The teacher-as-researcher and the future survival of physical education
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The teacher-as-researcher and the future survival of physical education



My Key note address given to a Turkish physical education symposium on the idea of the "teacher-as-researcher"

My Key note address given to a Turkish physical education symposium on the idea of the "teacher-as-researcher"



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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Excelente presentación, mi felicitación, saludos Jose Pedro L. G.
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  • Thanks to everyone who has viewed, downloaded and commented on my presentation. It was fun to make and a challenge to put the message across and I take a lot of confidence to go and prepare something that I hope will be better for my next presentation.
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  • Sally Smith's comment is expressive of mine.
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  • Well constructed and laid out. Oh and a very valid point. :)
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  • Thanks Sally. I wanted to engage with my audience who were mainly physical education teachers and I wanted to try and capture their imagination and inspire them to do something themselves about the situation facing schools and families.
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  • .
  • There were five key learning outcomes.
  • This study was taught over a series of lessons that developed the concepts of the previous year and which focused on pupil understanding of athletics, not simply their levels of performance.
  • I created four parallel threads that explored sprinting, distance running, throwing, and jumping. These threads were experienced over two lessons with the first lesson focused on pupil-led discovery (for example in jumping pupils had to undertake a series of jumps in which they employed progressively greater speed and body movements and identified what enabled them to jump further). In the second lesson pupils then created their own learning cues and assessed each other against these criteria.
  • There were five key learning outcomes.
  • The learning that occurred in this unit was experienced by students and teacher alike. However, I will report on my learning later in the presentation.
  • Learning was academic (i.e. the students developed their knowledge and enhanced their skills of athletic performance) and social (i.e. students learnt to work together and put other peoples’ needs above their own).
  • Kevin reports a transfer of knowledge from his lessons to his extra-curricular involvement in athletics.
  • The pupils felt they played a big part in their own learning because although the task sheets were in place it was the learner not the teacher who had to read, understand and enact the activities and monitor the learning against the intended outcomes.
  • My observations towards the end of the unit highlight the change that occurred in the pupils as they started to look to each other for help rather before seeking ratification and help from me. Indeed I described them in my unit diary as being self/group sufficient inasmuch as they were “happy to use the worksheets and each others’ knowledge and interpretation of events to achieve their learning objectives”.
  • Progression and motivationwere very significant factors in the success of this unit.
  • a fact that highlights the habit teachers have to repeat and recap on previous learning experiences in what Siedentop (2002) described as teaching the same introductory unit again and again.
  • Explicit progression from year 1 to year 2 was a firm aim of this intervention. I aspired to develop their understanding of athletics rather than just their performances.
  • This sense of progression had an impact on the student’s motivation as Gary suggested.
  • Other students commented on how my changed approach to their learning had made them feel better about themselves which, in turn, had a positive effect on their involvement in the lessons.
  • In building on the positive social interaction reported by the pupils in year 1, I was focused on developing a student-centred approach to my teaching.
  • Carlos noted that assessment of students by students was included in each lesson:
  • The students observed the change in emphasis from teacher-led to student-centred learning.
  • The impact, as Gillies report, of the previous unit was significant enough to help the students understand how to be taught through a cooperative learning approach.
  • The successes I enjoyed in the year 1 project were significant enough to encourage me to undertake this sequential unit. However, there were consequences.
  • My experience and the students’ experience with cooperative learning helped me to overcome my unfamiliarity with this progressional unit of work.
  • It was not just frustration that I felt but nerves as I put myself, and my pedagogy, out on a limb.
  • Change did not occur easily. Improvement was slow and it could be argued that classes taught later in the week benefited from the learning that I enjoyed as each lesson passed.
  • Yet while change had proven to be worthwhile I described it as a “little hit and miss” (Unit Diary, 25th April 2006) in the initial stages on the intervention when my aspirations as a teacher didn’t quite match the reality I witnessed in my classrooms.
  • Some of this pedagogical discomfort occurred as a result of my changing practice.
  • I was no longer giving all the instructions and expecting the students to obey my commands.
  • This move from director to facilitator wasn’t new to the students (they had experienced it in the previous year)
  • Learning through innovative teaching which was occurring in a transforming classroom was managed through both my changing role as a teacher and the positive interdependence that I shared with my pupils.
  • What did the students and I learn from the experience?
  • my experiences with action research supported my use of cooperative learning. The cycles of planning, evaluating, gathering new insights, and re-planning inherent in the paradigm gave me a focus and real purpose for my changes. I was not make changes based solely on my craft-knowledge as an experienced physical education teacher but on the back of sustained and dynamic data gathering and analysis.

