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Midwest Conference: #1 female sex offenders out

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  • 1. Female Sex OffendersFemale Sex Offenders Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.
  • 2. AgendaAgenda  Female Sex OffendersFemale Sex Offenders Three Major GroupsThree Major Groups Differences & SimilaritiesDifferences & Similarities PrevalencePrevalence Role of the FatherRole of the Father DenialDenial SeveritySeverity Impact on VictimsImpact on Victims
  • 3. HandoutsHandouts www.annasalter.comwww.annasalter.com Acsalter@tds.netAcsalter@tds.net
  • 4. Saradjian Study of FemaleSaradjian Study of Female OffendersOffenders N = 50 perpetratorsN = 50 perpetrators 36 controls36 controls CriteriaCriteria Substantiated caseSubstantiated case AdmissionsAdmissions 49 of 5049 of 50 (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 5. Sample CharacteristicsSample Characteristics Social ClassSocial Class AllAll Homeless to aristocracyHomeless to aristocracy Education & IQEducation & IQ 6 university degrees6 university degrees 4 borderline IQ4 borderline IQ RaceRace All CaucasianAll Caucasian EmploymentEmployment Most short term, unskilledMost short term, unskilled (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 6. TypesTypes Independent – Victims < 6Independent – Victims < 6 Independent – Adolescent VictimsIndependent – Adolescent Victims Initially CoercedInitially Coerced
  • 7. TypologiesTypologies  Independent – victims < 6Independent – victims < 6 N = 14N = 14  Teacher/LoverTeacher/Lover N = 10N = 10  Initially CoercedInitially Coerced N = 12N = 12 (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 8. Mean Age Gap Between WomenMean Age Gap Between Women & Victims& Victims VictimsVictims Age Gap in YearsAge Gap in Years AA <6<6 1818 BB Ages 11 - 17Ages 11 - 17 16.616.6 CC Coerced by MaleCoerced by Male 18.518.5 (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 9. What Difference Did the TypeWhat Difference Did the Type Make?Make?
  • 10. Sexual MotivationsSexual Motivations All offender groups: Sex with adults negativeAll offender groups: Sex with adults negative but met some needbut met some need ControlsControls Sex rated positivelySex rated positively (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 11. Victims Young ChildrenVictims Young Children MotivationsMotivations Positive physical experiencePositive physical experience AllAll Power and controlPower and control AllAll Wanted to hurt themWanted to hurt them 99 MergerMerger 88 Feel lovedFeel loved 88 (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 12. ““Having sex with my sons was moreHaving sex with my sons was more enjoyable than having sex with a man andenjoyable than having sex with a man and that was because I had some control overthat was because I had some control over what was going to happen.”what was going to happen.” (Matthews et al., 1990, p. 206)(Matthews et al., 1990, p. 206)
  • 13. ““I was sexually aroused . . . Felt veryI was sexually aroused . . . Felt very powerful.”powerful.” (Matthews et al., 1990, p. 206)(Matthews et al., 1990, p. 206)
  • 14. FusionFusion
  • 15. MergerMerger ““She wanted me to love her like her ownShe wanted me to love her like her own mother did when she was little and sick. Itmother did when she was little and sick. It makes me nauseated to think about it.makes me nauseated to think about it. She used me to maintain her own sickShe used me to maintain her own sick pleasure. I was mother, father, husband,pleasure. I was mother, father, husband, sister, lover and friend to her when Isister, lover and friend to her when I needed a mother.”needed a mother.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 29)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 29)
  • 16. FusionFusion ““I was not a separate person to her. In herI was not a separate person to her. In her mind we were fused.”mind we were fused.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 31)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 31)
  • 17. ““Another thing has to do with identity. MyAnother thing has to do with identity. My mom’s needs dominated every aspect ofmom’s needs dominated every aspect of my life and she saw me as an extension ofmy life and she saw me as an extension of her. As an adult, at age 35, I am justher. As an adult, at age 35, I am just beginning to differentiate myself and findbeginning to differentiate myself and find my own likes/dislikes and talents.”my own likes/dislikes and talents.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 32)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 32)
