Violent OffendersViolent Offenders
Anna C. SalterAnna C. Salter
AgendaAgenda
Violent ThinkingViolent Thinking
Lonnie AthensLonnie Athens
Treating Violent OffendersTreating Violent Off...
Theories of ViolenceTheories of Violence
Loss of ControlLoss of Control
Product of Distorted ThinkingProduct of Distorte...
Loss of ControlLoss of Control
Impulse ControlImpulse Control
Stop and ThinkStop and Think
Exit Risky SituationsExit Ri...
Loss of ControlLoss of Control
 Interviews 20 Violent OffendersInterviews 20 Violent Offenders
 Meaning Units = PhrasesM...
Violent SchemasViolent Schemas
Violence is NormalViolence is Normal
No ChoiceNo Choice
Hostile Attribution BiasHostile ...
Violence is NormalViolence is Normal
 Normal for disciplineNormal for discipline
 Normal for achieving goalsNormal for achieving goals
Elway: Attacked Officer – StabbedElway: Attacked Officer – Stabbed
in Headin Head
 ““I feel like it was justified. The on...
Elway: Effect on Victims?Elway: Effect on Victims?
A. “Probably none.”A. “Probably none.”
Q. “Why not?”Q. “Why not?”
A. “C...
ElwayElway
““ The rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphereThe rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphere
and it’...
Hit a Man on a Bike with His CarHit a Man on a Bike with His Car
Just to See What It Would Do toJust to See What It Would ...
Why Not a Criminal?Why Not a Criminal?
““A criminal is one who terminally focuses onA criminal is one who terminally focus...
Home Invasion Looking for Drugs:Home Invasion Looking for Drugs:
Killed a Man and a 7 MonthKilled a Man and a 7 Month
Preg...
No ChoiceNo Choice
““She wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit herShe wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit her
first.”first.”
(...
No ChoiceNo Choice
““How else was I going to get through to himHow else was I going to get through to him
that schoolwork ...
Violence is NormalViolence is Normal
Meaning UnitsMeaning Units
46%46%
(Polaschek et al., 2010)(Polaschek et al., 2010)
Gang MemberGang Member
Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed?Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed?
A. I...
Q.Q. How do you know you were wrong?How do you know you were wrong?
A. The situation and the circumstances. Cause I didn't...
 ““But you have to understand that. You may haveBut you have to understand that. You may have
grown up in a different fam...
““Violent prisoners spoke of violence as aViolent prisoners spoke of violence as a
routine occurrence between people thatr...
““Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’
others to do things, can be exhilar...
Self ImageSelf Image
 ““I guess when you’re young, you want toI guess when you’re young, you want to
be feared, you want to be respected.”be f...
Shot an Officer, a Deputy andShot an Officer, a Deputy and
Escaped from VehicleEscaped from Vehicle
Pride in ViolencePride in Violence
““I had a lot of time. I didn’t want to do the time. II had a lot of time. I didn’t wan...
Violent Self ImageViolent Self Image
““I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. .I’m a man, and I want to be treate...
““My son was getting into fights at school.My son was getting into fights at school.
So I taught both sons to box after sc...
Self-Images and InterpretationsSelf-Images and Interpretations
 NonviolentNonviolent
 Occasionally ViolentOccasionally V...
Nonviolent Self Image: AggravatedNonviolent Self Image: Aggravated
AssaultAssault
““[My husband] thought I had a lot of se...
Incipiently Violent Sex Images: CriminalIncipiently Violent Sex Images: Criminal
HomicideHomicide
““I didn’t care about an...
Violent Self ImageViolent Self Image
““I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. .I’m a man, and I want to be treate...
Self-Image/Social StatusSelf-Image/Social Status
Meaning Units = PhrasesMeaning Units = Phrases
20 violent offenders20 vio...
Victim Deserved ItVictim Deserved It
(Widget Theory)(Widget Theory)
16-Year-Old After Battery and16-Year-Old After Battery and
Attempted Homicide of Female StaffAttempted Homicide of Female ...