The teacher-as-researcher and the future survival of physical education The teacher-as-researcher and the future survival of physical education Presentation Transcript

  • The teacher-as-researcher: the future survival of physical education
    Dr Ashley Casey
    University of Bedfordshire
  • We are facing EXTINCTION
  • “Nothing short of major reconceptualisation of physical education is required
    - Larry Locke

  • Physical educationalist persistently teach the same introductory units of work regardless of the age and past experiences of the students.
    - Daryl Siedentop
  • There is little vertical progression in the development of techniques [in physical education]
    - David Kirk
  • “physical education makes both enemies and friends of young people.”
    - Richard Tinning
  • “too often adults have to recover from experiences as adolescents in physical education”
    - Larry Locke
  • Schoolsof the industrial age
  • ‘rank’ defines the distribution of individuals in the educational order.
    Foucault, 1977
  • before Physical Education the term was ‘physical training’, which in turn was preceded by an activity known as ‘drill’.
    - Moving and Growing (1952)
  • Resistance to the overt influence of militarism.
    - David Kirk
  • physical-education-as-gymnastics
  • Teaching is a Step-by-Step process
  • physical-education-as-sports-technique
  • This has created a ‘Nike’ school of teaching
    Just do it
    - Stephen Brookfield
  • More of
    the same
    David Kirk offered 3 futures
  • More of
    the same
  • Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.
    - Albert Einstein
  • It has been repeatedly reported that physical education is failing its students and the adults that they become.
  • extinction
  • A recent paper in a medical journal suggested that doctors replace teachers and force students to engage in 20 minutes of exercise a day.
  • Generation XL
  • Is this what
    Physical education should be?
  • 75 M
    72 M
    More Nintendo Wiisold than there are people in Turkey
  • Is this the Future
    of Physical Education?
  • Radical
  • This change can be teacher-centred or agenda centred
  • Either we, as teachers of physical education, play a role in change or the change will be made for us
  • Plan for
    the future
  • Schools, unlike crocodiles, *must evolve
    *120 Million Years
  • Need a CHANGE of
  • It is impossible to see how there can be an adequate flow of subject-matter to set and control the problems investigators deal with, unless there is active participation on the part of those directly engaged in teaching.
    - John Dewey
  • Take stock
  • “rapid socialisation into a redundant occupational culture and the obsolete practices it sustains”
    - John Elliott
  • infallible expert model
    - John Elliott
  • TeacherTells
  • “We are powerful and natural explorers and this never leaves us.”
    - John Medina
  • Change theposition of the teacher-as-instructor
  • Position the teacher-as-researcher and therefore as a listener
  • StudentTells
  • “Self-education is, I firmly believe, the only kind of education there is.”
    - Issac Asimov
  • Aims of Practitioner Research
    An Example of Practitioner Research in Physical Education
  • Me
    Who can be a Teacher-as-Researcher?
  • Teacher
    ellenmac11’s Flickr photostream
  • Teacher
    Teacher Educator
  • Student
  • Author
  • Reflective Practitioner
  • Journal Writer
  • Tweeter
  • @DrAshCasey
  • What is
  • “a creative and autonomous individual within a broader community of teacher-scholars working in the classroom as a living laboratory and striving for continuing development through thoughtful experimentation.”
    - Lawrence Stenhouse
  • the practitioner takes on the role of researcher