  • 18. IntrusivenessIntrusiveness Ages 3 – 24Ages 3 – 24  Fondled her breasts, anus & other areasFondled her breasts, anus & other areas  Repeated enemasRepeated enemas  Watched while made to stripWatched while made to strip  Made her put on sexy nightgownMade her put on sexy nightgown  Watched her bathe and showerWatched her bathe and shower  Watcher her masturbateWatcher her masturbate  Watched her insert tamponsWatched her insert tampons (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 19.  Made to watch her motherMade to watch her mother dress & undressdress & undress go to the bathroomgo to the bathroom expose herselfexpose herself  Made to sleep with and her mother dressMade to sleep with and her mother dress (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 20. FusionFusion ““I never got to be me. Find out who, what,I never got to be me. Find out who, what, when, where, why I was. She did morewhen, where, why I was. She did more than sex.”than sex.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 30)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 30)
  • 21. ““I feel totally swallowed up by her; I see her,I feel totally swallowed up by her; I see her, smell her, feel her breath on my body.”smell her, feel her breath on my body.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 11)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 11)
  • 22. Responses to FusionResponses to Fusion One womanOne woman Large amounts of plastic surgeryLarge amounts of plastic surgery To look different from momTo look different from mom
  • 23. FusionFusion ““It was part of an overall relationship inIt was part of an overall relationship in which I was allowed no boundaries orwhich I was allowed no boundaries or identity. I feel like she sucked my brainsidentity. I feel like she sucked my brains out with a soda straw so she could fill meout with a soda straw so she could fill me with her own identity.”with her own identity.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 151)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 151)
  • 24. Maternal IntrojectsMaternal Introjects ““There’s a woman who lives inside myThere’s a woman who lives inside my body/mind who is NOT part of thebody/mind who is NOT part of the comprehensive/entity called Karen . . .comprehensive/entity called Karen . . . This woman who shares [my] body bearsThis woman who shares [my] body bears my mother’s name.”my mother’s name.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p 154)(Rosencrans, 1997, p 154)
  • 25. Fear of DependenceFear of Dependence ““[I have a] fear of dependency on others. [I][I have a] fear of dependency on others. [I] fear needing people and fearfear needing people and fear abandonment, or of feeling helpless,abandonment, or of feeling helpless, powerless, or trapped with no way out.”powerless, or trapped with no way out.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 158)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 158)
  • 26. Who was the Mother?Who was the Mother?  Child is the motherChild is the mother 83%83%  NoNo 9%9%  ?? 7%7% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 27. Fear of Mother DyingFear of Mother Dying ““I used to worry about thisI used to worry about this all the timeall the time andand her deathher death waswas extremely traumatic for me.extremely traumatic for me. I never made the connection – it’s fusion!”I never made the connection – it’s fusion!” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 32)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 32)
  • 28. ViolenceViolence
  • 29. ViolenceViolence ““My mother threatened to burn my hair/me ifMy mother threatened to burn my hair/me if I did not comply. I was given beer toI did not comply. I was given beer to drink. I was beaten and there were threatsdrink. I was beaten and there were threats I would be burned if I wasn’t quiet.I would be burned if I wasn’t quiet. Sometimes I was slightly burned on theSometimes I was slightly burned on the butt with lit cigarettes. I learned not to crybutt with lit cigarettes. I learned not to cry and to stop screaming.”and to stop screaming.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 111)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 111)
  • 30. ““I have never had any sexual contact withI have never had any sexual contact with my mother that was not violent and painfulmy mother that was not violent and painful and full of rage on her part.”and full of rage on her part.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 112)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 112)
  • 31. ““It was always when she were angry but I neverIt was always when she were angry but I never knew what made her angry. . . It were as if sheknew what made her angry. . . It were as if she wanted to tear me apart inside. She’dwanted to tear me apart inside. She’d sometimes grab whatever were nearest to hersometimes grab whatever were nearest to her and come at me. She’d insert anything into meand come at me. She’d insert anything into me ‘down there’, sometimes it were all her fingers,‘down there’, sometimes it were all her fingers, she’d push them at me really hard, sometimesshe’d push them at me really hard, sometimes it were a bottle neck or a brush handle, once orit were a bottle neck or a brush handle, once or twice it were a knife and once rose stems. Thattwice it were a knife and once rose stems. That were awful.”were awful.”
