Changing sites, changing practice

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A presentation may at the American Educational Research Association conference in Vancouver on Saturday 14th April. It explores the transition that two teacher educators made from being teachers to teachers of teachers and challenges the expectation that prior experience is easily transferred from one context to another.

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Changing sites, changing practice

  1. 1. ashley casey University of Bedfordshire Tim Fletcher Memorial University of NewfoundlandSaturday, 14 April 12
  2. 2. Experiences of the transition from teacher to teacher educatorSaturday, 14 April 12
  3. 3. However...Saturday, 14 April 12
  4. 4. We want to start with a question?Saturday, 14 April 12
  5. 5. In what capacity would you employ this man?Saturday, 14 April 12
  6. 6. In what capacity would you employ this man? (Michael Jordan)Saturday, 14 April 12
  7. 7. Remember your answer...Saturday, 14 April 12
  8. 8. we’ll get back to it at the end...Saturday, 14 April 12
  9. 9. In a recent themed edition of...Saturday, 14 April 12
  10. 10. Saturday, 14 April 12
  11. 11. Past, present, and future of doctoral programs in physical education in the United States were considered…Saturday, 14 April 12
  12. 12. “ - van der mars (2011)Saturday, 14 April 12
  13. 13. “ Houston we’ve had a problem” - van der mars (2011)Saturday, 14 April 12
  14. 14. as a metaphor for D-PETE provisionSaturday, 14 April 12
  15. 15. d-PeteSaturday, 14 April 12
  16. 16. apollo 13Saturday, 14 April 12
  17. 17. refocus its prioritiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  18. 18. NASA suggestedSaturday, 14 April 12
  19. 19. got everyone home by adoptingSaturday, 14 April 12
  20. 20. “Do or Die”Saturday, 14 April 12
  21. 21. “ - van der mars (2011, p. 189)Saturday, 14 April 12
  22. 22. “ [DPETE must] use our expertise and creativity to make unprecedented adjustments and decisions about Doctoral-PETE’s future” - van der mars (2011, p. 189)Saturday, 14 April 12
  23. 23. using the same metaphorSaturday, 14 April 12
  24. 24. We suggest that while many important decisions were made (and will be made) from those in mission control (i.e. experienced PETE Faculty)Saturday, 14 April 12
  25. 25. others were made by the apollo crew...Saturday, 14 April 12
  26. 26. yet...Saturday, 14 April 12
  27. 27. We have not heard from those ‘who flew the shuttle’ (which in this metaphor is D-PETE students and junior faculty)Saturday, 14 April 12
  28. 28. Saturday, 14 April 12
  29. 29. Becoming a teacher educatorSaturday, 14 April 12
  30. 30. Becoming a teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  31. 31. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  32. 32. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  33. 33. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school b) from d-pete teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  34. 34. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school b) from d-pete teacher educator Self-study conclusions MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  35. 35. In what capacity would you employ this man?Saturday, 14 April 12
  36. 36. Becoming a teacher educatorSaturday, 14 April 12
  37. 37. The purpose of this presentation is to... explore our experiences as a) high school physical education teachers b) D-PETE students and c) Junior faculty to consider how we developed...Saturday, 14 April 12
  38. 38. our pedagogies of teacher educationSaturday, 14 April 12
  39. 39. “ many researchers prepared through D-PETE go on to assume the roles of teacher educators” - ward, parker,Sinclair & Sutherland, 2011Saturday, 14 April 12
  40. 40. are we engaged in the preparation of PETE researchers rather than of the teacher educators that many go on to become?Saturday, 14 April 12
  41. 41. So does D-PETE recruitment occur at the detriment of teacher educations future?Saturday, 14 April 12
  42. 42. especially when... “ - Ward, PArker et al. 2011Saturday, 14 April 12
  43. 43. especially when... “ many [D-PETE faulty] reported that the requirement of teaching experience was often waived and easily substituted for non school- based experiences such as coaching” - Ward, PArker et al. 2011Saturday, 14 April 12
  44. 44. especially... “ when considering that pre- service teachers are as much influenced by who taught them as they are by the content of the teacher education curriculum” - Murray & Kosnick, 2011Saturday, 14 April 12
  45. 45. several papers in the themed edition “ reported on the desirability but not the necessity of prior teaching experience in PETE ” - Ward, PArker et al. 2011; Woods, Goc KArp, & Judd, 2011Saturday, 14 April 12
