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Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
Teachers use of models based practice
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Teachers use of models based practice

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My recent presentation at AIESEP on teacher's use of innovative pedagogical models in physical education. I can be seen presenting this at http://goo.gl/wgMIo

My recent presentation at AIESEP on teacher's use of innovative pedagogical models in physical education. I can be seen presenting this at http://goo.gl/wgMIo

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  • 1. Teachers use ofmodels-based practices Ashley Casey University of Bedfordshire
  • 2. 90% of under 25s are single
  • 3. 10% of over 16s co-inhabit
  • 4. 66% of UK population married by 40
  • 5. 46% of US marriages end in divorce
  • 6. We simply don’t havethese types of statisticsfor pedagogical choicein physical education
  • 7. Whatdo we know ?
  • 8. We’ve know for 30 years thatkids attitudes to physicaleducation are generallypoor...” TINNING ( 2011)
  • 9. Yet. . .We keep studying it TINNING ( 2011)
  • 10. We also know. . .
  • 11. No matter the location,students enjoy participating inclasses in which they perceiveas more serious andconsequented.” ` Hastie et al ( 2011)
  • 12. We suspect. . .
  • 13. stops after a ‘honeymoon’ period
  • 14. Or. . .
  • 15. “Cafeteria” type use
  • 16. A better understanding of theteacher change process isnecessary if we are tounderstand why teachers havenot adopted some of these `innovations..” Bechtel and O’Sullivan ( 2007)
  • 17. Change Shift Discussion Rookies Support Future
  • 18. Models-based practice
  • 19. “Audit Society” Groundwater-Smith and Sachs , 2002
  • 20. Government interference hasbecome manifest in thestandards-based monitoring ofteaching and learning” HARGREAVES, 2009
  • 21. ModernistSchool...
  • 22. Entrenched knowledge andpractices override innovation infavour of tradition” MACDONALD, 2003
  • 23. Against this background
  • 24. Personal theory onhow to bring aboutchange”” HARGREAVES AND FULLAN, 2009
  • 25. Theory Conceptual Models Curricula frameworkAssumptions Designs Local variationsGeneralisations Key concepts Patterns EducationalPropositions Guidelines Scopes and experiences planned Specifications sequences for a particular Taxonomies/structures settings Definitions Instructional materials Learning resources Teacher/environment effects “Curriculum Model” Jewett and Bain , 1985
  • 26. “Instructional Model” Metzler, 2011
  • 27. “Models-based practice” Haerens et al. Forthcoming
  • 28. Theory ofChange inAction HARGREAVES AND FILLAN, 2009
  • 29. theory of change-in-action that isdriven by knowledge, experience,beliefs and assumptionsconcerning how and why peoplechange, and what can motivate orsupport them do so” HARGREAVES AND FULLAN, 2009
  • 30. Theorizing Theory Conceptual CF CF frameworks CF CFM M M M M M Models M M M M M Local Curricula
  • 31. Change does nothappen easily nor isit often peaceful” HARGREAVES AND FULLAN, 2009
  • 32. “Top Down”
  • 33. “Bottom Up”
  • 34. Teachers should be…
  • 35. In the vanguard of change
  • 36. Not seen as unwanted baggage
  • 37. “Collaboration”
  • 38. collaborative partnerships aredeveloped between teachers, parents,administrators, curriculum developers,professional associations, teachereducators and researchers MACDONALD 2003
  • 39. Change Shift Discussion Rookies Support Future
  • 40. Review ofLiterature
  • 41. MethodsEBSCO databases with the main identifiers:Instructional Models, Sport Education,Cooperative learning, Teaching Gamesfor Understanding, Teaching Personaland Social Responsibility, PersonalisedSystem of Instruction, Peer TeachingModel, Inquiry Teaching.