  • 32. ““I often bled but she never took me to theI often bled but she never took me to the hospital or anything. I bled so often thathospital or anything. I bled so often that when I started my periods I didn’t realise, Iwhen I started my periods I didn’t realise, I just thought it were more bleeding fromjust thought it were more bleeding from what she’d done.”what she’d done.” Infancy until 12 (ran away)Infancy until 12 (ran away) (Saradjian, 1996, p. 14)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 14)
  • 33. ImpactImpact  Frequent admissions to psychiatric hospitalsFrequent admissions to psychiatric hospitals  Severe depressionSevere depression  Repeated overdosesRepeated overdoses  Frequent self-mutilation of arms, legs &Frequent self-mutilation of arms, legs & vaginavagina  Multiple drug addictionMultiple drug addiction
  • 34. Some degree of violenceSome degree of violence 70%70% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 35. DisclosureDisclosure  Attempts to tell in childhoodAttempts to tell in childhood 5%5%  Did tellDid tell 3%3%  Threatened to tellThreatened to tell 2%2% (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)
  • 36. Sadistic Abuse/SeductiveSadistic Abuse/Seductive No correlation with type of childhood sexualNo correlation with type of childhood sexual abuseabuse Most severely emotionally abusedMost severely emotionally abused Became sadistsBecame sadists
  • 37. Victims Young ChildrenVictims Young Children MotivationsMotivations All had sexual thoughts of childrenAll had sexual thoughts of children All experienced arousalAll experienced arousal Few called it arousalFew called it arousal Unable to identify emotional statesUnable to identify emotional states Feelings in terms of sensationsFeelings in terms of sensations (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 38. Teacher/Lover GroupTeacher/Lover Group
  • 39. MotivationsMotivations Group B: Victims AdolescentsGroup B: Victims Adolescents Romanticized relationshipRomanticized relationship Frequent sexual thoughtsFrequent sexual thoughts 80% masturbated to thoughts80% masturbated to thoughts Equal in every wayEqual in every way Victims instigatorsVictims instigators (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 40. ““We had an affair, a love affair. Isn’t thatWe had an affair, a love affair. Isn’t that ridiculous? I’m 40 years old! And I had anridiculous? I’m 40 years old! And I had an affair with a 14-year-old kid, which isaffair with a 14-year-old kid, which is totally ridiculous. And I was in love – not Itotally ridiculous. And I was in love – not I loved him – but in love!”loved him – but in love!” (Matthews et al., 1990, p.209)(Matthews et al., 1990, p.209)
  • 41. MotivationsMotivations Group CGroup C Initially coerced by male perpsInitially coerced by male perps Negative feelings during sex w/ childNegative feelings during sex w/ child Give pleasure, bonding with maleGive pleasure, bonding with male (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 42. ““I wasn’t a whole person unless there wasI wasn’t a whole person unless there was somebody else with me. That’s prettysomebody else with me. That’s pretty much what it’s been like for a long time.much what it’s been like for a long time. There had to be a male in my life,There had to be a male in my life, otherwise I would think I was nobody.”otherwise I would think I was nobody.” (Matthews et al., 1990, p. 212)(Matthews et al., 1990, p. 212)
  • 43. MotivationsMotivations Group CGroup C Initially coerced by male perpsInitially coerced by male perps N = 12N = 12 Thoughts of sex with childrenThoughts of sex with children 1212 Arousal or neutralArousal or neutral 99 RepulsiveRepulsive 33 (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 44. MotivationsMotivations Subgroup of C: Initially coerced, later aloneSubgroup of C: Initially coerced, later alone N = 7N = 7 Power and controlPower and control Hurt someoneHurt someone (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 45. Older manOlder man Felt “loved for the first time in her life”Felt “loved for the first time in her life” He wanted “more spice in their sex lives”He wanted “more spice in their sex lives” Agreed to get a 15-year-old to join inAgreed to get a 15-year-old to join in Jealous & angryJealous & angry
  • 46. He suggested abduction & sexual tortureHe suggested abduction & sexual torture Readily agreedReadily agreed Loved itLoved it 1 year later – still turned on thinking about it1 year later – still turned on thinking about it Wanted to do it againWanted to do it again
  • 47. Types of Female SexTypes of Female Sex OffendersOffenders N = 16N = 16 Minnesota OutpatientsMinnesota Outpatients  TeacherTeacher / Lover/ Lover  PredisposedPredisposed  Male CoercedMale Coerced (Mathews et al., 1989)(Mathews et al., 1989)
  • 48. Types of Female SexTypes of Female Sex OffendersOffenders Teacher/LoverTeacher/Lover No “malice” toward childrenNo “malice” toward children ““Fell in love”Fell in love” (Matthews, 1989)(Matthews, 1989)
  • 49. Types of Female SexTypes of Female Sex OffendersOffenders  PredisposedPredisposed Acted aloneActed alone Difficulty with male relationshipsDifficulty with male relationships Seeking intimacy (or fusion)Seeking intimacy (or fusion) (Matthews et al., 1989)(Matthews et al., 1989)
  • 50. Types of Female SexTypes of Female Sex OffendersOffenders Male-CoercedMale-Coerced Felt powerless in relationshipsFelt powerless in relationships Sexually abused as childrenSexually abused as children Abusive male relationshipsAbusive male relationships (Matthews et al., 1989)(Matthews et al., 1989)
  • 51. Female PsychopathsFemale Psychopaths
  • 52. The Province, September, 2000