  46. 46. this is in stark contrast to general education “ many faculty see the ability to draw on prior teaching experience as an almost essential attribute of aspiring teacher educators.” - boyd, Harris, & Murray, 2007Saturday, 14 April 12
  47. 47. indeed... “ by exploring general education it is evident that many individuals who are now teacher educators were once classroom teachers” - Murray & Male, 2005; Williams & Ritter, 2010Saturday, 14 April 12
  48. 48. however, to date there has been little research on becoming a PETE faculty memberSaturday, 14 April 12
  49. 49. with one exception...Saturday, 14 April 12
  50. 50. Williamson (1993) undertook a study with five female beginning PeteSaturday, 14 April 12
  51. 51. “ - williamson, 1993, p. 199Saturday, 14 April 12
  52. 52. “ what and how [they] learned about becoming assistant professors...was more through a process of chance than design” - williamson, 1993, p. 199Saturday, 14 April 12
  53. 53. this notion is supported generally where... “ incidental and occasional learning is characteristic for beginning teacher educators.” - van valzen et al, 2010, p. 71Saturday, 14 April 12
  54. 54. We aim to extend Williamson’s (1993) study by exploring our experiencesSaturday, 14 April 12
  55. 55. Becoming a teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  56. 56. firstly we acknowledge our position as researchers who are personally interested and invested in the self study of our own practicesSaturday, 14 April 12
  57. 57. “ Self-study is a field that opens up the complex world of teaching and learning about teaching in ways that can only be done by those who are participants in the work of teacher education” - Loughran, 2008, p. 1179Saturday, 14 April 12
  58. 58. The growth of self-study is such that is is now recognised as one of the largest AERA SIGSSaturday, 14 April 12
  59. 59. more than ten years ago... “ - Zeichner, 1999 (AERA vice-presidential address)Saturday, 14 April 12
  60. 60. more than ten years ago... “ contrary to the frequent images of the writings of teacher educators in the wider education research community as shallow, under-theorized, self- promotional, and inconsequential, much of this work has provided a deep and critical look at practices and structures in teacher education” - Zeichner, 1999 (AERA vice-presidential address)Saturday, 14 April 12
  61. 61. “ Self-study methodologies help teacher educators...to develop deeper awareness of how to construct strong pedagogical practice in the future” - Samaras & Freese, 2006Saturday, 14 April 12
  62. 62. “ Self-study should not only document what worked well but also, and more importantly, what was problematic, unexpected, and caused a shift in thinking and practice” - LaBoskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  63. 63. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  64. 64. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ a) self-initiated and focused b) improvement aimed c) interaction in terms of its process and potential products d) the use of multiple, primarily qualitative methods e) providing exemplar-based validation - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  65. 65. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ a) self-initiated and focused b) improvement aimed c) interaction in terms of its process and potential products d) the use of multiple, primarily qualitative methods e) providing exemplar-based validation - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  66. 66. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ a) self-initiated and focused b) improvement aimed c) interactive in terms of its process and potential products d) the use of multiple, primarily qualitative methods e) providing exemplar-based validation - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  67. 67. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ a) self-initiated and focused b) improvement aimed c) interaction in terms of its process and potential products d) uses multiple, primarily qualitative methods e) providing exemplar-based validation - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  68. 68. Laboskey’s characteristics of self-study “ a) self-initiated and focused b) improvement aimed c) interaction in terms of its process and potential products d) the use of multiple, primarily qualitative methods e) provides exemplar-based validation - laboskey, 2004Saturday, 14 April 12
  69. 69. “ - mooney, 1957, p. 154Saturday, 14 April 12
  70. 70. “ any piece of research is accompanied by an inner and an outer drama where the researcher wrestles with his or her intimate experiences and in the traditions of science, tries to silence them.” - mooney, 1957, p. 154Saturday, 14 April 12