  • 42. Shift
  • 43. increase in teachers’ positive feelings, efficacy, enthusiasm and vigour Alexander and Luckman (2001) and Clarke and Quill (2003)
  • 44. research in the UKand USA reported apositive feelingtowards the changingrole of the teacher”CLARKE AND QUILL (2003) AND GRENIER, DYSON, AND YEATON (2005)
  • 45. allowed primaryschool teachers in the UK to overcome their discomfort withteaching physical education. O’Donovan et al. (2010)
  • 46. sustained and ongoingpedagogical change required theteacher to initially learn how toteach through the model andthen engage in a conceptual shiftof what teaching in physicaleducation was” CASEY ET AL, 2009, CASEY, 2009 AND BARRETT AND TURNER (2000)
  • 47. many preferred MBP to traditional physical education pedagogies Alexander and Luckman (2001) and Brunton (2003)
  • 48. positively disrupted theestablished andinappropriate studenthierarchy and allowed theteacher to refocus on thelearning of all students” PILL, 2008
  • 49. others in the Far Eastreported that the unfamiliarityof the new classroom rolesinherent in MBP impacted onboth the teachers’ and thestudents’ attitudes towards thelessons. ” CRUZ 2008 AND ROSSI ET AL. 2007
  • 50. Timeteachers need to consider the time it takesto learn a new pedagogical model,reconceptualising the roles that theparticipants take BRUNTON (2003), CASEY AND DYSON (2009), CASEY, DYSON, AND CAMPBELL (2009), DYSON (2002), DYSON, LINEHAN, AND HASTIE (2010), GUBACS-COLLINS AND OLSEN (2010), HASTIE AND CURTNER-SMITH (2006), MCCAUGHTRY ET AL. (2004), SINELNIKOV (2009), AND WRIGHT AND BURTON (2008)
  • 51. Beginner
  • 52. a number of authorsfound that teachersfelt like “beginners”again in terms of their“teacher knowledge”
  • 53. “outside of their comfort zone” DYSON (2002)
  • 54. decline in the teacher’s self-esteem, initial frustrations dueto unfamiliarity with themodel and that teachers feltthey made simple mistakesdue to their lack of experiencewith the approaches.” BARRETT AND TURNER (2000) AND GUBACS-COLLINS (2007)
  • 55. Shift was too much MCCAUGHTRY ET AL. (2004) AND MCNEILL ET AL. (2004)
  • 56. lack of either instant or guaranteed successassociated with the approaches KIM (2006)
  • 57. these costs were too high and forced earlycareer teachers to actively avoid MBP MCCAUGHTRY ET AL. (2004)
  • 58. teachers’ priorexperiences and habitusand extraneous matterssuch as school culturehave strong residualinfluence.” KO, ET AL. (2006), GUBACS-COLLINS (2007) AND MARTINEK, SCHILLING, AND JOHNSON 2001)
  • 59. As the gap between old andnew pedagogies is closedteachers may become betterable to anticipate theirstudents’ responses andtherefore become morereactive to students’ needs” KIM (2006)
  • 60. MBP acts as a scaffoldfor the learning processand helps to create aquestioning approachthat aids learning” MCNEILL ET AL. (2004) AND MACPHAIL, KIRK, AND GRIFFIN (2008)
  • 61. Scaffolding
  • 62. practitioners need tosee proof from otherschools throughpractice undertakenby other teachers thatshow MBP works.”
  • 63. pedagogical andcurricular change isevidence-based and thatteachers need to see theresults of their efforts tobelieve in their potency. SINELNIKOV (2009)
  • 64. teachers were a little scared ofwhat might happen. However,the evidence of their own eyesand experiences was enoughto leave them delighted withboth the outcome and itsappropriateness.” KINCHIN, ET AL. (2009)
  • 65. the importance of school/universitycollaborations in supporting theteachers’ ability to move the theory ofthe model into their classroom andsubsequently engage in research-informed teaching BARRETT & TURNER (2000), BROOKER ET AL (2000), MCCAUGHTRY ET AL. (2004), MCNEILL ET AL. (2004), MACPHAIL ET AL. (2008), MACPHAIL, ET AL. (2008), ODONOVAN ET AL. (2010), AND WRIGHT ET AL. (2006)
  • 66. for greater professional learning opportunities DYSON AND RUBIN (2003) AND SINELNIKOV (2009)
  • 67. to coach and sustainteachers’ use of MBP Stran and Curtner-Smith (2009)
  • 68. to provide opportunities for teachers transferring theory to the classroom and practice them Wright et al. (2006) and McMahon and MacPhail (2007)
  • 69. Change Shift Discussion Rookies Support Future
  • 70. Looking to the Future
  • 71. innovation is like a stone hitting a henhouse roof MCDONALD (2003)
  • 72. innovation could beconsidered as a hit-and-runa t t e m p t( Htao g rc ahv asn2g e9 ) p r a c t i c e s r e e 00 .in schools rather thansomething that can bearthe weight of sustainableeducational change HARGREAVES 2009
  • 73. a number of authorsacknowledged that teachersneeded to be involved inenhanced and ongoing continuedprofessional development (CPD)when they seek to changepractice KO, WALLHEAD, AND WARD 2006, MACPHAIL ET AL. 2008 AND SINELNIKOV 2009
  • 74. the development ofsustainable curriculumrenewal through whatthey call ‘networkedlearning communities” DAY AND TOWNSEND (2009)
  • 75. “the challenge here is no longerjust how to have a theory ofaction that can implementparticular changes, but how todevelop one that can choosebetween changes, prioritize them,and create coherence among allof them.” HARGREAVES AND FULLAN (2009)