  • 53. The Province, September 24, 2000
  • 54. The National Post, September 22, 2000
  • 55. Female Offenders N = 100 • Mean PCL-R = 18.0 • Average follow-up = 38.7 months • 47% recidivism rate for 80 released offenders (Loucks & Zamble, 2000)
  • 56. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Months at Risk CumulativeSurvival Low Medium High Recidivism in Female Offenders Zamble, 2001
  • 57. Severity of AbuseSeverity of Abuse
  • 58. Insertion into OrificesInsertion into Orifices VaginaVagina RectumRectum FingersFingers 46%46% 34%34% ObjectsObjects 38%38% 51%51% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 59. SadismSadism ““When she wanted to do it do me, she’d say heWhen she wanted to do it do me, she’d say he told her to and I could never really be suretold her to and I could never really be sure whether he had or not. She used to threaten mewhether he had or not. She used to threaten me that. . . If I told anyone what was going on . . . I’dthat. . . If I told anyone what was going on . . . I’d be in for ‘it’ and ‘it’ was really, really bad. I’d hadbe in for ‘it’ and ‘it’ was really, really bad. I’d had ‘it’ before and I never wanted to ever feel that‘it’ before and I never wanted to ever feel that bad again. The more I hurt the faster she’dbad again. The more I hurt the faster she’d come . . . she knew just how to hurt me and Icome . . . she knew just how to hurt me and I knew that she’d really ‘get off on’ getting him toknew that she’d really ‘get off on’ getting him to hurt me . . . I never would have told because Ihurt me . . . I never would have told because I was just too scared.”was just too scared.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 36)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 36)
  • 60. Objects InsertedObjects Inserted Enema equipment, sticks, candles,Enema equipment, sticks, candles, vibrators, pencils, keys, hairbrushes,vibrators, pencils, keys, hairbrushes, hairbrush handles, light bulbs, soapy washhairbrush handles, light bulbs, soapy wash cloths, wooden spoons, various fruits andcloths, wooden spoons, various fruits and vegetables, knives, scissors, lit cigarettes,vegetables, knives, scissors, lit cigarettes, sock darning tools, surgical knives, hairsock darning tools, surgical knives, hair rollers, religious metals, vacuum cleanerrollers, religious metals, vacuum cleaner parts, goldfishparts, goldfish (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 61. ManipulationManipulation VsVs CoercionCoercion
  • 62. Persuading VictimsPersuading Victims Co-OffendersCo-Offenders Threatened deathThreatened death 23%23% Threatened harmThreatened harm 36%36% IndependentIndependent Expression of LoveExpression of Love 13%13% GamesGames 27%27% (David, Hislop & Dunbar, 1999)(David, Hislop & Dunbar, 1999)
  • 63.  Sister disclosed sexual abuse of Kevin, age 14Sister disclosed sexual abuse of Kevin, age 14  Questioned by a professional, “I’ve never seenQuestioned by a professional, “I’ve never seen a kid look so frightened. He actually weta kid look so frightened. He actually wet himself. He became hysterical and babbled.himself. He became hysterical and babbled. He was convinced this was his end and hisHe was convinced this was his end and his mother would now torture him to death.”mother would now torture him to death.”  Abuse age 3 – 14Abuse age 3 – 14 (Saradjian, 1996, p. 34)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 34)
  • 64. Who Do They VictimizeWho Do They Victimize
  • 65. Victim CharacteristicsVictim Characteristics  Equally male and femaleEqually male and female  Relationship to perpetratorRelationship to perpetrator BiologicalBiological 64%64% RelatedRelated 16.3%16.3% UnrelatedUnrelated 19.1%19.1% (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 66. Age It BeganAge It Began Average Age It BeganAverage Age It Began 3.2 yrs old3.2 yrs old (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 67. Age It EndedAge It Ended Average Age It EndedAverage Age It Ended 17.3 yrs old17.3 yrs old (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 68. DisclosureDisclosure Average time before disclosureAverage time before disclosure 28 years28 years (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 69. ““About a year ago I was at my mother’sAbout a year ago I was at my mother’s house. We were standing out by the poolhouse. We were standing out by the pool and I had a swimming suit on. She stoodand I had a swimming suit on. She stood there touching me, first my wrist, and thenthere touching me, first my wrist, and then sneaky feels of my breasts and buttocks.sneaky feels of my breasts and buttocks. My younger brother watched and talkedMy younger brother watched and talked with us. He didn’t even notice what shewith us. He didn’t even notice what she was doing. She’s been doing that all ourwas doing. She’s been doing that all our lives. We were so unconscious, myselflives. We were so unconscious, myself included. I was 33 years old here.”included. I was 33 years old here.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 79)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 79)
  • 70. ““When I was very young, my mother used toWhen I was very young, my mother used to drive all us kids out a lonely, isolateddrive all us kids out a lonely, isolated country road. Then she’d drop some ofcountry road. Then she’d drop some of my kittens out the door. She’d drivemy kittens out the door. She’d drive ahead, turn around, then drive back pastahead, turn around, then drive back past the kittens crying on the road. This wasthe kittens crying on the road. This was called ‘abandoning.’ Later she threatenedcalled ‘abandoning.’ Later she threatened that if I told anyone about any of thethat if I told anyone about any of the abuse, by anyone, I’d be taken to anabuse, by anyone, I’d be taken to an orphanage and never see my familyorphanage and never see my family again. I believed her. I knew how easy itagain. I believed her. I knew how easy it was for her to abandon small, vulnerablewas for her to abandon small, vulnerable creatures.”creatures.” (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 71. Why They ParticipatedWhy They Participated