  71. 71. in contrast to this traditional approach we acknowledge that research is personalSaturday, 14 April 12
  72. 72. context...Saturday, 14 April 12
  73. 73. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = ,1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  74. 74. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = ,1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  75. 75. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = ,1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  76. 76. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = ,1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  77. 77. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = ,1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  78. 78. Both former PE teachers Ash = 15yrs Tim = 5yrs Both former D-PETE students Ash = P/T Tim = F/T Both junior faculty Ash = <3 yrs Tim = <1 yrSaturday, 14 April 12
  79. 79. I had more high school experience but no PETE experience Tim had less high school experience but his pete experience was more significantSaturday, 14 April 12
  80. 80. data gatheringSaturday, 14 April 12
  81. 81. two substantial reflective accountsSaturday, 14 April 12
  82. 82. 250,000 wordsSaturday, 14 April 12
  83. 83. >900 entriesSaturday, 14 April 12
  84. 84. daily reflections written since september 2009 >80 post-teaching reflections written since September 2008Saturday, 14 April 12
  85. 85. these served as artifacts “ - kelly, 2005, p. 112, our emphasisSaturday, 14 April 12
  86. 86. these served as artifacts “ re-establishing [of] contact with place must therefore be part of the self-study project. The means for doing this are to be found in such textual artefacts as church bells, personal memories, and most importantly in the literature of place” - kelly, 2005, p. 112, our emphasisSaturday, 14 April 12
  87. 87. Literature of place is text written as close to the immediacy of the moment as possible. The writer is subsequently able to partially recall the intimacy of these moments and reflect, again, on the actions they took.Saturday, 14 April 12
  88. 88. valid or trustworthy self-study?Saturday, 14 April 12
  89. 89. endeavoured to engage with four criteria “ 1. clear and detailed descriptions of data gathering 2. clear descriptions of how we constructed representations of our data 3. multiple ways of representing the same self-study 4. evidence of the value of the changes to our ways of being teacher educators. - feldman, 2003, pp. 27-28Saturday, 14 April 12
  90. 90. endeavoured to engage with four criteria “ 1. clear and detailed descriptions of data gathering 2. clear descriptions of how we constructed representations of our data 3. multiple ways of representing the same self-study 4. evidence of the value of the changes to our ways of being teacher educators. - feldman, 2003, pp. 27-28Saturday, 14 April 12
  91. 91. endeavoured to engage with four criteria “ 1. clear and detailed descriptions of data gathering 2. clear descriptions of how we constructed representations of our data 3. multiple ways of representing the same self-study 4. evidence of the value of the changes to our ways of being teacher educators. - feldman, 2003, pp. 27-28Saturday, 14 April 12
  92. 92. endeavoured to engage with four criteria “ 1. clear and detailed descriptions of data gathering 2. clear descriptions of how we constructed representations of our data 3. multiple ways of representing the same self-study 4. evidence of the value of the changes to our ways of being teacher educators. - feldman, 2003, pp. 27-28Saturday, 14 April 12
  93. 93. endeavoured to engage with four criteria “ 1. clear and detailed descriptions of data gathering 2. clear descriptions of how we constructed representations of our data 3. multiple ways of representing the same self-study 4. evidence of the value of the changes to our ways of being teacher educators. - feldman, 2003, pp. 27-28Saturday, 14 April 12
  94. 94. data analysisSaturday, 14 April 12
  95. 95. grounded theorySaturday, 14 April 12
  96. 96. “ draw out and then fix a concept”Saturday, 14 April 12
  97. 97. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  98. 98. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  99. 99. our high school experiences provided some important ideasSaturday, 14 April 12
  100. 100. yet fundamentally this still left us frustrated and challengedSaturday, 14 April 12
  101. 101. 19th July 2010 - Ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  102. 102. 19th July 2010 I need to take more responsibility for my teaching. - Ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  103. 103. I assumed I could simply transfer my practise from one setting to anotherSaturday, 14 April 12
