TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #2 Fooling Ourselves

244

Published on

Texas Forensic Mental Health Conference
Presenter: Dr. Salter
Presentation: Fooling Ourselves
#2

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
244
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

TX Forensic Mental Health Conf. #2 Fooling Ourselves

  1. 1. Deception:Deception: How We Fool OurselvesHow We Fool Ourselves Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.
  2. 2. ““I choose to believe there is good inI choose to believe there is good in everyone because of the unintendedeveryone because of the unintended consequences to my life if I do not. I feelconsequences to my life if I do not. I feel an openness to others that wouldn’t bean openness to others that wouldn’t be there if I didn’t believe that there’s good inthere if I didn’t believe that there’s good in everybody.”everybody.”
  3. 3.  ““I have a guardian angel that looks afterI have a guardian angel that looks after me.”me.”  ““Everything happens for a reason.”Everything happens for a reason.”  ““Things turn out for the best.”Things turn out for the best.”
  4. 4. Positive IllusionsPositive Illusions
  5. 5. Matlin & Stang.Matlin & Stang. The Pollyanna Principle.The Pollyanna Principle. 19781978 Summarized over 1000 studiesSummarized over 1000 studies
  6. 6. 1. When exposed to pleasant and1. When exposed to pleasant and unpleasant experiences forunpleasant experiences for equalequal periods of time, people report theperiods of time, people report the pleasant were more frequent.pleasant were more frequent. 2. People remember pleasant information2. People remember pleasant information better and more accurately thanbetter and more accurately than unpleasant.unpleasant. (Matlin and Stang, 1978)(Matlin and Stang, 1978)
  7. 7. 3.3. Pleasant information is easier to learnPleasant information is easier to learn than unpleasant.than unpleasant. 4. People recognize pleasant words quicker4. People recognize pleasant words quicker than unpleasant.than unpleasant. (Matlin and Stang, 1978)(Matlin and Stang, 1978)
  8. 8. 5.5. People exaggerate the likelihood of pleasantPeople exaggerate the likelihood of pleasant events.events. 6.6. The pleasant member of antonym pairs is saidThe pleasant member of antonym pairs is said before the unpleasant, for instance, good-bad,before the unpleasant, for instance, good-bad, sweet-sour, right-wrong.sweet-sour, right-wrong. 7. Pleasant words tended to enter the English7. Pleasant words tended to enter the English language first and have higher frequencieslanguage first and have higher frequencies than do unpleasant.than do unpleasant.
  9. 9. 8. People use positive terms far more often8. People use positive terms far more often than negative whether in writing orthan negative whether in writing or speaking.speaking. 9. People slant their memories in a positive9. People slant their memories in a positive direction over time.direction over time.
  10. 10. 10. People think the present is better for10. People think the present is better for them personally than the past and thethem personally than the past and the future will be better still regardless of thefuture will be better still regardless of the actual probabilities.actual probabilities.
  11. 11. Rated Selves More PositivelyRated Selves More Positively than Peer of Same Sex and Agethan Peer of Same Sex and Age 87%87% (Taylor, Lerner et al., Submitted for Publication)(Taylor, Lerner et al., Submitted for Publication)
  12. 12.  One’s StrengthsOne’s Strengths ImportantImportant RareRare  One’s FailingsOne’s Failings UnimportantUnimportant CommonCommon (Campbell, 1986; Marks, 1984)s(Campbell, 1986; Marks, 1984)s
  13. 13. Time is on Our SideTime is on Our Side Poor PerformancePoor Performance Remember as BetterRemember as Better 20 Minutes Later20 Minutes Later (Greenwald, 1980)(Greenwald, 1980)
  14. 14. FeedbackFeedback  PositivePositive Recalled EasilyRecalled Easily Process QuicklyProcess Quickly  NegativeNegative Hard to RecallHard to Recall Processed SlowlyProcessed Slowly (Kuiper and Derry 1982; Kuiper and MacDonald(Kuiper and Derry 1982; Kuiper and MacDonald 1982; Kuiper, Olinger et al. 1985)1982; Kuiper, Olinger et al. 1985)
  15. 15. Not Recent PhenomenaNot Recent Phenomena One monthOne month Rated mood each day compared toRated mood each day compared to OwnOwn typical moodtypical mood Almost everybodyAlmost everybody Typically happier than they typically areTypically happier than they typically are (Johnson, 1938)(Johnson, 1938)
  16. 16. How does this apply to deception?How does this apply to deception?
  17. 17. 20 Years of Research on Lying20 Years of Research on Lying  People rarely get above 60% accuracyPeople rarely get above 60% accuracy  Some groups worse than chanceSome groups worse than chance (Ekman, 1992)(Ekman, 1992)
  18. 18. Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell Secret ServiceSecret Service Federal PolygraphersFederal Polygraphers JudgesJudges PolicePolice PsychiatristsPsychiatrists StudentsStudents (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  19. 19. Who Can’t Tell?Who Can’t Tell?  Customs inspectors vs. college students)Customs inspectors vs. college students) (Kraut & Poe, 1980)(Kraut & Poe, 1980)  Federal law enforcement officers vs studentsFederal law enforcement officers vs students (DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)  Police officers no better than chancePolice officers no better than chance (Kohnken, 1987)(Kohnken, 1987)