  • 72. Why Offenders ParticipatedWhy Offenders Participated Co-OffendersCo-Offenders ThreatsThreats AbandonmentAbandonment 24%24% DeathDeath 15%15% (David, Hislop & Dunbar, 1999)(David, Hislop & Dunbar, 1999)
  • 73. ““I didn’t want my husband to leave me. II didn’t want my husband to leave me. I didn’t want to be alone. He alwaysdidn’t want to be alone. He always threatened to leave; ‘Do what I say.’”threatened to leave; ‘Do what I say.’” (Matthews et al., 1990, p. 205)(Matthews et al., 1990, p. 205)
  • 74. Trauma HistoriesTrauma Histories
  • 75. Females vs. Male SexFemales vs. Male Sex OffendersOffenders  More domestic violenceMore domestic violence  More traumatic childhoodsMore traumatic childhoods Physical, emotional, sexual abusePhysical, emotional, sexual abuse  More unstable marital relationshipsMore unstable marital relationships  Less satisfied with marital partnerLess satisfied with marital partner • (Allen, 1991)(Allen, 1991)
  • 76. DenialDenial
  • 77. Females vs. Male SexFemales vs. Male Sex OffendersOffenders  More denialMore denial  Perceive sexual abuse as more deviantPerceive sexual abuse as more deviant  More resistant to investigationMore resistant to investigation  Fewer think behavior can be changedFewer think behavior can be changed (Allen, 1991)(Allen, 1991)
  • 78. Female AdolescentFemale Adolescent Sex OffendersSex Offenders N = 67N = 67 Community/residentialCommunity/residential Mood Disorder > ½Mood Disorder > ½ PTSD nearly ½PTSD nearly ½ (Matthews et al., 1997)(Matthews et al., 1997)
  • 79. Female AdolescentFemale Adolescent Sex OffendersSex Offenders  More severe abuseMore severe abuse  Abuse started earlierAbuse started earlier  More experienced forceMore experienced force (Matthews et al., 1997)(Matthews et al., 1997)
  • 80. Female AdolescentFemale Adolescent Sex OffendersSex Offenders FemaleFemale MaleMale  Number of molestersNumber of molesters 4.54.5 1.41.4  No. w/ more than 1No. w/ more than 1 molestermolester 75%75% 10%10%  Gender of molesterGender of molester Male onlyMale only 58%58% 80%80% Female onlyFemale only 4%4% 13%13% BothBoth 38%38% 7%7% (Matthews et al., 1997)(Matthews et al., 1997)
  • 81. Comparison of Female & MaleComparison of Female & Male Adolescent Sex OffendersAdolescent Sex Offenders Offending behaviorsOffending behaviors SimilarSimilar Frequency & MagnitudeFrequency & Magnitude (Matthews et al., 1997)(Matthews et al., 1997)
  • 82. Female AdolescentFemale Adolescent Sex OffendersSex Offenders Repetitive patterns of offendingRepetitive patterns of offending Multiple victimsMultiple victims Used force as frequently as malesUsed force as frequently as males (Matthews et al., 1997)(Matthews et al., 1997)
  • 83. FathersFathers
  • 84. FathersFathers  ““He was absent from out home a lot. HeHe was absent from out home a lot. He typically left the house at 7 AM andtypically left the house at 7 AM and returned home any time between 7 PMreturned home any time between 7 PM and midnight. He was preoccupied withand midnight. He was preoccupied with professional concerns. (I don’t knowprofessional concerns. (I don’t know when) he began abusing alcohol andwhen) he began abusing alcohol and prescription drugs . . . He suffered(s) fromprescription drugs . . . He suffered(s) from severe, chronic depression and varioussevere, chronic depression and various somatic illnesses.”somatic illnesses.”
  • 85. FathersFathers ““However, the public’s view of him was thatHowever, the public’s view of him was that he was highly successful, articulate,he was highly successful, articulate, affable, bright, ethical, a concernedaffable, bright, ethical, a concerned citizen, handsome, etc. At home he wascitizen, handsome, etc. At home he was mostly asleep!”mostly asleep!” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 70)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 70)
  • 86. FathersFathers ““All he wanted was peace in his home, anAll he wanted was peace in his home, an absence of conflict. I became his confidantabsence of conflict. I became his confidant when I was about 12 or 13, listening towhen I was about 12 or 13, listening to him describe his depression and hishim describe his depression and his suicidal ideation.”suicidal ideation.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 70)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 70)
  • 87. FathersFathers ““He’d leave when she became agitated. HeHe’d leave when she became agitated. He left me to receive her rage andleft me to receive her rage and aggression. He was a first class, chickenaggression. He was a first class, chicken shit coward. If he ever pushed back at hershit coward. If he ever pushed back at her it was to save his own ass.”it was to save his own ass.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 72)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 72)
  • 88. Perpetrator Mom; Weak FatherPerpetrator Mom; Weak Father 50%50%
  • 89. Both Parents AbusiveBoth Parents Abusive ““He is a rage-aholic, obsessed with guns,He is a rage-aholic, obsessed with guns, withdrawn, authoritative, and abusive.”withdrawn, authoritative, and abusive.” ““My father also abused me physically,My father also abused me physically, emotionally and sexually.”emotionally and sexually.”