  • 76. need to challenge ourassumptions aboutschools, schooling,learning and youngpeople
  • 77. HelpTeachers sustain changeover the longer term byscaffolding change
  • 78. ReferencesAlexander, K., and J. Luckman. 2001. Australian teachers perceptions and uses of the sport education curriculum model. European Physical Education Review 7, no. 3:243-267.Alexander, Ken, Andrew Taggart, and Stephen Thorpe. 1996. A Spring in their Steps? Possibilities for Professional Renewal through Sport Education in Australian Schools. Sport, Education and Society 1, no. 1:23-46.Armour, Kathleen M., and Martin Yelling. 2007. Effective Professional Development for Physical Education Teachers: The Role of Informal, Collaborative Learning. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 26, no. 2:177-200.Barrett, Kate R., and Adrian P. Turner. 2000. Sandys Challenge: New Game, New Paradigm Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 19, no. 2:162.Brooker, Ross, David Kirk, Sandy Braiuka, and Aarjon Bransgrove. 2000. Implementing a Game Sense Approach to Teaching Junior High School Basketball in a Naturalistic Setting. European Physical Education Review 6, no. 1:7-26.Brunton, J. A. 2003. Changing hierarchies of power in physical education using sport education. European Physical Education Review 9, no. 3:267-284.Casey, Ashley, and Ben Dyson. 2009. The implementation of models-based practice in physical education through action research. European Physical Education Review 15, no. 2:175-199.Casey, Ashley, Ben Dyson, and Anne Campbell. 2009. Action research in physical education: focusing beyond myself through cooperative learning. Educational Action Research 17, no. 3:407-423.
  • 79. ReferencesClarke, G., and M. Quill. 2003. Researching sport education in action: a case study. European Physical Education Review 9, no. 3:253-266.Cruz, Alberto. 2008. The Experience of Implementing Sport Education Model. Journal of Physical Education & Recreation (10287418) 14, no. 1:18-31.Curtner-Smith, Matthew, Peter A. Hastie, and Gary D. Kinchin. 2008. Influence of occupational socialization on beginning teachers interpretation and delivery of sport education. Sport, Education & Society 13, no. 1:97- 117.Curtner-Smith, Matthew, and Seidu Sofo. 2004. Preservice teachers conceptions of teaching within sport education and multi-activity units. Sport, Education and Society 9, no. 3:347-377.Day, Christopher, Gordon Stobart, Pam Sammons, and Alison Kington. 2006. Variations in the work and lives of teachers: relative and relational effectiveness. Teachers & Teaching 12, no. 2:169-192.Day, Christopher, and Townsend, Andrew. 2009. Practitioner Action Research: Building and sustaining success through networked learning communities. In The SAGE Handbook of Educational Action Research, edited by Susan Noffke and Bridget Somekh. London: Sage.Dyson, Ben. 2002. The Implementation of Cooperative Learning in an Elementary Physical Education Program. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 22, no. 1:69.Dyson, Ben P., Nicole R. Linehan, and Peter A. Hastie. 2010. The Ecology of Cooperative Learning in Elementary Physical Education Classes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 29, no. 2:113-130.
  • 80. ReferencesDyson, Ben, and Allison Rubin. 2003. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Elementary Physical Education. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 74, no. 1:48.Dyson, Ben, and Kevin Strachan. 2004. The Ecology of Cooperative Learning in a High School Physical Education Programme. Waikato Journal of Education 10, 117-139.Ennis, C. D., et al. 1999. Creating a sense of family in urban schools using the "Sport for Peace" curriculum. / Creer un sens de la famille dans les ecoles urbaines grace au programme sport pour la paix. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 70, no. 3:273-285.Grenier, Michelle, Ben Dyson, and Pat Yeaton. 2005. Cooperative Learning that Includes Students with Disabilities. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76, no. 6:29-35.Groundwater-Smith, Susan, and Judyth Sachs. 2002. The Activist Professional and the Reinstatement of Trust. (Cover story). Cambridge Journal of Education 32, no. 3:341-358.Gubacs-Collins, Klara. 2007. Implementing a tactical approach through action research. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 12, no. 2:105-126.Gubacs-Collins, Klara, and Edward B. Olsen. 2010. Implementing a Tactical Games Approach with Sport Education. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 81, no. 3:36-42.Ha, Amy S., Ada C. Wong, Raymond K. Sum, and Daniel W. Chan. 2008. Understanding teachers will and capacity to accomplish physical education curriculum reform: the implications for teacher development. Sport, Education & Society 13, no. 1:77-95.Haerens, Leen, David Kirk, Cardon. G, and I. Bourdeauhuji. Forthcoming. The development of a pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education. Quest.