LeroyLeroy
 Staff alone in boothStaff alone in booth
 Left booth to make snack for unitLeft booth to make snack for unit...
LeroyLeroy
 ““I heard it crack when her head hit. At first itI heard it crack when her head hit. At first it
surprised me...
LeroyLeroy
 ““She was quiet for a minute after the third timeShe was quiet for a minute after the third time
and I though...
LeroyLeroy
 ““Q. Do you know the difference in rightQ. Do you know the difference in right
and wrong?”and wrong?”
 A. “I...
LeroyLeroy
 Q. “Did you think you were doing anythingQ. “Did you think you were doing anything
wrong?”wrong?”
 A. “No, c...
Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy
At sentencingAt sentencing
 Headaches every day, sometimes excruciatingHea...
Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy
 Sensitive to light, noise and motionSensitive to light, noise and motion
...
Impact on Victims:Impact on Victims:
Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response
 ““I’m not sure? I’m not going to go off intoI’m no...
Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response
 ““All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”
Callousness: EthanCallousness: Ethan
Robbed and beat 86 year-old womanRobbed and beat 86 year-old woman
Robbed 74 year-o...
Impact on Victim: EthanImpact on Victim: Ethan
DeterioratedDeteriorated
Unable to live aloneUnable to live alone
Incohe...
Ethan: NarcissismEthan: Narcissism
 Q. “How do you feel about little old ladyQ. “How do you feel about little old lady
de...
EthanEthan
 Q. “She got beaten.”Q. “She got beaten.”
 A. “Yes, but she resisted. This woman foughtA. “Yes, but she resis...
EthanEthan
 ““We are in a society that lacks mercy.We are in a society that lacks mercy.
They want to punish a guy foreve...
Attacked Officers in JailAttacked Officers in Jail
 That incident in the county jail it wasn’t personal. ItThat incident ...
Shallow AffectShallow Affect
 Q. “ Were you ever in love?”Q. “ Were you ever in love?”
 A. “I was very much emotionally ...
Shallow Affect (continued)Shallow Affect (continued)
 ““I exposed myself – I did in some sense – II exposed myself – I di...
Interaction of Genes andInteraction of Genes and
EnvironmentEnvironment
Males with low MAOA activity alleleMales with low ...
Genetic Contribution to ViolentGenetic Contribution to Violent
BehaviorBehavior
½ Variance in antisocial behavior½ Varianc...
Genetics & EnvironmentGenetics & Environment
InteractiveInteractive
(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)(Rowe, 2002; Ru...
Violence Delinquency ScaleViolence Delinquency Scale
 How many times past 12 months hurt someoneHow many times past 12 mo...
Violent AdolescentsViolent Adolescents
3 samples3 samples
Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment
Institutional AssessmentI...
Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors
00 1 or more1 or more
Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment
High...
Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors
Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment
High riskHigh ri...
Protective FactorsProtective Factors
Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders
 Prosocial involvementProso...
Which Factors?Which Factors?
 Strong social supportStrong social support
 Strong attachments to prosocial adultsStrong a...
PsychopathyPsychopathy
Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy &
ViolenceViolence
Age RangeAge Range HighHigh LowLow
Younger (13 - 15.5)Yo...
High Vs Low PsychopathyHigh Vs Low Psychopathy
AdolescentsAdolescents
10 or More10 or More
Violent ActsViolent Acts
 High...
Psychopathic AdolescentsPsychopathic Adolescents
 More criminal actsMore criminal acts
 More types of criminal actsMore ...
Psychopathic Adolescent SexPsychopathic Adolescent Sex
OffendersOffenders
 Threatened moreThreatened more
 Used more sev...
Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy &
RecidivismRecidivism
N = 189N = 189
HighHigh LowLow
NonviolentNonviolent ...
Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy &
RecidivismRecidivism
N = 189N = 189
HighHigh LowLow
Months toMonths to
Re...
Protective FactorsProtective Factors
Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders
 Prosocial involvementProso...
TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #4 Violence
TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #4 Violence
TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #4 Violence
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #4 Violence

298

Published on

Texas Forensic Mental Health Conference
Presenter: Dr. Salter
Presentation: Violence
#4

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
298
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #4 Violence

  1. 1. Violent OffendersViolent Offenders Anna C. SalterAnna C. Salter
  2. 2. AgendaAgenda Violent ThinkingViolent Thinking Lonnie AthensLonnie Athens Treating Violent OffendersTreating Violent Offenders
  3. 3. Theories of ViolenceTheories of Violence Loss of ControlLoss of Control Product of Distorted ThinkingProduct of Distorted Thinking
  4. 4. Loss of ControlLoss of Control Impulse ControlImpulse Control Stop and ThinkStop and Think Exit Risky SituationsExit Risky Situations
  5. 5. Loss of ControlLoss of Control  Interviews 20 Violent OffendersInterviews 20 Violent Offenders  Meaning Units = PhrasesMeaning Units = Phrases Loss of ControlLoss of Control 12%12% (Polaschek et a., 2010)(Polaschek et a., 2010)
  6. 6. Violent SchemasViolent Schemas Violence is NormalViolence is Normal No ChoiceNo Choice Hostile Attribution BiasHostile Attribution Bias Social StatusSocial Status Self ImageSelf Image Victim Deserved It (Widget Theory)Victim Deserved It (Widget Theory)
  7. 7. Violence is NormalViolence is Normal
  8. 8.  Normal for disciplineNormal for discipline  Normal for achieving goalsNormal for achieving goals
  9. 9. Elway: Attacked Officer – StabbedElway: Attacked Officer – Stabbed in Headin Head  ““I feel like it was justified. The only thingI feel like it was justified. The only thing was my objective wasn’t fully completed.was my objective wasn’t fully completed. But other than that.”But other than that.” Q. “What was your objective?”Q. “What was your objective?” A. “To kill him. I wasn’t stabbing him just toA. “To kill him. I wasn’t stabbing him just to be stabbing.”be stabbing.”
  10. 10. Elway: Effect on Victims?Elway: Effect on Victims? A. “Probably none.”A. “Probably none.” Q. “Why not?”Q. “Why not?” A. “Cause none of them are dead or paralyzed.”A. “Cause none of them are dead or paralyzed.” Q. “So it wouldn’t have any effect?”Q. “So it wouldn’t have any effect?” A. “I think it will on certain people – like young,A. “I think it will on certain people – like young, someone 14 or probably people who live in ansomeone 14 or probably people who live in an area where it’s pretty much peaceful andarea where it’s pretty much peaceful and nonviolent so it would be strange to seenonviolent so it would be strange to see anything violent.”anything violent.”
  11. 11. ElwayElway ““ The rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphereThe rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphere and it’s pretty normal – anybody who works inand it’s pretty normal – anybody who works in DOC it wouldn’t have any effect unless they’reDOC it wouldn’t have any effect unless they’re dead or paralyzed or give them a big scar ondead or paralyzed or give them a big scar on their face so they have to look at it every day.their face so they have to look at it every day. So if I attack an officer that’s what I’d try to do,So if I attack an officer that’s what I’d try to do, so they’re dead or paralyzed or they have toso they’re dead or paralyzed or they have to see it every day and know I did it to them.”see it every day and know I did it to them.”
  12. 12. Hit a Man on a Bike with His CarHit a Man on a Bike with His Car Just to See What It Would Do toJust to See What It Would Do to HimHim ““Do I consider myself a criminal? No.Do I consider myself a criminal? No. Basically just doing stuff, just breaking theBasically just doing stuff, just breaking the law.”law.”
  13. 13. Why Not a Criminal?Why Not a Criminal? ““A criminal is one who terminally focuses onA criminal is one who terminally focuses on doing crime. They don’t just think aboutdoing crime. They don’t just think about it on the spur of the moment. Criminalsit on the spur of the moment. Criminals plan it more. They scheme. I don’t everplan it more. They scheme. I don’t ever scheme.”scheme.”