  • 90. Father AbsentFather Absent ““[My father was] not home during one five[My father was] not home during one five year period when the abuse wasyear period when the abuse was particularly overt.”particularly overt.” ““My father died when I was 8 years old.”My father died when I was 8 years old.” ““No one at home. My mother’s husband,No one at home. My mother’s husband, not my biological father, [was] usuallynot my biological father, [was] usually 3,000 miles away.”3,000 miles away.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 71)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 71)
  • 91. HidingHiding
  • 92. ““I think it is important for people to realizeI think it is important for people to realize that perfectly loving and seemingly well-that perfectly loving and seemingly well- adjusted mothers are capable of abusingadjusted mothers are capable of abusing their children. They need to know, too,their children. They need to know, too, that children love their mother despite thethat children love their mother despite the most horrifying abuse, and it can be moremost horrifying abuse, and it can be more damaging to confront or condemn mothersdamaging to confront or condemn mothers in front of the children.”in front of the children.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 36)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 36)
  • 93. ““[She looked like a] pillar of the community.[She looked like a] pillar of the community. I do not believe that anyone outside of ourI do not believe that anyone outside of our family [and I don’t know about insidefamily [and I don’t know about inside either] would have seen ANYTHING toeither] would have seen ANYTHING to provoke suspicion regarding the nature ofprovoke suspicion regarding the nature of my mother’s psychopathology, attitudes ormy mother’s psychopathology, attitudes or behaviors towards me.”behaviors towards me.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)
  • 94. ““My mother was highly educated, hadMy mother was highly educated, had successfully been a professor for severalsuccessfully been a professor for several years before having children, was ayears before having children, was a volunteer in various highly regarded, ‘do-volunteer in various highly regarded, ‘do- gooder’ type organizations, was a goodgooder’ type organizations, was a good neighbor, knew a great deal about childneighbor, knew a great deal about child psychology, and was the perfect 1950’spsychology, and was the perfect 1950’s early 1960’s support person for herearly 1960’s support person for her husband’s blossoming professionalhusband’s blossoming professional career.”career.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)
  • 95. ““No one would believe what she becameNo one would believe what she became when left alone with me. Sometimes I stillwhen left alone with me. Sometimes I still don’t believe it.”don’t believe it.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)
  • 96. ““A couple of years ago she got the ‘VolunteerA couple of years ago she got the ‘Volunteer of the Year’ award.”of the Year’ award.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 60)
  • 97. [Outside our home she could look] angelic[Outside our home she could look] angelic and perfect.”and perfect.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 61)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 61)
  • 98. IsolationIsolation ““Do you believe mother/daughter incest isDo you believe mother/daughter incest is more isolating than male/female incestmore isolating than male/female incest is?”is?” YesYes NoNo UnsureUnsure 75%75% 5%5% 19%19% (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 37)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 37)
  • 99. Who Knew?Who Knew? yesyes nono ?? Other parent?Other parent? 20%20% 27%27% 53%53% Other adults? 28% 27%Other adults? 28% 27% 36%36% (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)
  • 100. Range of Paternal ResponsesRange of Paternal Responses ““[My father knew] and participated and[My father knew] and participated and probably initiated it.!”probably initiated it.!” ““My father not only condoned her behaviorMy father not only condoned her behavior but enforced my submission to it: he hitbut enforced my submission to it: he hit me when I “gave her lip” [i.e., said no].”me when I “gave her lip” [i.e., said no].” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 39)
  • 101. Told her mother about her grandmother’sTold her mother about her grandmother’s sexual abuse of hersexual abuse of her Response: “Granny just wants a bigResponse: “Granny just wants a big cuddle . . . Do what granny wants or shecuddle . . . Do what granny wants or she won’t want you, and you’ll have to stay inwon’t want you, and you’ll have to stay in the house alone, when mummy works.”the house alone, when mummy works.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 53)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 53)