  104. 104. in hindsight the challenges of transition should have been more obviousSaturday, 14 April 12
  105. 105. I had assumed - as had my employers - that my experience and PhD were enough to allow me to excel in PETE.Saturday, 14 April 12
  106. 106. yet I still had to consider, or understand, what my pedagogy of teacher eduction wasSaturday, 14 April 12
  107. 107. Tim recalled that... when I was teaching in schools, there was a real emphasis on quick transitions between activities, having students being physical active for as much of the class as possible, and generally keeping the class busy. first couple of lessons in his primary PE pre-service programSaturday, 14 April 12
  108. 108. he surmised that... “ Placek, 1983Saturday, 14 April 12
  109. 109. he surmised that... “ busy, happy and good” Placek, 1983Saturday, 14 April 12
  110. 110. because ...today we sat and we talked for a long time. ..I am aware of classes in school being active places/situations, however, to convey this, maybe I don’t need to model this all the time. first couple of lessons in his primary PE pre-service programSaturday, 14 April 12
  111. 111. 14th december 2009 I need to unlearn my teaching pedagogy and try and understand how the new environment works. Ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  112. 112. to unlearn my school teaching pedagogy I had to manage the emerging, dominant and residual processes of my teachingSaturday, 14 April 12
  113. 113. I had to unlearn my expectation that a teacher educator modelled best practice and had to learn instead how to be an “asker of questions”Saturday, 14 April 12
  114. 114. 26th january 2010 challenge the way in which physical education was taught at university...yet there’s a considerable distance between what I would like to be and what I currently deliver. Ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  115. 115. in a similar process of unlearning tim was at times as frustrated as he had been in his first year of high school teachingSaturday, 14 April 12
  116. 116. like many beginning teachers his first concern was if his students liked him rather than whether and to what extent they were learning about teaching PE.Saturday, 14 April 12
  117. 117. ...far too reliant on what his students thought of him as an indicator of good PETE teaching...Saturday, 14 April 12
  118. 118. ...which in turn may have limited how he helped his students to challenge their assumptions about teaching PE.Saturday, 14 April 12
  119. 119. alternative analysisSaturday, 14 April 12
  120. 120. it could be suggested that as a high school teacher tim was uncritical of his teachingSaturday, 14 April 12
  121. 121. and only by considering the “literature of place” has he come to reconsider his practices and form the opinion that his previous pedagogy was flawedSaturday, 14 April 12
  122. 122. also although I made a number of references to the need to change I chose not toSaturday, 14 April 12
  123. 123. “ silverman, 2003Saturday, 14 April 12
  124. 124. “ while the experienced teacher might see and do things differently or more intuitively than someone with little or no experience, these responses are inherently context specific.” silverman, 2003Saturday, 14 April 12
  125. 125. therefore perhaps the context was just unfamiliar and i continued to make judgements as a teacher rather than seeking answers as a teacher educator.Saturday, 14 April 12
  126. 126. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school b) from d-pete teacher educator Self-study MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  127. 127. two contrasting approaches...Saturday, 14 April 12
  128. 128. one in PETE full timeSaturday, 14 April 12
  129. 129. one supported by PETE part-timeSaturday, 14 April 12
  130. 130. unsurprisingly...Saturday, 14 April 12
  131. 131. two stories...Saturday, 14 April 12
  132. 132. Tim suggested that... I undertook a PhD in curriculum studies and teacher development but apart from my thesis study, had little focus on physical education.Saturday, 14 April 12
  133. 133. I was left to my own devices to learn about the ways that Teacher education theory and practice applied to PETE contexts.Saturday, 14 April 12
  134. 134. in contrast...Saturday, 14 April 12
  135. 135. I had no background in teacher education from perspectives related to either PETE or education generally.Saturday, 14 April 12
  136. 136. My PhD program was never designed to prepare me for a career in higher education, as it was undertaken for the sole purpose of helping me in my ongoing aim of being a better high school physical educator.Saturday, 14 April 12