  14. 14. Home Invasion Looking for Drugs:Home Invasion Looking for Drugs: Killed a Man and a 7 MonthKilled a Man and a 7 Month Pregnant Woman – Couple Had NoPregnant Woman – Couple Had No DrugsDrugs ““ It was part of the way I was living. It didn’tIt was part of the way I was living. It didn’t feel right or wrong. Actually, it didn’t feelfeel right or wrong. Actually, it didn’t feel wrong. It felt I was forced to do somethingwrong. It felt I was forced to do something I really didn’t want to do, but . . . itI really didn’t want to do, but . . . it happened.”happened.”
  15. 15. No ChoiceNo Choice ““She wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit herShe wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit her first.”first.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  16. 16. No ChoiceNo Choice ““How else was I going to get through to himHow else was I going to get through to him that schoolwork was important?”that schoolwork was important?” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  17. 17. Violence is NormalViolence is Normal Meaning UnitsMeaning Units 46%46% (Polaschek et al., 2010)(Polaschek et al., 2010)
  18. 18. Gang MemberGang Member Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed?Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed? A. I don't talk about that. . . . When the incidentA. I don't talk about that. . . . When the incident first took place I didn't have no remorse at allfirst took place I didn't have no remorse at all because I thought it was the right thing. But Ibecause I thought it was the right thing. But I have thought about it and I think I was wrong forhave thought about it and I think I was wrong for what took place on that day.what took place on that day.
  19. 19. Q.Q. How do you know you were wrong?How do you know you were wrong? A. The situation and the circumstances. Cause I didn'tA. The situation and the circumstances. Cause I didn't have to do it. It was all over territory and I had tohave to do it. It was all over territory and I had to prove my loyalty. I thought that was right. That's whatprove my loyalty. I thought that was right. That's what I had to do to be accepted in the GangsterI had to do to be accepted in the Gangster Disciples. . . . You're the first person I ever saidDisciples. . . . You're the first person I ever said anything about it to. . . . It was absolutely wrong. Itanything about it to. . . . It was absolutely wrong. It was an utter mistake.was an utter mistake.
  20. 20.  ““But you have to understand that. You may haveBut you have to understand that. You may have grown up in a different family. But I grew up Chicagogrown up in a different family. But I grew up Chicago where people die every day. In order to be in awhere people die every day. In order to be in a certain organization you have to do certain things.certain organization you have to do certain things. And me being brainwashed in that way I had to doAnd me being brainwashed in that way I had to do that thing. And it protected me. Because I could gothat thing. And it protected me. Because I could go to somebody and they would protect me. ‘Hey man,to somebody and they would protect me. ‘Hey man, let's go shoot up those n. . . . Let's take their familylet's go shoot up those n. . . . Let's take their family hostage and teach them a lesson.’ That's how I washostage and teach them a lesson.’ That's how I was taught.”taught.”
  21. 21. ““Violent prisoners spoke of violence as aViolent prisoners spoke of violence as a routine occurrence between people thatroutine occurrence between people that hardly needs explaining and that could behardly needs explaining and that could be helpful in achieving some personal andhelpful in achieving some personal and social goals.”social goals.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)
  22. 22. ““Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’ others to do things, can be exhilarating orothers to do things, can be exhilarating or simply make you feel better, and usually itsimply make you feel better, and usually it makes others treat you with respect.”makes others treat you with respect.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)
  23. 23. Self ImageSelf Image
  24. 24.  ““I guess when you’re young, you want toI guess when you’re young, you want to be feared, you want to be respected.”be feared, you want to be respected.”
  25. 25. Shot an Officer, a Deputy andShot an Officer, a Deputy and Escaped from VehicleEscaped from Vehicle
  26. 26. Pride in ViolencePride in Violence ““I had a lot of time. I didn’t want to do the time. II had a lot of time. I didn’t want to do the time. I had to do something for myself. I tried to helphad to do something for myself. I tried to help myself. I owed that to myself to try to regainmyself. I owed that to myself to try to regain my freedom. I was going to leave the countrymy freedom. I was going to leave the country and never come back. I was quite young then,and never come back. I was quite young then, compared to what I am now and fearless [pridecompared to what I am now and fearless [pride expression] -- intrepid at that time --and didn’texpression] -- intrepid at that time --and didn’t think the way I think now. I would be morethink the way I think now. I would be more concerned about my welfare now and my familyconcerned about my welfare now and my family – something happen to me what would they– something happen to me what would they think – then I didn’t consider those things.”think – then I didn’t consider those things.”