  • 102. Talking With OthersTalking With Others  Currently in therapyCurrently in therapy 81%81%  Talking with therapistTalking with therapist 3%3%  Talking with therapeutic groupTalking with therapeutic group 00  (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 40)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 40)
  • 103. Talking with OthersTalking with Others  Talking with spouse (1/2 in relationships) 0Talking with spouse (1/2 in relationships) 0  Talking with clergyTalking with clergy 00  Talking with friendsTalking with friends 88%88% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 104. Response of OthersResponse of Others ““My aunt [mother’s sister] validated it tookMy aunt [mother’s sister] validated it took place and that the family was ‘concerned’ butplace and that the family was ‘concerned’ but minded their own business.”minded their own business.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 46)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 46)
  • 105. Talking with MotherTalking with Mother Yes No ?Yes No ? Mother tried to talk to you 8% 91% 1%Mother tried to talk to you 8% 91% 1% Tried to talk to motherTried to talk to mother 29% 70% 129% 70% 1 %% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 106. EffectsEffects Sexual promiscuitySexual promiscuity 35%35% Sexually abused othersSexually abused others as childrenas children 15%15% as adultsas adults 3%3% Hurt animalsHurt animals 10%10% Tortured animalsTortured animals 4%4% (Rosencrans, 1997)(Rosencrans, 1997)
  • 107. EffectsEffects  Sexual ProblemsSexual Problems 82%82%
  • 108. ImpactImpact ““I [have] a fear or an inability to become orI [have] a fear or an inability to become or feel close to other women.”feel close to other women.” (Rosencrans, 1997, p. 37)(Rosencrans, 1997, p. 37)
  • 109.  Father had intercourse with her beforeFather had intercourse with her before coerced wife into sex with childcoerced wife into sex with child  Told wife toTold wife to 1.1. massage daughter’s breasts,massage daughter’s breasts, 2.2. masturbate hermasturbate her 3.3. perform cunnilingus on herperform cunnilingus on her (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 110. ““She got away with it because she said heShe got away with it because she said he beat up on her . .. Well he did but thatbeat up on her . .. Well he did but that weren’t no excuse . . . She were justweren’t no excuse . . . She were just pathetic . .. Weak . . . And I hate her. Shepathetic . .. Weak . . . And I hate her. She let him do it to me and she did it too. Itlet him do it to me and she did it too. It were disgusting . . . Really disgusting. Iwere disgusting . . . Really disgusting. I want her to die. . . What he did was bad,want her to die. . . What he did was bad, but I’ll never forgive her.”but I’ll never forgive her.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 9)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 9)
  • 111. ““I never did anything to the kids unless heI never did anything to the kids unless he was there . . . I was dead scared of him. . .was there . . . I was dead scared of him. . . It repulsed me as much as it repulsedIt repulsed me as much as it repulsed them. I just can’t understand the kidsthem. I just can’t understand the kids reaction, two of them won’t talk to either ofreaction, two of them won’t talk to either of us, I understand that but the other two . . .us, I understand that but the other two . . . John writes to him every week and he gotJohn writes to him every week and he got Susan to go with him to see him inSusan to go with him to see him in prison. . . Neither of them write to me, norprison. . . Neither of them write to me, nor visit. I did get one letter. . . It was full ofvisit. I did get one letter. . . It was full of hatred. . . Yet they are willing to see him.”hatred. . . Yet they are willing to see him.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 10)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 10)
  • 112.  Father had intercourse with her beforeFather had intercourse with her before coerced wife into sex with childcoerced wife into sex with child  Told wife toTold wife to 1.1. massage daughter’s breasts,massage daughter’s breasts, 2.2. masturbate hermasturbate her 3.3. perform cunnilingus on herperform cunnilingus on her (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 113. ““She got away with it because she said heShe got away with it because she said he beat up on her . .. Well he did but thatbeat up on her . .. Well he did but that weren’t no excuse . . . She were justweren’t no excuse . . . She were just pathetic . .. Weak . . . And I hate her. Shepathetic . .. Weak . . . And I hate her. She let him do it to me and she did it too. Itlet him do it to me and she did it too. It were disgusting . . . Really disgusting. Iwere disgusting . . . Really disgusting. I want her to die. . . What he did was bad,want her to die. . . What he did was bad, but I’ll never forgive her.”but I’ll never forgive her.” (Saradjian, 1996, p. 9)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 9)
