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WHITEPAPERSecuring Potable Water Following     Using Mobile Hydration Platform                                     a Disas...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn its purest form, water is odorless, nearly colorless and tasteless. Water is theessence of life. There...
FloodwatersDuring the 20th century, floods were the number one natural disaster in the United States interms of the number...
As I got closer to the city (New Orleans),I saw that all that the wind had pulleddown into the streets was subsequentlyflo...
region (storage tanks, agricultural facilities and hazardous waste dumpsites); structural damagedone to facilities and hom...
suspended sediment composition and the water chemistry. Thesolubility of metals in surface waters is predominately control...
Regardless of the situation, sanitation and personal hygiene are critical      NEED FOR            issues during emergenci...
since bacteria can remain on towels, cloths and linen.Flooded indoor areas must be scrubbed with warm soapy               ...
CONTAMINANT                        HEALTH RISKS AND CONSEQUENCES                    Lead toxicity can be a time bomb. Beca...
Presently, following a disaster, water is bottled, trucked to a staging area and later moved to theaffected disaster area ...
must be clear for ultraviolet purification to work well. Water turbidity is the amount ofsuspended and colloidal solids co...
Water Transit Solutions™ offers a complete The Water Transit Solutions™ mobile                                            ...
trucks are to be located at selected secure sites in all of the 50 states and United States provinces.The mobile platforms...
ENDNOTES1. Planetsave: Internet Blog (http://s.tt/12vSN)2. North Carolina State University Water Quality Group; Biology an...
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Whitepaper flood water

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America must get prepared for natural disasters that cause contamination to the water supply. Water Transit Solutions has developed an innovative mobile platform that can alleviate the problem of not having clean water and ice following a disaster and should be adopted by FEMA and other emergency response agencies.

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Transcript of "Whitepaper flood water"

  1. 1. WHITEPAPERSecuring Potable Water Following Using Mobile Hydration Platform a Disaster Prepared by Velva Boles, MD Epiphany Enterprise I, LLC February 29, 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn its purest form, water is odorless, nearly colorless and tasteless. Water is theessence of life. There is no substance more necessary to man’s existence than water.Only three percent of the worlds water supply is fresh water, and 77 percent of that isfrozen. Making sure that enough clean, drinkable water is available to everyone andeverything that needs it is anything but simple. This is most notable in industrializedcountries when a disaster strikes. For homeland security as well as the well-being of itscitizens, America must be proactive in establishing a means to rapidly procure safepotable water in the event of a natural disaster or terrorist attack. Because drinkingwater is consumed directly, health effects associated with contamination have longbeen a major concern of Homeland Security officials. Interruption or cessation of thedrinking water supply will disrupt society, compromise individual citizens and preventcritical activities such as fire protection which can have significant consequences tonational and regional economies. Currently in the wake of a disaster, potable water isdistributed to communities in plastic bottles by trucks. This process is limited whentransportation infrastructure is damaged, submerged under water, obstructed bydebris, electric lines or fallen trees; since current methods rely on functionaltransportation networks to move bottled or bulk water. It takes six truck-loads of bottledwater to provide a single day’s potable water supply to 10,000 people.Water Transit Solutions™ (WTS) offers a complete solution to supplying potable waterto a disaster site in the form of a mobile water and ice hydration platform equipped witha reverse osmosis water purification system configured for purifying in situ flood waterand other local water sources. Unique to Water Transit Solutions™ is its ability to obtainpure spring water from privately owned waterways on very short notice, mobilize it andtransport it to disaster locations within 24 hours of an incident. This system is a self-contained, independently powered water treatment system housed in a space-efficientfootprint. The system design provides quality testing of both raw source and treatedwater and is equipped with a collapsible storage tank that can store water purified onsite. Water Transit Solutions™ system employs AT&T radio frequency identificationtechnology to monitor water levels on the mobile platform and track water and icerequirements at each station assuring uninterrupted drinking water and ice availability.Consumers are highly sensitive to the threat of contamination and/or disruption ofAmerica’s water supply. Federal and State governments have long been active inaddressing risks and threats to the nation’s water supply through regulations, technicalassistance, research, and outreach programs. As a result, an extensive system ofregulations governing maximum contaminants levels, emergency response planning,training, research, and education have been developed to better protect the nation’sdrinking water supply. Water Transit Solutions™ is the answer that state and federalagencies have been looking for as described in Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C.300F-300J-26.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 2
