Action Research for the Reflective Teacher


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A presentation to 3rd Year pre-service physical education teachers. It was designed to show why I engaged in action research and pedagogical change when I was considered to be a good and successful teacher. It shows Lewin's original cycle and consdiers it as a fractual process in which multiple cycles can occur in any one intervention. Finally it shows how different types of data can be gathered and analysed.

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Action Research for the Reflective Teacher

  1. 1. Action Research: Moving my own goal posts<br />Dr. Ashley Casey<br />
  2. 2. Who was I?<br />Boys’ Physical education teacher<br />
  3. 3. Who was I?<br />Didactic/<br />Command Style<br />
  4. 4. Who was I?<br />Ofsted said: “Good with outstanding features”<br />
  5. 5. Who was I?<br />Knowledgeable and experienced (9 years) <br />
  6. 6. Who was I?<br />Semi-Professional Rugby league and union player <br />
  7. 7. Who was I?<br />1st XV Rugby Coach<br />
  8. 8. What happened?<br />
  9. 9. What Happened?<br />CPD<br />
  10. 10. What Happened?<br />Master’s Degree & PhD<br />
  11. 11. What Happened?<br />Autobiography<br />
  12. 12. What Happened?<br />read<br />
  13. 13. What Happened?<br />Read more<br />
  14. 14. What Happened?<br />Found I didn’t know as much as I thought<br />
  15. 15. What Happened?<br />Didn’t like what I always did <br />
  16. 16. Implications<br />Thought I was good<br />Told I was good<br />Found out I might not be as good as I thought or had been told<br />Faced with a dilemma<br />
  17. 17. What did I do?<br />Looked to doing something new<br />
  18. 18. What did I do?<br />But I wanted to see if it worked<br />
  19. 19. What did I do?<br />SO…<br />
  20. 20. What did I do?<br />I undertook an action research project.<br />
  21. 21. What was I told about me?<br /> “dominant, competitive, aggressive, not-too bright individual … (the) companionable ‘man of action’, but not someone with whom to engage in professional dialogue” (Whitehead and Hendry, 1976, p. 75)<br />
  22. 22. What was I told about me?<br />one of those teachers who “worked hard for continuity without knowing it, in the sense that [I was] frightfully conservative, never made a move and was resistant to change” <br />(Briault, 1974, p. 6).<br />
  23. 23. What was I told about teaching?<br />physical educationalist persistently teach the same introductory units of work regardless of the age and past experiences of the students.<br />Siedentop, 2002<br />
  24. 24. What was I told about teaching?<br />there is no one best way to teach physical education<br />Metzler, 2005<br />
  25. 25. Task 1<br />You have three minutes to reflect on your experiences today.<br />Answer these questions:<br />Who are you?<br />What have you been told about your teaching?<br />What do you want to happen?<br />Share your writing with another student<br />
  26. 26. Learning outcomes<br />
  27. 27. Learning Outcomes<br />You will:<br /> understand more about action research<br />start to think about what your action research project might look like.<br />
  28. 28. Section 1<br />Finding a starting point and clarifying the situation<br />
  29. 29. Adapted from Lewin 1946<br />
  30. 30. Fractals<br />Education System<br />School<br />Dept.<br />Lesson<br />
  31. 31. Adapted from Lewin 1946<br />
  32. 32. Step 1<br />Cycles within<br />Adapted from Lewin 1946<br />
  33. 33. My Starting Point<br />I didn’t want to use command/didactic instruction any more<br />
  34. 34. My Starting Point<br />I wanted to use models-based practice<br />
  35. 35. My Starting Point<br />I wanted to see how these two things occurred<br />
  36. 36. Research Questions<br />What happens to me – as a teacher and a person – when I engage in long-term reflective practice?<br />What impact does a new teaching strategy have on student learning processes?<br />What lessons emerge from this sustained effort of reflective practice that may affect the way in which we view pedagogical change in physical education?<br />
  37. 37. Clarifying the Situation<br />Used Brookfield’s (1995) four lenses<br />Theoretical Literature<br />Biography<br />Students’ Eyes<br />Colleagues’ Observations<br />
  38. 38. Theoretical - Methodology<br />Practitioner Research<br />Action Research<br />Autobiographical Inquiry<br />
  39. 39. Section 2<br />Collecting and analysing data, developing action strategies and putting them into practice<br />
  40. 40. Cycles within<br />Step 2<br />Adapted from Lewin 1946<br />
  41. 41. Methods<br />Generation of Data<br />Teaching Inventions<br />Critical Friends<br />Diaries and Reflective Analysis<br />Pupil Voice<br />
  42. 42. Generation of Data<br />Teaching Inventions<br />Unit Diaries<br />Post Teaching Reflective Analysis (PTRA)<br />
  43. 43. Unit Diary<br /><ul><li>1) Description: what happened?
  44. 44. 2) Feelings: what were you thinking about?
  45. 45. 3) Evaluation: what was good or bad about the experience?
  46. 46. 4) Positive interdependence (how did pupils depend on each other?)
  47. 47. 5) Individual accountability (how were pupils required to contribute to the lesson?)
  48. 48. 6) Action plan</li></ul>1) Description: what happened? <br />2) Feelings: what were you thinking about? <br />3) Evaluation: what was good or bad about the experience? <br />4) Analysis: what sense can you make of the situation? <br />5) Conclusion: what else could you have done? <br />6) Action plan: if it arose again what would you do?<br />
  49. 49. Generation of Data<br />Critical Friends<br />Observations<br />Meetings<br />