  • 114.  Father had intercourse with her beforeFather had intercourse with her before coerced wife into sex with childcoerced wife into sex with child  Told wife toTold wife to 1.1. massage daughter’s breasts,massage daughter’s breasts, 2.2. masturbate hermasturbate her 3.3. perform cunnilingus on herperform cunnilingus on her (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 115. Societal DenialSocietal Denial ““That she might seduce a helpless child intoThat she might seduce a helpless child into sex play is unthinkable, and even if shesex play is unthinkable, and even if she did so, what harm could be done without adid so, what harm could be done without a penis?”penis?” (Mathis, 1972, p. 54)(Mathis, 1972, p. 54)
  • 116. Societal DenialSocietal Denial ““A respected child psychiatrist recentlyA respected child psychiatrist recently dismissed as ‘an obvious fabrication’ anddismissed as ‘an obvious fabrication’ and a ‘physical impossibility’ the account of aa ‘physical impossibility’ the account of a 7-year-old boy who had described to his7-year-old boy who had described to his teacher how his mother had taken him toteacher how his mother had taken him to bed and placed his ‘willy’ in her ‘fanny’ andbed and placed his ‘willy’ in her ‘fanny’ and used her son as a masturbatoryused her son as a masturbatory implement.” (Wilkins, 1990, p. 1153)implement.” (Wilkins, 1990, p. 1153)
  • 117. Response to DisclosureResponse to Disclosure Mother revealed to doctor:Mother revealed to doctor: preoccupation with daughterpreoccupation with daughter sexual abuse of daughtersexual abuse of daughter Response to mother: “It is just natural for aResponse to mother: “It is just natural for a mother to feel very fond of her children.”mother to feel very fond of her children.” (Welldon, 1988, p. 100)(Welldon, 1988, p. 100)
  • 118. Response to DisclosureResponse to Disclosure Severely depressed & Suicidal – boySeverely depressed & Suicidal – boy Disclosed maternal sexual abuseDisclosed maternal sexual abuse Pleaded not to go homePleaded not to go home Disclosures part of illnessDisclosures part of illness Women caught in sex actWomen caught in sex act Attempted to admit herAttempted to admit her Must be psychoticMust be psychotic (Saradjian, 1996)(Saradjian, 1996)
  • 119. Old AttitudesOld Attitudes 14-year-old runaway sexually abused by 39-14-year-old runaway sexually abused by 39- year-old woman in return for a place toyear-old woman in return for a place to staystay Investigating Officer:Investigating Officer: ““. . . He fell right on his feet there didn’t he . .. . . He fell right on his feet there didn’t he . . . Lucky sod.” (Sarajdian, 1996, p. 7). Lucky sod.” (Sarajdian, 1996, p. 7)
  • 120. Couldn’t BeCouldn’t Be Linda: disclosed sexual abuse by mother inLinda: disclosed sexual abuse by mother in psychiatric hospitalpsychiatric hospital Response:Response: DelusionalDelusional
  • 121. Couldn’t BeCouldn’t Be LindaLinda 3 disclosures in therapy over 20 years3 disclosures in therapy over 20 years Responses:Responses: 1)Referred back to psychiatry1)Referred back to psychiatry 2) It was “really her father but it was safer2) It was “really her father but it was safer for her to believe it was her mother”for her to believe it was her mother” 3) False memories implanted by therapists3) False memories implanted by therapists (Saradjian, 1996, p. 8)(Saradjian, 1996, p. 8)
  • 122. How Many?How Many?
  • 123. PrevalencePrevalence Child Protection AgenciesChild Protection Agencies 3 to 5%3 to 5% (Hislop, 2001)(Hislop, 2001)
  • 124. Incarcerated Sex OffendersIncarcerated Sex Offenders Canadian sex offenders serving 2 years orCanadian sex offenders serving 2 years or moremore < 1% female< 1% female (Motiuk & Belcourt, 1996)(Motiuk & Belcourt, 1996)
  • 125. Juvenile Sex OffendersJuvenile Sex Offenders Percent femalePercent female HEW (1985)HEW (1985) 88 Pierce & Pierce (1987)Pierce & Pierce (1987) 1919 Smith & Israel (1987)Smith & Israel (1987) 2020 Ray & English (1995)Ray & English (1995) 1111 Ryan et al. (1996)Ryan et al. (1996) 2.62.6 (Hislop, 2001)(Hislop, 2001)
  • 126. Child Care CasesChild Care Cases  Faller (1988)Faller (1988) 2% female alone2% female alone 50% m. & f.50% m. & f.  Williams & Farrell (1990)Williams & Farrell (1990) 38%38%  Finkelhor (1988)Finkelhor (1988) 40%40%  Margolin (1991)Margolin (1991) 16%16% (Hislop, 2001)(Hislop, 2001)
  • 127. How Many Victims Overall?How Many Victims Overall? Female VictimsFemale Victims  23% females abused as children23% females abused as children  5% of those have female offenders5% of those have female offenders  Equals 1.5 million female victims &Equals 1.5 million female victims & Male VictimsMale Victims  6.75% of males abused as children6.75% of males abused as children  20% of those have female offenders20% of those have female offenders  Equals 1.6 million male victimsEquals 1.6 million male victims (Allen, 1991)(Allen, 1991)
  • 128. SiblingsSiblings YesYes NoNo ?? SistersSisters 26%26% 44%44% 4%4% BrothersBrothers 37%37% 33%33% 7%7% (Rosencrans, 1997, 82)(Rosencrans, 1997, 82)