  3. 3. FloodwatersDuring the 20th century, floods were the number one natural disaster in the United States interms of the number of lives lost and properties damaged; although flood mitigation andprediction is advanced, floods do $6 billion worth of damage and kill about 140 people everyyear. Floods can occur at any time of the year, in any part of the country, and at any time of theday or night. Most lives are lost when people are swept away by flood currents, whereas mostproperty damage results from inundation by sediment-laden water. Flood currents possesstremendous destructive power; the lateral forces demolish buildings and erode bridgefoundations and footings resulting in the collapse of these structures. A 2007 report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development found thatworldwide coastal flooding alone does some $3 trillion in damage. Floods have differentcharacteristics; there are regional floods, flash floods, ice-jam floods, storm-surge floods, dam-and levee-failure floods, and debris, landslide, and mudflow floods. Debris or landslide floodsare created by the accumulation of debris, mud, rocks, and (or) logs in a channel, which form atemporary dam. Ice-jam flood is similar in mechanism; however the damming agent is ice.Flooding occurs upstream as water becomes stored behind the temporary dam and then becomesa flash flood as the dam is breached or the waterway banks are overrun. Mudflow floods occurwhen volcanic activity rapidly melts mountain snow and glaciers, and the water mixed with mudand debris moves rapidly downhill.Storm surge is unquestionably the most dangerous part of a hurricane; nine out of ten hurricanefatalities are caused by storm surge floods. A hurricane is a cyclonic storm system that formsover oceans from evaporated water off of the ocean that is whipped about by winds. When thespinning mass of storms attain a wind speed greater than 74 mph, a hurricane is born if thesource was Atlantic Ocean, tropical cyclone if the source is the Indian ocean, and typhoon ifthe origin is eastern Pacific Ocean. Storm-surge flooding occurs when water is pushed up ontodry land by onshore winds. Friction between the water and the moving air creates drag that,depending upon the distance that the water travels and the velocity of the wind pushing , walls ofwater climb up to heights greater than 20 feet.When floodwaters recede, affected areas are often blanketed in silt and mud. The water andlandscape can be contaminated with hazardous materials, such as sharp debris, pesticides, fuel,and untreated sewage. Potentially dangerous mold blooms can quickly overwhelm water-soakedstructures. Residents of flooded areas can be left without power and clean drinking water,leading to outbreaks of deadly waterborne diseases like typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera.Standing water and wet materials are a breeding ground for microorganisms, such as viruses,bacteria, and mold. They can cause disease, trigger allergic reactions, and continue to damagematerials long after the flood.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 3
  4. 4. As I got closer to the city (New Orleans),I saw that all that the wind had pulleddown into the streets was subsequentlyfloated, shoved around, pushed aside andburied under mud by waves of water thatfilled the city from broken andoverwhelmed levees before the streetswere hesitantly drained. Lingeringreservoirs of water, dripped over oldclapboards, and collapsed gutters,streamed down windowpanes, andgurgled through widening crevices inbuildings’ dilapidated roofs. The grass atcurbsides was brown, coated with clumped brown sludge. The sidewalks were the sameshade of brown hosting a three inch thick layer of scum. Electricity had been out inmetropolitan New Orleans for five days and was not expected to be back for at leastanother week. Local communication was disrupted; no home phones were working,many cellular phone receiving towers were down, only a few walkie-talkies worked inthe area. New Orleans was wounded beyond the physical. It was spiritually andpsychically devastated. (Long Way Home, Velva Boles)Hurricane Katrina emerged over water in the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Florida Keys,and strengthened to the 2005 seasons third major hurricane before reorganizing into the mostpowerful storm in the Central Gulf since Hurricane Camille, and fourth category five hurricanein three years with winds