereby increasing the potential for the products to be consumed by adolescents most at risk for obesity. TO INTERRUPT THE GROWING OBESITY TREND AMONG AMERICA’S ADOLESCENTS .Federal participation in the popularization of a commercial product is not new. Notorious is ourgovernment‘s participation in the advancement of the use of tobacco products among militarypersonnel. United States included cigarettes in rations of deployed soldiers starting in 1917(World War I) and continued until1975 (Viet Nam War). The federal assistance requested in thistreatise provides an opportunity for America to ameliorate the legacy of tobacco habituation byproviding support for the development of an affordable healthy snack and actively promotinghealthy eating habits among adolescents at risk for obesity. War must be declared against―obesity‖ because America‘s future is being threatened.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 22
  23. 23. ENDNOTES1. Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Causes CDC.gov (2011-05-16).2. I. Mary Story and Michael Resnick, Adolescent Health Program, Univ. of Minnesota JNE 18:188-192. 1986.3. ―Do Parents And Peers Mediate The Influence Of Television Advertising On Food-Related Purchases”, Betty Ruth Carruth, et.al., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.4. "Simple and complex carbohydrates". Jenkins, David et.al. (February 1986) Nutritional Reviews 44 (2): 44–49.5. "The Nutrition Source: Carbohydrates". Harvard School of Public Health.6. "Dietary Fiber: Essential For A Healthy Diet - MayoClinic.com".7. Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. (2000). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (3rd Ed.). New York: Worth Publishing.8. D. E. C. Corbridge (1995). Phosphorus: An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.9. Lippard, S. J. and Berg, J. M. (1994). Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books.10. "WHO Technical Report Series. Diet, Nutrition And The Prevention Of Chronic Diseases.‖ Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation; Geneva 2003.11. Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. (November 1994). "Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, andAdvanced Age-related Macular Degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group". JAMA 272 (18): 1413–20.12. Lyle BJ, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BE, Klein R, Greger JL (May 1999). "Antioxidant Intake and Risk Of Incident Age-Related Nuclear Cataracts In The Beaver Dam Eye Study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 149 (9): 801–9.13. Yeum KJ, Taylor A, Tang G, Russell RM (December 1995). "Measurement Of Carotenoids, Retinoids, And Tocopherols In Human Lenses". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36 (13): 2756– 61.14. Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, et al. (October 1999). "A Prospective Study Of Carotenoid And Vitamin A Intakes And Risk Of Cataract Extraction In US Women". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (4): 509–16.15. Brown L, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, et al. (October 1999). "A Prospective Study Of Carotenoid Intake And Risk Of Cataract Extraction In US Men". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (4): 517–24Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 23
  24. 24. 16. Commission on Life Sciences. (1985). Nutrition Education in US Medical Schools, p. 4. National Academies Press.17. Adams KM, Lindell KC, Kohlmeier M, Zeisel SH (April 2006). "Status Of Nutrition Education In Medical Schools". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (4): 941S–4S.18. Eckel RH, Borra S, Lichtenstein AH, Yin-Piazza SY (April 2007). "Understanding The Complexity Of Trans Fatty Acid Reduction In The American Diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group". Circulation 115 (16): 2231–46.19. Di Pasquale, Mauro G. (2008). "Utilization of Proteins in Energy Metabolism". In Ira Wolinsky, Judy A. Driskell. Sports Nutrition: Energy metabolism and exercise. CRC Press. p. 73.20. William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch (2006). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.21. "Nutrition — Healthy Eating: Bread, Cereals And Other Starchy Foods". BBC. July 2008.22. Baldi, S. (ED.) et al. (2009). Technical Report and Data File User‘s Manual for the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NCES 2009-47). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.23. Zoellner, J., Connell, C., Bounds, W., Crook, L., Yadrick, K. (2009). Nutrition Literacy Status and Preferred Nutrition Communications Channels Among Adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Preventing Chronic Disease, Public Health Research, Practice and Policy, 6(4)24. Berkman N. D., Sheridan, S.L., Donahue, K. E., Halpern, D.J., Viera, A., Crotty, K., Viswanathan, M. (2011). Health and Literacy Intervention Outcomes: an Updated Systematic Review. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment no. 199. Prepared by RTI International – University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center. Publication Number 11-E006. Rockville, MD. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.25. Jere R. Behrman (1996). "The Impact Of Health And Nutrition On Education". World Bank Research Observer 11 (1): 23–37.26. American College Health Association (2007). "American College Health Association National College Health Assessment Spring 2006 Reference Group data report (abridged)". J Am Coll Health 55 (4): 195–20627. Benton D, Sargent J (July 1992). "Breakfast, Blood Glucose And Memory". Biol Psychol 33 (2–3): 207–10.28. Kanarek RB, Swinney D (February 1990). "Effects of food snacks on cognitive performance in male college students". Appetite 14 (1): 15–27Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 24