  27. 27. Violent Self ImageViolent Self Image ““I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. .I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. . . I don’t care who a person is or who they think. I don’t care who a person is or who they think they are either; they better not play around withthey are either; they better not play around with me. I’ll show them who in the hell they’reme. I’ll show them who in the hell they’re playing with. They’ll find out fast they aren’tplaying with. They’ll find out fast they aren’t fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . .fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . . I’ve ruined more than one good man in myI’ve ruined more than one good man in my time, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s thetime, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s the way I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day Iway I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day I die.”die.” (Athens, 1997, p. 57)(Athens, 1997, p. 57)
  28. 28. ““My son was getting into fights at school.My son was getting into fights at school. So I taught both sons to box after school,So I taught both sons to box after school, so they could defend themselves. I didn’tso they could defend themselves. I didn’t want my sons looking like [cowards] orwant my sons looking like [cowards] or being walking [being walking [sic]sic] over by every Tom,over by every Tom, Dick, or Harry. Everyone needs respect.”Dick, or Harry. Everyone needs respect.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  29. 29. Self-Images and InterpretationsSelf-Images and Interpretations  NonviolentNonviolent  Occasionally ViolentOccasionally Violent  Continually ViolentContinually Violent
  30. 30. Nonviolent Self Image: AggravatedNonviolent Self Image: Aggravated AssaultAssault ““[My husband] thought I had a lot of sense for my[My husband] thought I had a lot of sense for my age. He considered me a pretty good wife, andage. He considered me a pretty good wife, and he knew that I had enough class for him to takehe knew that I had enough class for him to take me anywhere. I was intelligent and a goodme anywhere. I was intelligent and a good conversationalist and hostess. . . I felt like aconversationalist and hostess. . . I felt like a lady and wanted to be treated like a lady, butlady and wanted to be treated like a lady, but my husband was getting crazy and thenmy husband was getting crazy and then embarrassing me in front of everybody behindembarrassing me in front of everybody behind his jealousy.”his jealousy.” (Athens, 1997, p. 59)(Athens, 1997, p. 59)
  31. 31. Incipiently Violent Sex Images: CriminalIncipiently Violent Sex Images: Criminal HomicideHomicide ““I didn’t care about anything. I let myself goI didn’t care about anything. I let myself go completely. . . I was a bitter and bad-temperedcompletely. . . I was a bitter and bad-tempered person. . . I felt rejected and like a stupid foolperson. . . I felt rejected and like a stupid fool for letting my husband mistreatment. I wasfor letting my husband mistreatment. I was getting fed up and easily angered by things. Igetting fed up and easily angered by things. I made a lot of awful threats to people, but theymade a lot of awful threats to people, but they thought it was mostly just big talk. Everybodythought it was mostly just big talk. Everybody thought that I would do little real action besidesthought that I would do little real action besides get drunk, scream and cuss, and throw thingsget drunk, scream and cuss, and throw things at people until I passed out.”at people until I passed out.” (Athens,(Athens, 1997, p. 58)1997, p. 58)