as high as 175 mph. It became the fourth most powerful hurricane inAmerican history.PERILS OF FLOOD WATERFloodwaters can be contaminated by agricultural or industrial chemicals and hazardous agentsfrom hazardous waste sites. Floods have the strength to unearth buried hazardous waste andchemical containers and move them far from their normal storage places. Depending on locationand sanitation conditions, flood water will contaminate drinking water supplies: surface water,groundwater, and distribution systems. Groundwater wells can be rendered useless frominundation of water laced with toxins, chemicals, animal carcasses, septic seepage, andmunicipal sewage. Ammonia, nitrate and phosphates are major constituents of sewage.Contaminates can include automotive fluid acids, ammonia, nitrate, phosphates, boron, chloride,cyanide, fluoride, radium, selenium, sulfates; various radioactive isotopes; human and animalwaste; bacteria living in the soil; and heavy metals – products of manufacturing process of manycommon household items- such as, pesticides, batteries, electroplated metal parts and textiledyes. The types and amounts of chemicals present in flood water depend on type of facilitieschemical plants and oil refineries, in the area; types of chemicals stored around the floodedWhitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 4
  5. 5. region (storage tanks, agricultural facilities and hazardous waste dumpsites); structural damagedone to facilities and homes that release or react to form toxic chemicals; weather conditionswhich affects the growth of bacteria and molds, and the extent of flooding which determine howsoon rescue operations can begin.Infectious diseases are spread through water suppliescontaminated with bacteria, most notably E. coli,Salmonella typhi, Shigella and Hepatitis A. Most cases ofsickness associated with flood conditions are brought aboutby ingesting contaminated water. The signs and symptomsexperienced by the victims of waterborne microorganisminfection include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominalcramps, muscle aches, and fever. Tetanus, however, can beacquired through broken areas of the skin, such as cuts,abrasions, or puncture wounds that come in contact withwet soil or contaminated water. Tetanus is an infectiousdisease that affects the nervous system and causes“lockjaw” characterized by severe muscle spasms. Initialsymptoms begin as a headache and difficulty swallowing aweek after exposure, later swallowing difficulty developsinto difficulty moving the jaws apart and then symptomsprogress to irreversibly rigid muscle contractures with a fatal outcome.Water-ladened solid waste disposal sites (or sanitary landfills) produce a liquid which contain awide range of contaminants: bacteria, viruses, nitrogen, phosphates, metals and synthetic organiccompounds. Synthetic organic contaminants include pesticides, chlorinated solvents,hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenols. Although, the organochlorine, DDT- a highly toxiccompound, was discontinued more than 20 years ago its content is persistently high in soils.Chlorinated solvents, hydrocarbons, and other synthetic organic chemicals have various levels oftoxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment because they are still used by industry,small businesses and households. Chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene and methylene chloride), which are commonly used asdegreasing agents by industry and dry cleaners, are most problematic. Dioxin is not produced orused commercially in the United States, but is formed mainly during combustion of a variety ofchlorinated organic compounds. Dioxin is released to the environment in emissions from theincineration of municipal refuse and certain chemical wastes, in exhaust from automobilespowered by leaded gasoline, in emissions from wood burning in the presence of chlorine, inaccidental fires involving transformers containing polychlorinated biophenols and chlorinatedbenzenes, and from the improper disposal of certain chlorinated chemical. Dioxin is anextremely toxic compound; its water solubility is low so, most of the dioxin mixed in water willadhere to sediments and suspended silts. The behavior of metals in water is a function of theWhitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 5
  6. 6. suspended sediment composition and the water chemistry. Thesolubility of metals in surface waters is predominately controlled by Whenever a floodthe water pH, the type and concentration of ligand/binding material on hits, a lack of cleanwhich the metal can be adsorbed, the oxidation state of the mineral water and sanitationcomponents and the reducing/ oxidation conditions of the environment. facilities reachesLow pH signifies an acidic environment and in this condition, water dangerous levels in adisolves more metal ions. All heavy metals exist in surface waters in matter of days, if notcolloidal, particulate, and dissolved phases. The colloidal and hours. Access toparticulate metal may be found in hydroxides, oxides, silicates, sulfides both will becomeand adsorbed to clay or organic matter. The soluble forms