  • 81. ReferencesHargreaves, Andy. 2009. The fourth way of change: Towards an age of inspiration and sustainability. In Change Wars, edited by Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.Hargreaves, Andy, and Fullan, Michael. 2009a. Change War: A hopeful struggle. In Change Wars, edited by Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.Hargreaves, Andy, and Fullan, Michael, eds. 2009b. Change Wars.Kindle (retrieved Amazon.co.uk) ed. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.Hastie, Peter A. 2000. An ecological analysis of a sport education season. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 19, no. 3:355-373.Hastie, Peter A., and Alice M. Buchanan. 2000. Teaching responsibility through sport education: Prospects of a coalition. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 71, no. 1:25.Hastie, Peter A., and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2006. Influence of a hybrid Sport Education—Teaching Games for Understanding unit on one teacher and his students. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 11, no. 1:1-27.Jewett, Ann, E, and Bain, Linda, L. 1985. The curriculum process in Physical Education. Dubeque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown.Kemmis, Stephen, and Peter Grootenboer. 2008. Situating praxis in practice: Practice architectures and the cultural, social and material conditions for practice. In Enabling praxis: Challenges for education., eds. Stephen Kemmis, Tracy Smith J, 37-62. Rotterdam: Sense.Kim, Jinhee. 2006. ‘Not business as usual’: Sport Education pedagogy in practice. European Physical Education Review 12, no. 3:361-379.
  • 82. ReferencesKinchin, Gary, Ann Macphail, and Deirdre N. Chroinin. 2009. Pupils and teachers perceptions of a culminating festival within a sport education season in Irish primary schools. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 14, no. 4:391-406.Kirk, David. 2011. The normalization of innovation, models-based practice, and sustained curriculum renewal.Limerick ed.Kirk, David. 2010. Physical education futures. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Ko, Bomna, Tristan Wallhead, and Phillip Ward. 2006. Chapter 4: Professional development workshops--What do teachers learn and use? Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 25, no. 4:397-412.Lieberman, Ann, and Dé Mace. 2008. Teacher Learning: the Key to Educational Reform. Journal of Teacher Education 59, no. 3:226-234.Macdonald, Doune. 2004. Curriculum change in Health and Physical Education: The devils perspective. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand 37, 70-83.Macdonald, Doune. 2003. Curriculum change and the post-modern world: is the school curriculum-reform movement an anachronism? Journal of Curriculum Studies 35, no. 2:139-149.MacPhail, Ann. 2007. Teachers views on the construction, management and delivery of an externally prescribed physical education curriculum: Higher Grade Physical Education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 12, no. 1:43-60.MacPhail, Ann, Trish Gorely, David Kirk, and Gary Kinchin. 2008. Childrens Experiences of Fun and Enjoyment During a Season of Sport Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 79, no. 3:344-355.
  • 83. ReferencesMacPhail, Ann, David Kirk, and Linda Griffin. 2008. Throwing and Catching as Relational Skills in Game Play: Situated Learning in a Modified Game Unit. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 27, no. 1:100-115.Martinek, Tom, Tammy Schilling, and Dennis Johnson. 2001. Transferring Personal and Social Responsibility of Underserved Youth to the Classroom. The Urban Review 33, no. 1:29-45.McCaughtry, Nate, Seidu Sofo, Inez Rovegno, and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2004. Learning to teach sport education: misunderstandings, pedagogical difficulties, and resistance. European Physical Education Review 10, no. 2:135-156.McMahon, Eileen, and Ann MacPhail. 2007. Learning to teach sport education: The experiences of a pre- service teacher. European Physical Education Review 13, no. 2:229-246.McNeill, M. C., et al. 2004. In the local context: Singaporean challenges to teaching games on practicum. Sport, Education and Society 9, no. 1:3-32.McNeill, Michael, et al. 2008. Structuring time and questioning to achieve tactical awareness in games lessons. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 13, no. 3:231-249.Metzler, Michael W. 2011. Instructional Models for Physical Education.3rd ed. Scottsdale, Arizona: Holcomb Hathaway.Mockler, Nicole. 2005. Trans/forming teachers: new professional learning and transformative teacher professionalism. Journal of In-Service Education 31, no. 4:733-746.ODonovan, Toni, Ann MacPhail, and David Kirk. 2010. Active citizenship through sport education. Education 3- 13 38, no. 2:203-215.