  32. 32. Violent Self ImageViolent Self Image ““I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. .I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. . . I don’t care who a person is or who they think. I don’t care who a person is or who they think they are either; they better not play around withthey are either; they better not play around with me. I’ll show them who in the hell they’reme. I’ll show them who in the hell they’re playing with. They’ll find out fast they aren’tplaying with. They’ll find out fast they aren’t fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . .fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . . I’ve ruined more than one good man in myI’ve ruined more than one good man in my time, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s thetime, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s the way I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day Iway I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day I die.”die.” (Athens, 1997, p. 57)(Athens, 1997, p. 57)
  33. 33. Self-Image/Social StatusSelf-Image/Social Status Meaning Units = PhrasesMeaning Units = Phrases 20 violent offenders20 violent offenders 57% of Meaning Units57% of Meaning Units Self ImageSelf Image (Polaschek et al., 2010)(Polaschek et al., 2010)
  34. 34. Victim Deserved ItVictim Deserved It (Widget Theory)(Widget Theory)
  35. 35. 16-Year-Old After Battery and16-Year-Old After Battery and Attempted Homicide of Female StaffAttempted Homicide of Female Staff Member: LeroyMember: Leroy  ““It didn’t matter who was in the booth, . . I wasIt didn’t matter who was in the booth, . . I was gonna go, and it didn’t matter who was there.gonna go, and it didn’t matter who was there. I was gonna fight them and take them down.I was gonna fight them and take them down. It’s not very hard to take that little punyIt’s not very hard to take that little puny pathetic staff down. I’d rather be dead thanpathetic staff down. I’d rather be dead than locked up. .. . I told the staff six months ago Ilocked up. .. . I told the staff six months ago I was gonna get out no matter what, and when Iwas gonna get out no matter what, and when I got out I was gonna strip them naked and draggot out I was gonna strip them naked and drag their assess down the hall and put them in thattheir assess down the hall and put them in that room where they put us.”room where they put us.”
  36. 36. LeroyLeroy  Staff alone in boothStaff alone in booth  Left booth to make snack for unitLeft booth to make snack for unit  His door unlockedHis door unlocked  ““Don’t hurt me”Don’t hurt me”  Beat her head on floor repeatedly –Beat her head on floor repeatedly – multiple skull fracturesmultiple skull fractures  Stripped her, dragged her 117’ and left herStripped her, dragged her 117’ and left her
  37. 37. LeroyLeroy  ““I heard it crack when her head hit. At first itI heard it crack when her head hit. At first it surprised me. I told her to shut up, but shesurprised me. I told her to shut up, but she wouldn’t. She cried louder. . . I slammed herwouldn’t. She cried louder. . . I slammed her dead down on the floor. I had a limited time todead down on the floor. I had a limited time to get out of there. I was running out of time.get out of there. I was running out of time. The guards were checking every ten minutes.The guards were checking every ten minutes. I slammed her head against the floor fourI slammed her head against the floor four more times because she wouldn’t shut up. Imore times because she wouldn’t shut up. I was fixing to break her neck. Every time Iwas fixing to break her neck. Every time I slammed her head on the floor, I heard herslammed her head on the floor, I heard her
  38. 38. LeroyLeroy  ““She was quiet for a minute after the third timeShe was quiet for a minute after the third time and I thought that was it, but then she startedand I thought that was it, but then she started moving again, so I did it two more times. Imoving again, so I did it two more times. I thought she was dead. I didn’t care. I wasthought she was dead. I didn’t care. I was gonna kill any staff. It didn’t matter to me.”gonna kill any staff. It didn’t matter to me.”
  39. 39. LeroyLeroy  ““Q. Do you know the difference in rightQ. Do you know the difference in right and wrong?”and wrong?”  A. “I don’t think about right and wrong. I’mA. “I don’t think about right and wrong. I’m cold-hearted.”cold-hearted.”
  40. 40. LeroyLeroy  Q. “Did you think you were doing anythingQ. “Did you think you were doing anything wrong?”wrong?”  A. “No, cause I was thinking I got threeA. “No, cause I was thinking I got three minutes to leave before they come.”minutes to leave before they come.”