are generally farther and fartherions or unionized organometallic complexes. out of reach and could lead to aAmounts of chemicals released into flood water are highest near widespread healthindustrial sources. Dissolved metal contaminants of concern include: crisis as flood watersaluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, continue to rise.lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum nickel, silver, uranium, andzinc. The most problematic form of mercury is methylmercury whichis found in pulp wood bleaching and paper manufacturing and “run-off” from large tracts of farmland. Non-metallic water contaminants include: acids, ammonia,nitrate, phosphates, boron, chloride, cyanide, fluoride, radium, selenium, sulfates and variousradioactive isotopes. Mining operations commonly introduce high levels of sulfuric acid that leach toxic metals from sediment and rocks into water. Flood water comingling with acid mine drainage/ acid rock drainage from metal mines, coal mines and disturbed earth at construction sites contain elevated levels of nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, aluminum, and manganese. The disturbance of acid sulfate soilsduring a flood constitutes an environmental hazard by acidifying water. Sediment composed offine sand and silt has high levels of adsorbed metals. Toxic chemicals often attach to sedimentparticles on land and ride the particles into surface waters where the pollutants settle with thesediment or detach and become soluble in the water column.Pools of standing or stagnant water become breeding grounds for mosquitoes, increasing the riskof encephalitis, West Nile Virus and other mosquito-borne diseases. The presence of wildanimals in populated areas increases the risk of diseases caused by fleas and ticks bites. Insectbites increase the risk of having breaks in the skin providing an entry point for flood watercontaminants. The most immediate health risk for the general public following flooding andcontamination of surface water is water-borne microorganisms and fast-acting toxins Pooledwater remaining from any flood supports the growth of microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, andmolds. The most serious problem that arises from skin contact with floodwater is exposure totetanus-causing bacteria which can enter the body wherever the skin is broken.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 6
  7. 7. Regardless of the situation, sanitation and personal hygiene are critical NEED FOR issues during emergencies and disasters. It’s extremely important to stay as clean as possible because survival is directly related to how well POTABLE you practice good hygiene in an adverse environment. Water is the WATER most critical aspect in establishing and maintaining good hygiene and it quickly becomes the most valuable asset in a disaster. The act of shaving, washing the face, and brushing the teeth makes a bigdifference in an individual’s outlook on life. Personal hygiene won’t change what is going on inthe environment, but it improves what is going on inside a person’s mind. Eliminating body odorand keeping clean raises morale and gives an individual a sense of well-being.Best practices in sanitation and hygiene can prevent illnesses Although differentthat are most common in disaster situations. Many of these chemicals causeillnesses cause acute diarrhea that can lead to dehydration. different health effects,Illness during times of a disaster is extremely difficult to the signs and symptomstreat. The most important thing to do to prevent the spread of most associated with chemical poisoning arewaterborne disease is hand-washing with plenty of soap and headaches, skin rashes,clean water. Following a disaster, poor hygiene, sleep dizziness, nausea,deprivation and increased stress levels lower the immune excitability, weakness,responses and make people more susceptible to disease. and fatigue. Children (especially infants), theRecommendations for good hand cleaning require wetting elderly, and those whohands with clean, running water and applying soap; have existing healthrubbing hands together to make lather and scrubbing them conditions or compromised immunewell on the front and back, between fingers, and under nails. systems are at greaterHands should be rubbed for at least 20 seconds, rinsed under risk of developingrunning water then dried under air or using a clean towel. complications beingThis is particularly important before preparing or eating exposed to improperlyfood, handling a baby, after toilet use, after handling articles cleaned and sanitizedcontaminated with floodwater, before smoking, or any other water.activity that involves touching items that may enter themouth. Much care must be taken not to contaminate thecontainer that stores a water supply.Alcohol-based hand sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands, but sanitizersdo not eliminate all types of germs. A safe water supply is necessary for washing hands, bathingand brushing teeth. A minimum of one gallon of water per person per day is needed for drinking,cooking and washing. Emergency sources of water inside the home include melted ice cubes,water from the toilet tank (not the bowl) and water pipes, water inside the hot water tank. Waterfrom a swimming pool and waterbed water may be used for bathing and flushing toilets andlaundering. Wash cloths and dish towels must be cleaned often with soap and potable waterWhitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 7
