Data Gathering and ethics

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A presentation on data gathering and ethics recently created for year 3 undergraduate students. Having looked around I couldn't find anything that wasn't text heavy so I

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Data Gathering and ethics

  1. 1. DataGatheringDr Ashley CaseyUniversity of Bedfordshire<br />
  2. 2. research design<br />
  3. 3. A Plan/structure used to get answers to research problems<br />
  4. 4. 1. Procedures &<br />2. Quality<br />
  5. 5. 1. Methods<br />2. Piloting<br />&<br />3. Triangulation<br />
  6. 6. research sample<br />
  7. 7. 1. Random<br />2. Stratified<br />3. Clustered<br />
  8. 8. data gathering<br />
  9. 9. 1. Primary<br />2. Secondary<br />
  10. 10. Primary<br />
  11. 11. Interview<br />Observation<br />Reflection<br />Questionnaire<br />
  12. 12. observation<br />
  13. 13. Watching & listening <br />but no direct intervention<br />
  14. 14. Participant<br />a member of the observed group<br />Non-Participant<br />Passive Observer<br />
  15. 15. Recording Observations<br />Narrative<br />Scales<br />Categorical Recording<br />Recording on videoor audio<br />
  16. 16. Interview<br />
  17. 17. Gathered from People<br />
  18. 18. Unstructured<br />Spontaneous uses an interview guide<br />Semi-Structured<br />Questions but with prompts<br />Structured<br />Pre-determined Questions<br />
  19. 19. Avoid<br />Pressure<br />Arguing<br />Complicated language<br />Embarrassment<br />Belittling their intelligence<br />
  20. 20. Questionnaire<br />
  21. 21. A written list of questions<br />
  22. 22. Closed<br />Respondents choose one predetermined answer <br />Open<br />Respond in a manner they prefer<br />
  23. 23. Measurement<br />Likert Scale<br />Standardised information<br />Used in market research<br />
  24. 24. Reflection<br />
  25. 25. Reflect, evaluate & improve<br />
  26. 26. Journaling<br />Reflecting on action<br />Critical Reflections<br />Can expose yourself to stimuli<br />
  27. 27. Types<br />Blog<br />Word Document<br />Paper and Pen<br />
  28. 28. Journal<br />Descriptive<br />Non specific focused<br />Write what you think<br />
  29. 29. Critical Questions<br />Why did she do that?<br />What is the evidence?<br />Why did I do it that way?<br />Why did that happen?<br />
  30. 30. Advantages<br />Think<br />Question<br />Problem-solve<br />Decision making<br />
  31. 31. Disadvantages<br />Time consuming<br />bland<br />Staying on focus<br />
  32. 32. Secondary<br />
  33. 33. Data Already Available<br />
  34. 34. Collected by<br />Someone else<br />
  35. 35. Examples<br />Books<br />Journals<br />Websites<br />Brochures<br />Statistical Data<br />
  36. 36. Horses for courses<br />
  37. 37. Choose methods thathelp you answer your question<br />
  38. 38. Validity?<br />
  39. 39. Objectivity?<br />
  40. 40. Accuracy?<br />
  41. 41. Trustworthiness<br />
  42. 42. Authenticity<br />
  43. 43. “by foregrounding the views and voices of particular research participants and examining ways in which my research engendered action within my teaching I have aspired towards authenticity.<br />- Casey (2010)<br />”<br />
  44. 44. Why are your findings Trustworthy and authentic?<br />
  45. 45. Because your data gathering tools worked<br />
  46. 46. Pilot<br />
  47. 47. “I promise that I will do my best”<br />- Boy Scout Promise<br />
  48. 48. Ethics in Education<br />
  49. 49. “A set of principles of right conduct”<br />
  50. 50. “A healthy, safe learning environment”<br />- O’Neil (2004)<br />
  51. 51. “Encouraging and caring Environment”<br />- O’Neil (2004)<br />
  52. 52. “High Standards of achievement”<br />- O’Neil (2004)<br />
  53. 53. “Focus on students’ needs”<br />- O’Neil (2004)<br />
  54. 54. Confidentiality& Integrity<br />
  55. 55. Your Ethics<br />
  56. 56. 10 Questions<br />
  57. 57. 1.<br />Does the study involve vulnerable participants or those unable to give informed consent (e.g. children, people with learning disabilities, your own students)?<br /> <br />
  58. 58. Yes<br />
  59. 59. 2.<br />Will the study require permission of a gatekeeper for access to participants (e.g. schools, self-help groups, residential homes)?<br /> <br />
  60. 60. Yes<br />
  61. 61. Questions<br />3-10<br />
  62. 62. Your Answers<br />
  63. 63. No<br />
  64. 64. NB<br />If you have answered yes to any of the above questions or if you consider that there are other significant ethical issues then details of how you are going to minimise the risk of harm to participants should be summarised below<br /> <br />
  65. 65. Harm Is a research strategy likely to cause harm, and is there any way in which such harm could be justified or excused?<br />- Bridgeset al (2007)<br />
  66. 66. Autonomy Does the research process display respect for people in the sense of allowing them to make decisions for themselves, notably about whether or not to participate?<br />- Bridgeset al (2007)<br />
  67. 67. Privacy A central feature of research is to make matters public, to provide descriptions and explanations that are publicly available. But what should and should not be made public?<br />- Bridgeset al (2007)<br />
  68. 68. Reciprocity The research process can also disrupt people’s lives in various ways. Given this, what, if anything, should participants reasonably expect in return from researchers; and what should researchers offer them?<br />- Bridgeset al (2007)<br />
  69. 69. Equity It may be argued that the various individuals and groups that a researcher comes into contact with in the course of research should be treated equally, in the sense that no-one is unjustly favoured or discriminated against.<br />- Bridgeset al (2007)<br />
  70. 70. Questions?<br />
  71. 71. References<br />Bridges, D., Gingell, J., Suissa, J., Watts, M. and Winch, C. (2007) Ethics and educational research: philosophical perspectives. London: TLRP. Online at http://www.bera.ac.uk/ethics-and-educational-research-philosophical-perspectives/ <br />Casey, A. (2010). Practitioner Research in Physical Eductaion: Teacher transformation through pedagogical and curricular change, Unpublished doctoral Thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University. <br />O’Neal, S. (2004). Individualized instruction for improved student achievement education’s ‘holy grail’. The Journal . Retrieved from http://thejournal.com/the/printarticle/?id=16635 <br />
  72. 72. Images<br />Slide 2 – “home design” by Forwardcom on Stockxchng<br />Slide 6 – Image from iStockPhoto<br />Slide 8 - “Flower on Hand”by racks on Stockxchng<br />Slide 11/12 - “Watching”by ngouldon Stockxchng<br />Slide 11/16 - “Journalist” by ivancicas on Stockxchng<br />Slide 11/20 - “hand with clipboard”by dinnyon Stockxchng<br />Slide 11, 24 - Image from iStockPhoto<br />Slide 33 - “Say What?”by ivancicas on Stockxchng<br />Slide 43 – Free immage, source unknown<br />Slide 45 - Image from iStockPhoto<br />

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