  41. 41. Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy At sentencingAt sentencing  Headaches every day, sometimes excruciatingHeadaches every day, sometimes excruciating  DizzinessDizziness  NauseaNausea  Permanent loss of smell and tastePermanent loss of smell and taste  Neck and back painNeck and back pain  Some days couldn’t get out of bedSome days couldn’t get out of bed  Couldn’t driveCouldn’t drive  Wouldn’t be aloneWouldn’t be alone  Nightmares, flashbacksNightmares, flashbacks
  42. 42. Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy  Sensitive to light, noise and motionSensitive to light, noise and motion  Left alone for a few hours – locked self inLeft alone for a few hours – locked self in bathroombathroom
  43. 43. Impact on Victims:Impact on Victims: Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response  ““I’m not sure? I’m not going to go off intoI’m not sure? I’m not going to go off into the guessing. I only know what they put inthe guessing. I only know what they put in the files and none of that has beenthe files and none of that has been substantiated. . . It’s only her side of thesubstantiated. . . It’s only her side of the story, the side of the story that they wantstory, the side of the story that they want to portray. “to portray. “
  44. 44. Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response  ““All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”
  45. 45. Callousness: EthanCallousness: Ethan Robbed and beat 86 year-old womanRobbed and beat 86 year-old woman Robbed 74 year-old womanRobbed 74 year-old woman
  46. 46. Impact on Victim: EthanImpact on Victim: Ethan DeterioratedDeteriorated Unable to live aloneUnable to live alone Incoherent within monthsIncoherent within months
  47. 47. Ethan: NarcissismEthan: Narcissism  Q. “How do you feel about little old ladyQ. “How do you feel about little old lady deteriorating? “deteriorating? “  A. “She took a deposition. Are you sure it’s him?A. “She took a deposition. Are you sure it’s him? She didn’t want to say it was me. She started toShe didn’t want to say it was me. She started to waiver. She was a school teacher. She knew theywaiver. She was a school teacher. She knew they were going to hang me. She didn’t want that towere going to hang me. She didn’t want that to happen. I believe. She told a story about somehappen. I believe. She told a story about some horse thieves . . . the posse came along and arrestedhorse thieves . . . the posse came along and arrested all of them. . . a young boy was there and they triedall of them. . . a young boy was there and they tried to hang him too . . she asked the detective was thisto hang him too . . she asked the detective was this right? That’s the parable she tried to tell him. Iright? That’s the parable she tried to tell him. I believe it was a message to me. . . I will always honorbelieve it was a message to me. . . I will always honor her for that as I honor all women.”her for that as I honor all women.”
  48. 48. EthanEthan  Q. “She got beaten.”Q. “She got beaten.”  A. “Yes, but she resisted. This woman foughtA. “Yes, but she resisted. This woman fought me as hard as anybody could fight. I know howme as hard as anybody could fight. I know how it looks. I was not intending to use any moreit looks. I was not intending to use any more force than I needed to. This woman fought meforce than I needed to. This woman fought me fiercely. Never for one moment did she admit.fiercely. Never for one moment did she admit. I was saying, ‘Lady, lady please.’ Yes, she gotI was saying, ‘Lady, lady please.’ Yes, she got beat but I know in my heart I didn’t do itbeat but I know in my heart I didn’t do it sadistically and I didn’t do it any more than wassadistically and I didn’t do it any more than was necessary.necessary. 
  49. 49. EthanEthan  ““We are in a society that lacks mercy.We are in a society that lacks mercy. They want to punish a guy forever.”They want to punish a guy forever.”
  50. 50. Attacked Officers in JailAttacked Officers in Jail  That incident in the county jail it wasn’t personal. ItThat incident in the county jail it wasn’t personal. It wasn’t one of those things that officer so and so iswasn’t one of those things that officer so and so is working today – whoever was working – it was goingworking today – whoever was working – it was going to happen. . . You go into that situation knowing . . .to happen. . . You go into that situation knowing . . . Just like if you go in a robbery with a gun, you don’tJust like if you go in a robbery with a gun, you don’t think you are going to kill someone. But you knowthink you are going to kill someone. But you know you need to take the gun in the robbery because youyou need to take the gun in the robbery because you might need to kill someone. Of course that’s wrong.might need to kill someone. Of course that’s wrong. But you don’t care. Why should I care? That’s whyBut you don’t care. Why should I care? That’s why you need to get to the point where you care.you need to get to the point where you care.