  8. 8. since bacteria can remain on towels, cloths and linen.Flooded indoor areas must be scrubbed with warm soapy Childhood lead poisoningwater with particular attention to food-contact surfaces in southern United States(counter tops, pantry shelves, refrigerators, stoves and was linked to the ingestioncutting boards) and areas where small children play. of old leaded paint chipsHealth consequences associated with human consumption of heavy metals are linked to mentalretardation and learning disabilities in children; development of cancers and death due totoxicity. Most clinically studied metals are copper, nickel, cadmium, chrome, arsenic, lead andmercury. These heavy metals become toxic because they are not metabolized by the body andaccumulate in the soft tissues. Symptoms of acute toxicity are usually severe and rapid in onset:cramping, nausea, and vomiting; pain; sweating; headaches; difficulty breathing; impairedcognitive, motor, and language skills; mania; and convulsions. Children may develop toxic levelsfrom the normal hand-to-mouth activity while in contact with contaminated soil or water. Heavy metals have been used as instruments of murder for centuries. Arsenic is the single substance most commonly thought of as a poison. Arsenic was the primary component of the spray known as Lewisite that was used by the British during trench warfare in World War I. Exposure produced severe edema of the eyelids, gastrointestinal irritation, and both central and peripheral neuropathies. The first antidote to heavy metal poisoning, and the basis for chelation therapy today, was British Anti-Lewisite (BAL, or dimercaprol), a large molecule with sulfhydryl groups that bind arsenic, as well as other metals, to form stable covalent bonds that can then be excreted by the body.Heavy metal toxicity causes damage in the central nervous system, lowers energy levels bydecreasing the metabolic rate, and damages blood components, lung, kidney, and liver tissues.Commonly encountered toxic heavy metals in flood waters are lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury,iron, aluminum, antimony, chromium/chrome, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, uranium ,vanadium, zinc, radium, and uranium. The first step in clinically treating any heavy metaltoxicity is to identify the toxic elements and begin the removal process. The screening processinvolves getting hair analysis and 24-hour urine collection to determine timeline of poisoningand estimated load of heavy metal present. Metal chelating drugs, intravenous EDTA,intravenous Vitamin C and replacement mineral infusions are initiated early for the metalremoval process. Once laboratory tests indicate that the heavy metals have been reduced toundetectable levels, treatment is considered complete. Symptoms will often begin to improvewithin days of treatment. Therapy may be required for six months to two years in highconcentration load cases.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 8
  9. 9. CONTAMINANT HEALTH RISKS AND CONSEQUENCES Lead toxicity can be a time bomb. Because of the molecular size of lead and its chargeLEAD similarities to calcium, lead can substitute for calcium and be incorporated into bone. Children are especially susceptible to lead because developing skeletal systems require high calcium levels. As more calcium is consumed throughout life, the lead stored in bone will be mobilized into the blood system; once free in the system, lead causes kidney poisoning (nephrotoxicity), nerve damage (neurotoxicity), and elevated blood pressure (hypertension). Early signs and symptoms of lead poisoning in adults include pain, numbness or tingling of the hands and feet, high blood pressure, muscle weakness, headache, abdominal pain, memory loss, sexual difficulties in men, and problems during pregnancy.CADMIUM Cadmium interferes with a carrier protein in the body (metallothionein) which is responsible for regulating the nutrient minerals, zinc and copper thus disrupts the homeostasis or normal metabolic activities of the body.MERCURY Mercury poses a great risk to humans, especially in the form of methylmercury. When mercury enters water it is often transformed by microorganisms into the toxic methyl mercury form. Symptoms of acute poisoning are pharyngitis, gastroenteritis, vomiting, nephritis, hepatitis, and circulatory collapse. Chronic poisoning is usually a result of industrial exposure or a diet consisting of contaminated fish (mercury is the only metal that will bioaccumulate). Chronic poisoning may cause liver damage, neural damage, and teratogenesis (USEPA, 1987). Sources of mercury include weathering of the earths crust, the burning of garbage and fuels, and industrial emissions.ARSENIC Arsenic can cause severe toxicity through ingestion of contaminated