  20. 20. Who Can’t TellWho Can’t Tell GroupGroup % Above Chance% Above Chance  Secret ServiceSecret Service 29%29%  PsychiatristsPsychiatrists 12%12% (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  21. 21. ““A man’s gotta know his limitations.”A man’s gotta know his limitations.”
  22. 22. Federal law enforcement officersFederal law enforcement officers More Confident Than College StudentsMore Confident Than College Students No More AccurateNo More Accurate (DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)(DePaulo & Pfeifer, 1986)
  23. 23. Confidence and AccuracyConfidence and Accuracy Generally UnrelatedGenerally Unrelated (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  24. 24. AccuracyAccuracy What Didn’t Make a DifferenceWhat Didn’t Make a Difference AgeAge SexSex Years of Job ExperienceYears of Job Experience (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  25. 25. AccuracyAccuracy PolygraphersPolygraphers & Secret Service& Secret Service Worse as Got OlderWorse as Got Older (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  26. 26. AccuracyAccuracy Secret ServiceSecret Service More Years of Job ExperienceMore Years of Job Experience Worse AccuracyWorse Accuracy (Ekman, 1991)(Ekman, 1991)
  27. 27. Believing What We HearBelieving What We Hear Repeating It Increases BeliefRepeating It Increases Belief (Arkes, Boehm et al.,1991; Arkes, Hacket et al.,(Arkes, Boehm et al.,1991; Arkes, Hacket et al., 1989; Begg, Armour et al., 1985; Hasher,1989; Begg, Armour et al., 1985; Hasher, Goldstein et al., 1977)Goldstein et al., 1977)
  28. 28. Believing What We HearBelieving What We Hear Even believed statements which wereEven believed statements which were openly labeled falseopenly labeled false (Gerrig and Prentice,1991; Gilbert, Krull et(Gerrig and Prentice,1991; Gilbert, Krull et al.,1990; Wegner, Lane et al., 1994)al.,1990; Wegner, Lane et al., 1994)
  29. 29.  Count numbers in statementsCount numbers in statements  Some labeled true; some falseSome labeled true; some false (Gilbert, Krull et al., 1990)(Gilbert, Krull et al., 1990)
  30. 30. ResultsResults Increased “False” labeled “True”Increased “False” labeled “True” No Change in “True”No Change in “True” (Gilbert, Krull et al., 1990)(Gilbert, Krull et al., 1990)
  31. 31. Old Debate – New LifeOld Debate – New Life SpinozaSpinoza Comprehending is BelievingComprehending is Believing DescartesDescartes Comprehend then Believe or NotComprehend then Believe or Not
  32. 32. Stranger ApproachesStranger Approaches Constant TalkConstant Talk Too Many DetailsToo Many Details DetractionDetraction (De Becker, 1997)(De Becker, 1997)
  33. 33. Types of Positive IllusionsTypes of Positive Illusions Control Over Random EventsControl Over Random Events World is Good and MeaningfulWorld is Good and Meaningful
  34. 34. Control over Random EventsControl over Random Events Prefer Lottery Card They ChosePrefer Lottery Card They Chose OverOver One with Better OddsOne with Better Odds
  35. 35. Control over Random EventsControl over Random Events AthletesAthletes Sports FansSports Fans GamblersGamblers
  36. 36. Personal Control & AversivenessPersonal Control & Aversiveness Ability to Terminate Random ShocksAbility to Terminate Random Shocks Less DistressLess Distress Less DiscomfortLess Discomfort Less Physiological ArousalLess Physiological Arousal
  37. 37. A Just WorldA Just World Blaming People for OutcomeBlaming People for Outcome Even if Randomly AssignedEven if Randomly Assigned (Lerner, 1978)(Lerner, 1978)
  38. 38. ““The Lord is faithful to those who are faithfulThe Lord is faithful to those who are faithful to the Lord.”to the Lord.” (Miller and Tompkins, 1977, p. 86)(Miller and Tompkins, 1977, p. 86)
  39. 39. What is Mental Health?What is Mental Health? Good Reality Testing?Good Reality Testing?
  40. 40. Definition of Mental HealthDefinition of Mental Health  ““Mentally healthy perception means aMentally healthy perception means a process of viewing the world so that one isprocess of viewing the world so that one is able to take in matters one wishes wereable to take in matters one wishes were different without distorting them to fit thosedifferent without distorting them to fit those wishes.”wishes.” (Jahoda 1958, p. 349)(Jahoda 1958, p. 349)
  41. 41. Effect of Self-EnhancementEffect of Self-Enhancement Correlated withCorrelated with Good Relations with OthersGood Relations with Others Personal GrowthPersonal Growth Purpose in LifePurpose in Life Self-EsteemSelf-Esteem MasteryMastery Self-AcceptanceSelf-Acceptance (Taylor, in press)(Taylor, in press)
  42. 42. Effect of Self-EnhancementEffect of Self-Enhancement Negatively Correlated withNegatively Correlated with State AnxietyState Anxiety DepressionDepression Self-BlameSelf-Blame NeuroticismNeuroticism (Taylor, in press)(Taylor, in press)
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×