  • In order to understand and improve practice it needs be understood within the context of daily work
  • We learn because we do and subsequently undergo the consequences of our doing.
    - Biesta (2007)
  • “The idea is that of an educational science in which every classroom is a laboratory, each teacher a member of the scientific community.”
    - Lawrence Stenhouse
  • “Research functions not as a distraction from practice but as a development of it.”
    - Donald Schon
  • Reflective Practitioner
  • 1st Place - Best Teacher
  • Not because they say they are
  • Aims of Practitioner Research
    Practitioner Research in Physical Education
  • The aim is to do something and then test the outcomes
  • teachers set their own starting point and yet have no notion of their potential destination
    - Meyer, Hamilton, Kroeger, Stewart & Brydon-Miller (2004)
  • The ambiguity of the finishing point in practitioner research is a key facet of the approach.
  • No hypothesis to prove
  • Practitioner (or Action) Research
  • Overall Plan
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • First Step
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Evaluate the action
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Gather new insights
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Plan the next step
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Modify the overall Plan
    Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Adapted from Lewin 1946
  • Cycles within cycles
  • Aims of Practitioner Research
    An Example of
    Practitioner Research in Physical Education
  • action research allowed me to change
    my understanding of my practices
    the conditions in which I practised
    my practice
    Adapted from Kemmis(2009)
  • Example
  • Focused on pupil understanding of athletics, not simply their levels of performance.
  • How did I teach differently?
    Sought answers rather than giving them
    Lots of work before and after lessons
    Student-Learning Teams
    Responded to student needs
    targeted use of voice
    Increased teacher movement
    Facilitated not directed learning
  • Unit of Work
  • Examples of Learning Cues
    Drive knee up
    Don’t look at the board on take off
    Throw hands back on landing
    11 pace run up
    Jump up
    Weight forwards on landing
    Look Up
    Hang in the air
    Sprint through the board
  • Results
  • Participant Learning
    Progression & Motivation
    Unfamiliar Obstacles
    Changing Role
  • Participant
  • Participant
    Learning was academic
  • Participant
    Kevin said:
    Because I go to a different athletics club I use what we’ve learned in lessons in training so that I can build on what we did in school and put it into practice.
  • Participant
    Remi believed that:
    We’ve been pushing each other to do better… we played an important part in each other’s learning.
  • Participant
    I felt that:
    Students learnt how to get the most out of a cooperative learning pedagogy
  • Progression
  • Progression
    Alan Said
    I was pretty surprised that we hadn’t done the same things again, normally it happens all the time but we didn’t do it, which kinda helped a bit because it feels like you’re being treated like a baby when you go over the same thing about 50 times.
  • Progression
    Max thought
    you’d think we’d forgot it but we haven’t.
  • Progression
    Gary believed that:
    Instead of just thinking “oh I can’t be very good at that”, I don’t want to do that, I actually tried a bit and found I was good at certain things like distance.
  • Progression
    I said
    Students felt better about themselves which had a positive effect on their involvement in the lessons.
    ‘Carlos’ wrote
    With this way of teaching, I think Ashley had built an appropriate learning environment and a positive climate for all kinds of students from low to higher abilities to explore.
    Chris said
    We worked in our own groups when there wasn’t a teacher there at some times, and that we sort of taught ourselves instead of them teaching us directly.
    I belived that the students had
    Transferred their learning skills, in terms of vocabulary and understanding of how to act and react in a student-centredpedagogy
    My familiarity with CL
    Helped me to overcome my
    unfamiliarity with my changing role and become a positive, interdependent and social learner
    I believed thatI put myself, and my pedagogy, in serious risk of failure.
    Change did not occur easily
    My aspirations as a teacher
    didn’t match the reality I witnessed in my classrooms.
    Stuart feltMr Casey just keeps a general eye on everything to make sure nobody’s messing about, or help everyone if they don’t know what they’re doing.
    David said (about me)
    He acted like a supervisor, like he went round all the groups if we were struggling, but he left us to do it on our own so if we got stuck we could ask for help.
    I firmly believed:The use of both action research and cooperative learning allowed me to mature beyond the basic process of ‘use’ and begin to establish my pedagogy as being motivational, progressional and student-centred.
    Action research supported my use of cooperative learning.
  • “innocence in teaching meant that, as teachers, we believed that we knew what we are doing and how we were affecting our pupils”
    - Stephen Brookfield
  • “action research has begun to emerge as one strategy for improving teaching and learning in physical education”
    - David Kirk
  • “The difference between what teachers feel that they could achieve and what they actually ‘pull off’”
    - Hal Lawson
  • Aims of Practitioner Research
    Practitioner Research in Physical Education
  • it is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change.
    - Charles Darwin
  • We need to change
  • We are born inquisitive
  • “Where teachers are able to reflect, access new ideas, experiment and share experiences within school cultures and where leaders encourage appropriate levels of challenge and support, there is greater potential for school and classroom improvement
    - Muijs and Lindsay (2008)