  • 84. ReferencesParker, Mitchum, and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2005. Health-related fitness in sport education and multi- activity teaching. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 10, no. 1:1-18.Pedder, David, V. D. Opfer, Robert McCormick, and Anne Storey. 2010. Schools and Continuing Professional Development in England - State of the Nation research study: policy context, aims and design. Curriculum Journal 21, no. 4:365-394.Pill, Shane. 2008. A teachers perceptions of the Sport Education model as an alternative for upper primary school physical education. ACHPER Australia Healthy Lifestyles Journal 55, no. 2:23-29.Rossi, Tony, Joan Fry, Mike McNeill, and Clara Tan. 2007. The Games Concept Approach (GCA) as a mandated practice: views of Singaporean teachers. Sport, Education and Society 12, no. 1:93-111.Sinelnikov, Oleg. 2009. Sport Education for Teachers: Professional Development When Introducing a Novel Curriculum Model. European Physical Education Review 15, no. 1:91-114.Stran, Margaret, and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2010. Impact of different types of knowledge on two preservice teachers ability to learn and deliver the Sport Education model. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 15, no. 3:243-256.Stran, Margaret, and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2009. Influence of occupational socialization on two preservice teachers’ interpretation and delivery of the sport education model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 28, no. 1:38-53.Stran, Margaret, and Matthew Curtner-Smith. 2009. Influence of two preservice teachers value orientations on their interpretation and delivery of sport education. Sport, Education & Society 14, no. 3:339-352.
  • 85. Referencesvan Veen, Klaas, and Peter Sleegers. 2006. How does it feel? Teachers emotions in a context of change. Journal of Curriculum Studies 38, no. 1:85-111.Wallhead, Tristan, and Mary Osullivan. 2007. A didactic analysis of content development during the peer teaching tasks of a Sport Education season. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 12, no. 3:225-243.Walsh, David. 2008. Helping Youth in Underserved Communities Envision Possible Futures: An Extension of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 79, no. 2:209- 221.Walsh, David, Jimmy Ozaeta, and Paul Wright. 2010. Transference of responsibility model goals to the school environment: exploring the impact of a coaching club program. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 15, no. 1:15-28.Wright, Paul M., and Suzanne Burton. 2008. Implementation and Outcomes of a Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Integrated Into an Intact High School Physical Education Class. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 27, no. 2:138-154.Wright, Steven, et al. 2006. Implications of Student Teachers Implementation of a Curricular Innovation. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 25, no. 3:310-328.Wright, Steven, Mike McNeill, and Joan M. Fry. 2009. The tactical approach to teaching games from teaching, learning and mentoring perspectives. Sport, Education & Society 14, no. 2:223-244.
  • 86. Image CreditsSlide 2 – Image from iStockphotoSlide 3 – Pack Ahead of Time by LTV International Removals 2010 on flickrSlide 4 – Wedding Party (1971) by musicmuse_ca on flickrSlide 5 – Divorse by By LegalAssistance on fLickrSlide 13 – Beach resort by TimoBalk on stck xchngSlide 15 – School Lunch by fazoom on flickrSlide 18 – Time for Change by David Reece on FlickrSlide 19 – accounting calculator tax return by djshaw on stck xchngSlide 23 – Sample PhotoSlide 26 – home design by forwardcom on stck xchngSlide 27 – Numerous blueprints, reading glasses and a pencil by chigmaroff on flickrSlide 34 – the teacher by Prozac74 on flickr
  • 87. Image CreditsSlide 35 – “Cavalry charge” by U.S. Army on FlickrSlide 36– Image from iStockphotoSlide 42– shift by luvnish on flickrSlide 43– Image from iStockphotoSlide 45 – hot pepper from iStockphotoSlide 47– Image from iStockphotoSlide 50 – Image from iStockphotoSlide 53 – No storage zone by desigu on stockxchngSlide 56 – magic wand by digital zoetrope on flickrSlide 57 – £124,533 by Dave_D on FlickrSlide 61 – bleacher-scaffolding by rezendi on flickrSlide 66 – studying for a test by hvaldez1 on stockxchng
  • 88. Image CreditsSlide 67 – Coach Joe Gibbs by nflravens on flickrSlide 68– Old fashioned basketball court by ryanmcginnisphoto on flickrSlide 70– Watching by ngould on stockxchngSlide 71– Henhouse by loungerie on flickr

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