  137. 137. 11th september 2009 ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  138. 138. 11th september 2009 moments of doubt strike me with regards to my complete lack of experience in this area [of teacher education]. ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  139. 139. 11th september 2009 [I am confident] in terms of my approach as a supervisor, my knowledge of action research and physical education, and my ability to help these students develop and learn. ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  140. 140. an apparent “disconnect” between research and practice was a feature of my transition; with one not necessarily informing the other.Saturday, 14 April 12
  141. 141. 4th october 2009 ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  142. 142. 4th october 2009 what the most important part the job really is? ash’s reflective diarySaturday, 14 April 12
  143. 143. site expectationsSaturday, 14 April 12
  144. 144. in many respects I was left to learn how to be A teacher of teachersSaturday, 14 April 12
  145. 145. Tim was involved withSaturday, 14 April 12
  146. 146. Tim was involved with BTE Becoming a Teacher EducatorSaturday, 14 April 12
  147. 147. voluntary, non scholarly group that stood apart from formal learningSaturday, 14 April 12
  148. 148. helped me to understand what might be required to be a new teacher educatorSaturday, 14 April 12
  149. 149. 6th july 2010 Not only does [BTE] offer a way to stay connected socially with other students interested in teacher education … but it also gives me a place where I can report back about my own successes and challenges that I experience in my role as a beginning teacher educator. tim’s reflectionsSaturday, 14 April 12
  150. 150. 12th january 2012 I felt that my experiences with BTE helped me really come to think of myself as a teacher educator, and with the communities that I am engaging with (such as S-STEP and PE SIGs at AERA and CSSE) tim’s reflectionsSaturday, 14 April 12
  151. 151. alternatively...Saturday, 14 April 12
  152. 152. I felt that through my PhD I had learned how to be an academic and an innovator but not about PETE or what my PETE pedagogy might look like or beSaturday, 14 April 12
  153. 153. alternative analysisSaturday, 14 April 12
  154. 154. given the significance of BTE it is important to question how much of my “pedagogical reinterpretation” has been shaped by this groupSaturday, 14 April 12
  155. 155. have the groups’ interpretations become mine?Saturday, 14 April 12
  156. 156. We may then consider whether the “silences” from my doctoral program would have been as strong if my thesis hadn’t explored pedagogical and curricular change but had instead been investigating, for example, teaching pre-service teachers about using models-based practice in physical education?Saturday, 14 April 12
  157. 157. We may then consider whether the “silences” from my doctoral program would have been as strong if my thesis hadn’t explored pedagogical and curricular change but had instead been investigating, for example, teaching pre-service teachers about using models-based practice in physical education?Saturday, 14 April 12
  158. 158. learning about teaching teachers Becoming a a) From high school b) from d-pete teacher educator Self-study conclusions MethodologiesSaturday, 14 April 12
  159. 159. “ Knowing teaching and schooling from the perspective of a researcher is fundamentally different than experiencing teaching and schooling from the inside. If the trend is to admit students without teaching experiences should it be provided once a student is admitted to a doctoral program?” - ward, parker et al, 2011, p.150Saturday, 14 April 12
  160. 160. however...Saturday, 14 April 12
  161. 161. while teaching experience is seen as important...Saturday, 14 April 12
  162. 162. experience teaching teachers is not...Saturday, 14 April 12
  163. 163. so we are left with a conundrum...Saturday, 14 April 12
  164. 164. we question what experience is importantSaturday, 14 April 12
  165. 165. In what capacity would you employ this man?Saturday, 14 April 12
  166. 166. Chicago employed him twiceSaturday, 14 April 12
  167. 167. Michael “Air” JordanSaturday, 14 April 12
  168. 168. Michael “Air” JordanSaturday, 14 April 12
  169. 169. was there an assumptionSaturday, 14 April 12
  170. 170. that he could transfer his skill setSaturday, 14 April 12
  171. 171. does pete make assumptions?Saturday, 14 April 12
  172. 172. that similar transition is easy to make?Saturday, 14 April 12
  173. 173. What skill set do we value?Saturday, 14 April 12
  174. 174. so we are facedSaturday, 14 April 12