food and water resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac abnormalities.CHROMIUM The presence of abundant chromium anions in the water is generally a result of industrial waste. The chronic adverse health effects are respiratory and dermatologic.ORGANICS Toxic organic chemicals are synthetic compounds that contain carbon which persist and accumulate in the environment; some of these compounds are suspected carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of man-made chemicals that contain 209 individual compounds with varying levels of toxicity; were widely used as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment until they were banned in 1977; exposure still occurs as a result of historical contamination and the decommissioning of older transformers and capacitors, which have lifetimes of 30 years or more.PESTICIDES Pesticides are synthetic chemicals developed to control insect and plant pests. Pesticides disperse into the environment, and can cause contamination of surface water and ground water. Examples of pesticides are DDT, DDE, alachlor, malathion, diazinon, chlordane, and carbofuran.PATHOGENS Waterborne bacteria, viruses, and protozoa can cause human illnesses. These pathogens may enter waters through an inadequately treated sewage, storm water drains, septic systems, runoff from livestock pens, and sewage dumped overboard from recreational boats regulatory agencies usually measure E. coli as an indicator bacteria (which are found in great numbers in the stomachs of warm blooded animals).SALINITY Salinity can render water undrinkable. Irrigation return flows are a frequent cause of excess salinity, since agricultural runoff dissolves and concentrates mineral salts found in soils. Urban and industrial uses can also cause salinity problem. Treated municipal sewage adds about 35 kg of inorganic salts per year per person served. Wastewater from iron and steel manufacturing, cement making, and other industries can add 200-500 mg per liter of salt and other dissolved solids. Nitrate in drinking water supplies is particularly harmful to infants leading to "methemoglobinemia," or "blue baby" syndrome.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 9
  10. 10. Presently, following a disaster, water is bottled, trucked to a staging area and later moved to theaffected disaster area for distribution. Thousands of empty plastic bottles become a problem thatrequires costly clean up. Often they are deposited into overloaded landfills where they willremain for many years. Using water from a 16 ounce bottle makes it very difficult to practicegood hand-washing and bathing hygiene. In addition, undistributed bottles of water and meltingbags of ice set in warehouses waiting for another disaster event or disposal after the two yeardate code expires. Ice is very necessary early after a disaster. Once power is lost to a refrigeratoror freezer, only food "cold-to-the-touch," is safe to be cooked and eaten. When power goes off inthe refrigerator, food inside will remain safely cold for only four to six hours.The most immediate response to getting potable water in a Water Quality Guidelines forflooded environment is to “clean up” the flood water for drinking water, freshwater aquaticconsumption. Simple filtration removes particulate matter life, irrigation water, and livestockand ion exchange filtration is a proven technology for water are different. For each water system, the guidelines establish theeffectively removing dissolved metals. Ion exchange Maximum Acceptable Concentrationsystems however, are effective only when they contain (MAC) of the entity in question thatcontaminant-specific media matrix to address the is permitted in water having ancomponents dissolved in the water to be made potable. The assigned end usedeionizing components are selected based upon specific rawwater quality data. If flood water is the raw source of water,its potentially hazardous contaminants must be determined prior to selecting an ion exchangesystem. A major problem arises when the source water is found unsuitable; contain componentsnot removable, by the available filtration system on site.Activated carbon is an alternative treatment option for the removal of dissolved metals fromwater. Reverse osmosis reduces many pollutants and contaminants, separating them from thewater through two carbon filters, plus a membrane that works like an extremely fine filter thatcan remove residue contaminants such as lead and mercury. Reverse osmosis is most commonlyimplemented for pre-filtering or post-filtering water because its shortcoming is in removingviruses and bacteria that cannot be filtered out. Water passing through activated carbon iscommonly used in concert with hand pumped filters to remove organic contaminants, taste, orobjectionable odors. Small, hand-pumped reverse osmosis filters were originally developed forthe military in the late 1980s for use as survival equipment included with inflatable rafts.Granular activated carbon filtering, a form of activated carbon with a high surface area, absorbsmany toxic compounds. Activated carbon filters arent usually used as the primary purificationtechniques of portable water purification devices, but rather as secondary means to complementanother purification technique. Ceramic/carbon core filters with a 0.5 micron or smaller pore sizecan be used for removing bacteria and cysts while also removing chemicals.Ultraviolet light (germicidal UV-C light in the short wavelength range of 100–280 nanometers)induces the formation of covalent linkages on DNA of bacteria and protozoan and therebyprevents microbes from reproducing. Turbidity limits the effectiveness of this technology; waterWhitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 10