  50. 50. Critical Friends<br />‘Wayne’<br />Meetings<br />‘Burt’ and ‘Ernie’<br />Teaching assistants<br />‘Carlos’<br />Visiting physical education teacher/Ph.D<br />
  51. 51. Generation of Data<br />Diaries and Reflective Analysis<br />Writing for 5 minutes<br />Post Teaching Cycle Analysis (PCRA)<br />
  52. 52. Writing for 5 minutes<br />I must remember the journey that I’ve been on to date. With three years devoted to this already I am doing a good job and mustn’t forget that. I am a long way from the one-dimensional teacher who started this journey. However, I have still retained much of what was good about my practice – my enthusiasm, my subject knowledge, my ability to break down a task, my relationship with the pupils – these are things that still characterise my teaching and things that I must remember and must hold on to. Reflective Diary (13th November 2005)<br />
  53. 53. Writing for 5 minutes<br />I am going to plan and run a whole unit of work with my Year 10 rugby group and I plan to plan a whole year’s work with four separate classes in Year 11. On top of that there’s basketball, swimming, athletics and gymnastics; a lot of work. I know that I will need to be up to speed before the year starts, so I will have to make some plans on how that will happen. Picking groups and detailed plans are the key, as is not biting off more than I can manage. This type of teaching is not simple and I must not try and do too much. Reflective Diary (3rd August 2006)<br />
  54. 54. Generation of Data<br />Pupil Voice<br />Comment Cards<br />Interviews<br />
  55. 55. Pupil Voice<br />It was a good idea but is quite hard to understand and should be explained more<br />It was a good idea but didn’t work that well<br />It was a very good idea but hard to understand<br />I liked it; it improved my swimming a lot already. I would like to always use the cards<br />It was a good idea and I really enjoyed it but it could have been a bit harder<br />
  56. 56. Pupil Voice<br />You taught us a different way, you have taught it but we have like worked together to build up like…like at the end of the lesson we all as a team do a sheet so we’ve, we are like deciding what we have learned in the lessons and what we’ve thought about the lesson, stuff like that. Pupils Spring Interview (27th March 2006) <br />
  57. 57. Pupil Voice<br />Yes, I was pretty surprised that we haven’t done the same things again, normally it happens all the time but we didn’t do it, which kind of helped a bit because it feels like you’re being treated like a baby when you go over the same thing about 50 times. Pupils Summer Interview (12th July 2006)<br />
  58. 58. Task 2<br />How would you feel about asking other people about your work?<br />Think of some ‘feedback’ methods<br />What are good about these?<br />What are bad about these?<br />Compare your list with another student.<br />Class Discussion<br />
  59. 59. Section 3<br />Formulating and sharing teacher knowledge<br />
  60. 60. Theoretical -<br />Cycles within<br />Step 3<br />Adapted from Lewin 1946<br />
  61. 61. Reflections on a project<br />Results – what happened?<br />Critical incidences not the incidental occurrences<br />Discussion – what does this tell the reader?<br />Explain the significance of your project to the learning of your students<br />Conclusion – what does this mean to your teaching?<br />What might it mean to other teachers.<br />
  62. 62. Practitioner Research in Physical Education<br />Teaching as a Private Act and the Disturbing Effects of Reflection<br />The School as an Institution: Facilitation and Constraint on Reflection and Innovation<br />The Theory-Practice Gap Revealed and Experienced: Models-Based Praxis<br />Conclusion<br />
  63. 63. References<br />Altrichter, H., Posch, P. and Somekh, B. (1993). Teachers investigate their work: an introduction to the methods of action research. London: Routledge.<br />Briault, E.W.H. (1974). Continuity and Change in Education. Paper presented at the conference, Physical education: An integrating force? (The Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education Physical Education Section), 1974. Chelsea College of Physical Education. <br />Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey‑Bass.<br />Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1986). A model for the teaching of games in secondary schools. In R. Thorpe, D. Bunker & L. Almond (Eds.). Rethinking games teaching. Loughborough: Loughborough University.<br />Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education, knowledge and action research. London: Falmer.<br />Casey, A., Dyson, B., & Campbell, A. (2009). Action research in physical education: Focusing beyond myself through cooperative learning, Educational Action Research, 17(3), 407-423.<br />
  64. 64. References<br />Fosnot, C.T. (1996). Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.<br />Hendry, L.B. (1975). Survival in a marginal role: The professional identity of the physical education teacher. The British Journal of Sociology, 26 (4), 465-476.<br />Kirk, D. (2009). Physical Education Futures. London: Routledge. <br />Lawson, H.A. (2009). Paradigms, exemplars and social change. Sport, Education and Society, 14, 77-100.<br />Lewin, K. (1946). Action Research and Minority Problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2: 34-46.<br />Lundgren, U. (1983). Curriculum theory, between hope and happening: Text and context in curriculum. Deakin University, Geelong.<br />Metzler, M.W. (2005). Instructional models for physical education. Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathway.<br />Siedentop, D. (1994). Sport Education: Quality PE through positive sport experiences. Champaign: Human Kinetics.<br />Whitehead, N., & Hendry, L.B. (1976). Teaching Physical Education in England. London: Lepus.<br />