  175. 175. HoustonSaturday, 14 April 12
  176. 176. “ Houston we’ve had a problem” - van der mars (2011)Saturday, 14 April 12
  177. 177. “Do or Die”Saturday, 14 April 12
  178. 178. “Strike Out!”Saturday, 14 April 12
  179. 179. Thank YouSaturday, 14 April 12
  180. 180. References Boyd, P., Harris, K., & Murray, J. (2007). Becoming a teacher educator: guidelines for the induction of newly appointed lecturers in initial teacher education. Bristol: Higher Education Academy. Feldman, A. (2003). Validity and quality in self-study. Educational Researcher, 32(3): 26-28. Graham, R. J. (1989). Autobiography and education. Journal of Educational Thought, 23(2): 92-105. Kelly, T. (2005). Truth and fiction: seeing our rural selves. In. C. Mitchell, S. Weber, & O’Reilly-Scanlon (eds.) Just who do we think we are?: Methodologies for autobiography and self-study in teaching. (pp. 111-120). London: RoutledgeFalmer.Saturday, 14 April 12
  181. 181. Kemmis, S. & Grootenboer, P. (2008). Situating praxis in practice: Practice architectures and the cultural, social and material conditions for practice. In S. Kemmis, & T. Smith (eds.) Enabling praxis: Challenges for education (pp. 37-62). Rotterdam: Sense. Murray, J. & Kosnik, C. (2011). Academic work and identities in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 37(3): 243-246. Murray, J. & Male, T. (2005). Becoming a teacher educator: Evidence from the field. Teaching & Teacher Education, 21(2): 125-142. LaBoskey, V. K. (2004). The methodology of self-study and its theoretical underpinnings. In J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey, & T. Russell (eds.), International handbook of self-study of teaching and teacher education practices (pp. 817-869). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Saturday, 14 April 12
  182. 182. Loughran, J. J. (2008). Toward a better understanding of teaching and learningabout teaching. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. J. McIntyre & K. E. Demers(Eds.). Handbook of research on teacher education. 3rd ed. (pp. 1177-1182) NewYork: Routledge.Mooney, R.L. (1957). The researcher himself. In Research for curriculumimprovement, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1957yearbook (pp. 154-186). Washington, DC: Association for Supervision andCurriculum Development.Placek, J. (1983). Conceptions of success in teaching: Busy, happy, and good? In T. J.Templin & J. Olson (Eds.). Teaching in physical education. (pp. 45-56). Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics.Saturday, 14 April 12
  183. 183. Samaras, A. P. & Freese, A. R. (2006). Self-study of teaching practices primer. NewYork: Peter Lang.Silverman, S. (2003). The role of teaching in the preparation of future faculty.Quest, 55(1): 72-81.van der Mars, H. (2011). Reflecting on the state of U.S. Doctoral PETE programs…“Houston, we’ve had a problem.” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(2):189-208.Ward, P., Parker, M., Sutherland, S. & Sinclair, C. (2011). A critical examination ofthe curriculum of physical education teacher education doctoral programs.Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(4): 145-156.Saturday, 14 April 12
  184. 184. van Velzen, C., van der Klink, M., Swennen, A., & Yaffe, E. (2010). The induction andneeds of beginning teacher educators, Professional Development in Education,36(1-2): 61-75.Williams, J. & Ritter, J. K. (2010). Constructing new professional identities throughself-study: From teacher to teacher educator. Professional Development inEducation, 36(1): 77-92.Williamson, K. M. (1993). A qualitative study on the socialization of beginningphysical education teacher educators. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport,64(2): 188-201.Saturday, 14 April 12
  185. 185. Woods, M. L., Goc Karp, G., & Judd, M. (2011). Search chair and physical educationteacher perceptions about filling PETE positions. Journal of Teaching in PhysicalEducation, 30(4): 129-144.Zeichner, K. M. (1999). The new scholarship in teacher education. EducationalResearcher, 28(9): 4-15Saturday, 14 April 12
  186. 186. Images Slide Number 4, 5, 35, 164 – Michael Jordan from warezone.com 10 – JTPE image from Human kinetics 13, 173 – Apollo capsule image from universetoday.com 16, 17 – Apollo from space image from nasa 18, 19, 20, 174 – ground control 1 image from starling-fitness.com 23, 24, 25 – ground control 2 image from en.wikipedia.org 26, 27 – moon free image from computer 99, 100 – School by Jibby! on Flickr 166, 172 – basketball Jordan from shareyourwallpaper.com 167, 175 – Baseball Jordan from framework.latimes.comSaturday, 14 April 12
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