  11. 11. must be clear for ultraviolet purification to work well. Water turbidity is the amount ofsuspended and colloidal solids contained in the water giving rise to a “murkiness”. It should benoted that water treated with ultraviolet light still has microbes present in the water; ultravioletlight shuts done microbial reproduction. In the event that ultraviolet-treated water containingneutered microbes is exposed to visible light for any significant period of time, a process knownas photo-reactivation can occur and the damage in the bacterias reproductive DNA is repairedthereby rendering them again capable of reproducing and causing disease. Ultraviolet-treatedwater must therefore not be exposed to visible light for any significant period beforeconsumption, to avoid ingesting reactivated and dangerous microbes. Another concern withultraviolet purification of raw water is that pathogen sensitivities to ultraviolet light are varied;protozoan cysts Cryptosporidium, Giardia and viruses are among the least sensitivemicroorganisms. IT’S TIME TO DO THINGS DIFFERENTLYWater Transit Solutions™ (WTS), a subsidiary of Dall Holding Company, Inc. of Atlanta,Georgia, is an eco-friendly/green system that provides water and ice for deployment duringhurricanes, disasters and other events. This new technology-based solution moves bulk waterdirectly to points-of-deployment and can package water and ice on-site in recyclable plastic bags.At the heart of the solution is an innovative logistic tracking system using radio frequencyidentification technology developed jointly with AT&T. This tracking system monitors waterlevels and tracks how much water and ice is required for each station. Information is conveyedin real-time, making it possible to process water and ice needs, and to anticipate on-going supplyrequirements during an event. This means “just-in-time, uninterrupted drinking water and ice”can be available to citizens when needed. Using advanced equipment and technology, WaterTransit Solutions™ eliminates the need for warehousing or staging of water and ice, whichreduces the costs of providing buildings and storage operations.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 11
  12. 12. Water Transit Solutions™ offers a complete The Water Transit Solutions™ mobile solution to supplying potable water, since the mobile water and ice hydration platforms and water and ice hydration platform is also equipped equipment enables the accurate with reverse osmosis water purification system tracking of water and ice at all points configured for purifying in situ flood water and other in the system. This technology local water sources. Unique to Water Transit controls deliveries, lays out routes to Solutions™ is its ability to obtain pure spring water locations, and monitors water quality. from privately owned waterways, mobilize it and Food and Drug Administration distribute it to disaster locations within 24 hours of standards for the safe transport and an incident. sanitation of food products are followed. Water Transit Solutions™ system utilizes a mobile platform (patented adaptation of a fire-truck likevehicle), housed at designated locations in every American state, province, and tribal territoryequipped to make local raw water potable, produce ice and provide an alternate power source tooperate its pumps as well as provide direct current and alternating current load centers toemergency responders. Water Transit Solutions™ system is a self-contained, independentlypowered water treatment system contained in a space-efficient footprint. The system designprovides for a collapsible storage tank that can provide water as needed to first responders andcommunity members. Water Transit Solutions™ mobile water and ice hydration platform is builton a custom designed truck body, engineered to operate in any and all conditions and location.The platform includes self-generated power, 120-240 VAC, with capacity to supply current toother entities, equipped with ultraviolet water purification equipment and ready package anddistribute water and ice. The water bagging component bags water at a rate of 40 liters/ bag perminute and the ice making machine produces cracked ice at a rate of 500 pounds an hour. Ice isdispensed in eight pound bags. These platforms provide packaging volumes of water and ice inimpact-proof bags. The mobile water and ice hydration platform is deployed with 1500-2000 gallon of clean water in a sterilize transport/storage tank. The system provides for quality testing of both raw source and treated water. Water Transit Solutions™ system employs AT&T radio frequency identification technology to monitors water levels and enables accurate tracking of water and ice requirements at each station assuring uninterrupted drinking waterand ice availability. Water Transit Solutions™ water and ice hydration platform and refill tankerWhitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 12