  25. 25. 29. Umezawa M, Kogishi K, Tojo H, et al. (February 1999). "High-Linoleate And High-Alpha- Linolenate Diets Affect Learning Ability And Natural Behavior in SAMR1 mice". J. Nutr. 129 (2): 431–7.30. Glewwe P, Jacoby H, King E (2001). "Early Childhood Nutrition And Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis". Journal of Public Economics 81 (3): 345–68.31. Duster T, Waters A (2006). "Engaged Learning Across The Curriculum: The Vertical Integration Of Food For Thought". Liberal Education 92 (2): 42.32. Lakhan SE, Vieira KF (2008). "Nutritional Therapies For Mental Disorders". Nutr J 7 (1): 2.33. Morris, Audrey; Audia Barnett, Olive-Jean Burrows (2004). "Effect of Processing on Nutrient Content of Foods" (PDF). Cajanus 37 (3): 160–16434. McCoy, H., M.A. Kenney, A. Kirby, et al. Nutrient intakes of female adolescents from eight southern states. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 84:1453-60, 1984.35. Ezell, J.M., J.D. Skinner, and M.P. Penfield. Appalachian adolescents‘ snack patterns: Morning, afternoon and evening snacks. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85:1450-54, 1985.36. Skinner, J.D., N.N. Salvetti, J.M. Ezell. M.P. Penfield, and C.A. Costello. Appalachian Adolescents‘ Eating Patterns and Nutrient Intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85:1093-99, 1985.37. Skinner, J.D., N.N. Salvetti, and M.P. Penfield. Food intakes of working and non-working adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education 16:164-69, 1984.38. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food and nutrient intakes of individuals in one day in the United States. Spring, 1977. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Preliminary Report No. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p.121.39. Skinner, J.D., and M.J. Woodburn. Nutrition knowledge of teenagers, Journal of School Health 54:71-74, 1984.40. Schwartz, N.E. Nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices of high school graduates. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 66:28-31, 1975.41. Singleton, N., and D.S. Rhoads. An Assessment Of The Nutrition Education Of Students In Grade 3 to 12. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 84:59-63, 1984.42. Obesity as a Disease Writing Group: David B. Allison, et.al. Obesity (2008) 16 6, 1161– 1177.43. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 25
  26. 26. 44. Birch, LL. The relationship between children‘s food preferences and those of their parents. Journal of Nutrition Education. 12:14-18, 1980.45. Kunkel, D. 2002 ―Children and Television Advertising,‖ Handbook of Children and the Media. Eds. Singer, D., and Singer, J. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.46. Brody, G., Stoneman, Z., Lane, T.S., and Sanders, A. Television Food Commercials Aimed at Children, Family Grocery Shopping and Mother-Child Interactions. Family Relations. 30:435-439;1981. 47. Hastings, G., Stead, M., and McDermott, L. Review of Research on the Effects of Food Promotion to Children. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde Centre for Social Medicine, 200348. Birch, L. L., Shoba, B. C., Pirok, E., and Steinberg, L. ―What Kind of Exposure Reduces Children‘s Food Neophobia? Looking vs. Tasting?‖ Appetite, 1987, 9: 171–178.49. J. Wardle, S. Sanderson, E. L. Gibson, and L. Rapoport.‖ Factor-analytic structure of food preferences in four-year-old children in the UK‖. Appetite. (2001) 37: 217-223.50. Fitzgibbon ML, Blackman LR, Avellone ME: The relationship between body image discrepancy and body mass index across ethnic groups. Obes Res 8:582–589, 200051. Rhee K: Childhood overweight and the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and family functioning. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 615:11–37, 200852. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 2.1 (2007)53. Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R (April 2006). "Beneficial effects of green tea--a review". J Am Coll Nutr 25 (2): 79–99.54. Cynthia L. Ogden, et al Prevalence of Obesity an Trends in Body Mass Index Among US Children and Adolescents, 1999-2010, JAMA, February 1, 2012, Vol. 307, No. 5 pp 498-507.55. David Ludwig, Weight Loss Strategies for Adolescents‖ JAMA, February 1, 2012, Vol. 307, No. 5, pp 498-507Revolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 26
  27. 27. Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC 1429 Third Street Alexandria, Louisiana 71301-8250 318-487-9254 To learn more visit our website. http://circlepad.com/EpiphanyEnterprise1/HomepageRevolutionize Modern Snacks © 2012 Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC. All Rights Reserved Page 27

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