  51. 51. Shallow AffectShallow Affect  Q. “ Were you ever in love?”Q. “ Were you ever in love?”  A. “I was very much emotionally attachedA. “I was very much emotionally attached to all of them in a sense. I don’t want toto all of them in a sense. I don’t want to say I was in love with them because I stillsay I was in love with them because I still don’t know what love is.”don’t know what love is.”
  52. 52. Shallow Affect (continued)Shallow Affect (continued)  ““I exposed myself – I did in some sense – II exposed myself – I did in some sense – I don’t mean any disrespect when I say this –don’t mean any disrespect when I say this – women – you demand some kind ofwomen – you demand some kind of connection – you hunger for something moreconnection – you hunger for something more than a mutual friendship. Eventually they worethan a mutual friendship. Eventually they wore me down in the sense that I did tell themme down in the sense that I did tell them certain things but I did this in a way that if theycertain things but I did this in a way that if they said something to someone else I would knowsaid something to someone else I would know who said it.”who said it.”
  53. 53. Interaction of Genes andInteraction of Genes and EnvironmentEnvironment Males with low MAOA activity alleleMales with low MAOA activity allele (specific gene)(specific gene) ++ Childhood maltreatmentChildhood maltreatment Increased antisocial behaviorIncreased antisocial behavior (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  54. 54. Genetic Contribution to ViolentGenetic Contribution to Violent BehaviorBehavior ½ Variance in antisocial behavior½ Variance in antisocial behavior Due to genetic factorsDue to genetic factors ( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)& Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)
  55. 55. Genetics & EnvironmentGenetics & Environment InteractiveInteractive (Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)
  56. 56. Violence Delinquency ScaleViolence Delinquency Scale  How many times past 12 months hurt someoneHow many times past 12 months hurt someone badly enough to require medical attentionbadly enough to require medical attention  Used a weapon to get something fromUsed a weapon to get something from someonesomeone  Took part in a group fightTook part in a group fight (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  57. 57. Violent AdolescentsViolent Adolescents 3 samples3 samples Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment Assessment Before ReleaseAssessment Before Release (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  58. 58. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors 00 1 or more1 or more Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment High riskHigh risk 40%40% 6%6% Low riskLow risk 1212 66 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  59. 59. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment High riskHigh risk 8686 5454 Low riskLow risk 4444 1313 Pre-ReleasePre-Release High riskHigh risk 7878 3333 Low riskLow risk 3838 33 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  60. 60. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  61. 61. Which Factors?Which Factors?  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments to prosocial adultsStrong attachments to prosocial adults
  62. 62. PsychopathyPsychopathy
  63. 63. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & ViolenceViolence Age RangeAge Range HighHigh LowLow Younger (13 - 15.5)Younger (13 - 15.5) 52%52% 12%12% Mid (15.5 - 18)Mid (15.5 - 18) 64%64% 54%54% Older (18 - 20.5)Older (18 - 20.5) 48%48% 33%33% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  64. 64. High Vs Low PsychopathyHigh Vs Low Psychopathy AdolescentsAdolescents 10 or More10 or More Violent ActsViolent Acts  High PsychopathyHigh Psychopathy 64%64%  Low PsychopathyLow Psychopathy 37%37% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  65. 65. Psychopathic AdolescentsPsychopathic Adolescents  More criminal actsMore criminal acts  More types of criminal actsMore types of criminal acts  Earlier age of onset for violent & nonviolentEarlier age of onset for violent & nonviolent offensesoffenses  More likely to have threatened with a weaponMore likely to have threatened with a weapon  More likely to commit robbery & arsonMore likely to commit robbery & arson  More likely to commit a sexual offenseMore likely to commit a sexual offense (Forth & Burke, 1998)(Forth & Burke, 1998)
  66. 66. Psychopathic Adolescent SexPsychopathic Adolescent Sex OffendersOffenders  Threatened moreThreatened more  Used more severe violenceUsed more severe violence (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  67. 67. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow NonviolentNonviolent 66%66% 27%27% ViolentViolent 31%31% 12%12% (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  68. 68. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow Months toMonths to RecidivismRecidivism 1616 2727 (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  69. 69. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×