  13. 13. trucks are to be located at selected secure sites in all of the 50 states and United States provinces.The mobile platforms and equipment are stored andmaintained in a “ready to deploy status”, capable of beingdeployed within six hours of official notice. With the use Nature created the firstof custom designed radio frequency identification water storage in the formtechnology, wrist tags can be used to track water and ice of an “aquifer” within thedistribution to individual citizens who visit the mobile earth’s crust. Openings inwater/ice distribution site, thus providing an avenue for the crust allow water todisplaced citizens to reconnect with their communities. escape in the form ofThe platform can be transported over the road, by rail, by “springs”. Water Transitwater or by air. Solutions™ duplicated this phenomenon in theWater Transit Solutions™ has developed a tank farm to establishment of “tankstore clean water for emergency supply. WTS has control farms” built with aof a flow-through water storage tank farm with the flow-through watercapacity to store seven million (7,000,000) gallons of storage systemclean water every 24 hours. No sterilization is required to contiguous a flowingmaintain freshness because tanks are installed directly spring. The tank farminto the spring flow –this natural flow creates an ongoing houses seven millionsupply of water to tank - once a tank reaches fill level, gallons of clean waterthe overflow returns to the source stream. The water that turns over everystorage tank farm is designed to accommodate parked 24 hours such that notankers, short-term warehousing, helicopter pad, and rail sterilization is requiredaccessibility all engineered for quick and easydeployment. Self-contained mobile platforms are easily to maintain freshness.loaded at the tank farm. The natural spring flow creates an ongoingConsumers are highly sensitive to the threat of supply that when thecontamination or disruption of America’s water supply. fill level is achieved,The federal and state governments have long been active the overflow isin addressing these risks and threats through regulations, returned to the spring.technical assistance, research, and outreach programs. Asa result, an extensive system of regulations governingmaximum contaminants levels, emergency response planning, training, research, and educationhave been developed to better protect the nation’s drinking water supply. Water TransitSolutions™ is the answer that state and federal agencies have been looking for as described inSafe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300F-300J-26.Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 13
  14. 14. ENDNOTES1. Planetsave: Internet Blog (http://s.tt/12vSN)2. North Carolina State University Water Quality Group; Biology and Agriculture Engineering; NCState University and A&T State University Cooperative Extension3. Charles A. Perry, U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and National Weather Service4. U.S. Department of Labor; Occupational Safety & Health Administration5. Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Communications, 535 W. Jefferson St. Springfield, IL 627616. “Urban Survival - Sanitation and Hygiene During a Disaster”; David Hardin7. Man v. Nature, National Geographic, May 20018. Shallat, T. (1994). Structures in the Stream: Water, Science, and the Rise of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, University of Texas Press9. Shallat, T. (2000). “In the Wake of Hurricane Betsy.” Transforming New Orleans and Its Environs: Centuries of Change, C.E. Colten (Ed.), University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 121-137.10. "Natural Hazards — Landslides". United States Geological Survey.11. Tamrazyan, Gurgen P. (1967). "Tide-forming forces and earthquakes". Icarus 7 (1–3): 59–65.12. B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge13. D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra Publishing14. National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry15. Office of Noncommunicable Diseases, Injury and Environmental Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)16. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD)17. World Health Organization. Safe Water and Global Health". Who.int. 2008-06-25.18. "Water: How much should you drink every day?” Mayoclinic.com.19. Gleick, PH., (editor), The Worlds Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources Island Press, Washington, D.C20. Water: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan May 200721. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division, EPA 817-R-07-001Whitepaper: Water Transit Solutions™ © 2012 EpiphanyEnterprise.llc@gmail.com Page 14

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