  • We can experiment and enhance student learning
  • teacher-as-researcher
  • We just need to listen...
  • Good Luck
  • Photograph Credits
    1. Image from iStockphoto
    2. “Fossil 2” by BTK on Stock.xchng
    3. Image from iStockphoto
    4. Image from iStockphoto
    8. Image from iStockphoto
    9. “Ladle in the pit” from losthalo'sFlickrphotostream
    10. “Paper” fromiStockphoto
    11. “Wellington Physical Training School Men doing stretches 1898” by National Library NZ on Flickr
    12. “Physical education class at Nelson College for Girls” by National Library NZ on Flickr
    13. “TV” by Lilie on Stock.xchng
    13. “Gymnastics” from Flickr
    14. Image from iStockphoto
    15. “TV” by Lilie on Stock.xchng
    15. “Old Libyan Sport” by azooo on Flickr
    16. “Nike” by CaglarCity on Flickr
    17. Image from iStockphoto
    18. Image from iStockphoto
  • Photograph Credits
    19. “Albert Einstein and Others” from Smithsonian Institution on Flickr
    21. “Fossil 2” by BTK on Stock.xchng
    22. “Medical doctor” by Kurhan on stock.xchng
    23. “Obesity Illustration” by combined media flickr
    24. Image from iStockphoto
    25. Image from iStockphoto
    27. Image from iStockphoto
    27. “Keaton on the Wii Fit” from Bradjward'sFlickrphotostream
    28. Image from iStockphoto
    29. Grand National Assembly of Turkey image from Google Images
    30. Image from iStockphoto
    31. “pregnancy” by Memoossa on Stock.xchng
    32. “Beneath You” by sveres on Stock.xchng
    33. “Traffic Sign 39” by Sundstrom on Stock.xchng
    34. Image from iStockphoto
    35. Image from iStockphoto
    36. “Vintage People on a cruise ship” by dyet on Stock.xchng
  • Photograph Credits
    37. Image from iStockphoto
    38. Image from iStockphoto
    39. “Photo Frame 8” by ba1969 on Stock.xchng
    40. Image from iStockphoto
    41. Image from iStockphoto
    42. Image from iStockphoto
    43. “Studying for a test” by hvaldez1 on stockxchng
    44. Image from iStockphoto
    44. “Sexy Bow” by g-point on Stock.xchng
    44. Image from iStockphoto
    44. “Fossil 2” by BTK on Stock.xchng
    46. “The Coach” from ellenmac11’s Flickrphotostream
    49. “Flicking Pages” by tomdavies on Stock.xchng
    50. Image from iStockphoto
    51. “Thematic Journal” from NG71’s Flickrphotostream
    57. Image from iStockphoto
    58. “The teacher” by Prozac74 on Flickr
  • Photograph Credits
    60. “Photo Frame 8” by ba1969 on Stock.xchng
    60. “Running on empty” by 28Photos on Flickr
    61. “Lab” by clix on stock.xchng
    63. “Rodin's Thinking Man” by tegebug on Flickr
    64. “Blue Ribbon” by ba1969 on flickr
    65. Image from iStockphoto
    66. “Excellent” by kikashi on flickr
    67 . “Sexy Bow” by g-point on Stock.xchng
    68. “Target” by 7rains on flickr
    70. “Chequered Flag” by tharrin on flickr
    71. “?!” by dhiegaum on Stock.xchng
    72. Image from iStockphoto
    81. Image from iStockphoto
    82. Image from iStockphoto
    84. Image from iStockphoto
    89. Image from iStockphoto
    90. Image from iStockphoto
  • Photograph Credits
    116. Image from iStockphoto
    117. Image from iStockphoto
    118. Image from iStockphoto
    119. “Fossil 2” by BTK on Stock.xchng
    120. “Charles Darwin” by Colin Purrington’sFlickrphotostream
    121. “Traffic Sign 39” by Sundstrom on Stock.xchng
    122. Image from iStockphoto
    125. Image from iStockphoto
    126. Image from iStockphoto
    127. Image from iStockphoto