6th Annual Jail Conference, Stevens Point, WI Nov 10 – 12th, 2010

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Dr. Anna Salter
6th Annual Jail Conference
Stevens Point, WI
Nov 10 – 12th, 2010

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6th Annual Jail Conference, Stevens Point, WI Nov 10 – 12th, 2010

  1. 1. Managing Manipulative andManaging Manipulative and Violent OffendersViolent Offenders Anna C. SalterAnna C. Salter
  2. 2. AgendaAgenda Who Manipulates & WhyWho Manipulates & Why Violent ThinkingViolent Thinking ManagementManagement
  3. 3. Who Manipulates?Who Manipulates? EverybodyEverybody Wants Control Over Their EnvironmentWants Control Over Their Environment
  4. 4. Who Manipulates?Who Manipulates? EverybodyEverybody Mental health issuesMental health issues PsychopathsPsychopaths
  5. 5. Mental Health IssuesMental Health Issues Borderline personality disorderBorderline personality disorder Antisocial personality disorderAntisocial personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorderNarcissistic personality disorder CombinationsCombinations Major DepressionMajor Depression Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders
  6. 6. Mental Health IssuesMental Health Issues EntitlementEntitlement Negative affectNegative affect DepressionDepression AnxietyAnxiety BoredomBoredom
  7. 7. ““I would try to live a life. I don’t know howI would try to live a life. I don’t know how to live. Everything comes to survival.to live. Everything comes to survival. Living life and enjoying life is different fromLiving life and enjoying life is different from being in survival camp. I never really satbeing in survival camp. I never really sat back and enjoyed days and weeks where Iback and enjoyed days and weeks where I didn’t have no worries about whether I’ddidn’t have no worries about whether I’d breathe. This is the last time I’m going tobreathe. This is the last time I’m going to breathe.”breathe.”
  8. 8. ““I just realized I ain’t going to live that lifeI just realized I ain’t going to live that life anymore. I started rememberinganymore. I started remembering everything. Everything. The death, theeverything. Everything. The death, the pain. I used to get mad. I still do. When Ipain. I used to get mad. I still do. When I hear people laugh I get mad. Why is lifehear people laugh I get mad. Why is life so much fun for you and not for me? Iso much fun for you and not for me? I want to do something different.”want to do something different.”
  9. 9. Mental Health IssuesMental Health Issues AttitudesAttitudes I need help now.I need help now. You can fix it but you won’t.You can fix it but you won’t. What do I need to do to get help?What do I need to do to get help?
  10. 10. Mental Health IssuesMental Health Issues ++ You Can Fix ItYou Can Fix It ++ EntitlementEntitlement == ManipulationManipulation
  11. 11. Mental Health IssuesMental Health Issues Behaviors to Manage Negative AffectBehaviors to Manage Negative Affect Writing letters and notes to staffWriting letters and notes to staff Acting outActing out Suicidal threats/gestures/attemptsSuicidal threats/gestures/attempts Whining/Demanding/ThreateningWhining/Demanding/Threatening Demanding to see one staff memberDemanding to see one staff member On Outside: DrugsOn Outside: Drugs
  12. 12. Impact on StaffImpact on Staff  Feel guiltyFeel guilty  Become over-involvedBecome over-involved  Try to fix itTry to fix it  ““You’re the Only One.”You’re the Only One.”  Feel harassedFeel harassed  Get angryGet angry
  13. 13. Who Manipulates?Who Manipulates? EverybodyEverybody Mental health issuesMental health issues PsychopathsPsychopaths
  14. 14. Insanity AcquitteesInsanity Acquittees PsychoticPsychotic MalingersMalingers  PCL-R TotalPCL-R Total 1919 3535 (Gacono et al., 1995)(Gacono et al., 1995)
  15. 15. Insanity AcquitteesInsanity Acquittees MalingersMalingers PsychoticPsychotic Sexual With/Sexual With/ Married StaffMarried Staff 39%39% 0%0% (Gacono et al., 1995)(Gacono et al., 1995)
  16. 16. Insanity AcquitteesInsanity Acquittees MalingersMalingers NonNon Murder/AttemptedMurder/Attempted 39%39% 17%17% RapeRape 28%28% 6%6% Rape/MurderRape/Murder 11%11% 0%0% (Gacono et al., 1995)(Gacono et al., 1995)
  17. 17. Time on JobTime on Job < 1 month< 1 month 5757 1 to 12 months1 to 12 months 161161 13 & 24 months13 & 24 months 9999 25 and 36 months25 and 36 months 6464 (Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)(Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)
  18. 18. TimingTiming 75% within 175% within 1stst 3 years3 years (Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)(Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)
  19. 19. Dual RelationshipsDual Relationships 75%75% Love SickLove Sick IdealizationIdealization ExcitementExcitement
  20. 20. Dual RelationshipsDual Relationships ““Dear Jay, As I lay here alone, listening to music,Dear Jay, As I lay here alone, listening to music, all I can think of is you. Do you realize that inall I can think of is you. Do you realize that in such a little time we developed a love that issuch a little time we developed a love that is undescribable. In my heart I have so manyundescribable. In my heart I have so many feelings, we have a bond that will last forever. Ifeelings, we have a bond that will last forever. I need you at home with me so that I can love youneed you at home with me so that I can love you right, you’re my dreams, love, and you beingright, you’re my dreams, love, and you being locked up is the ultimate test of our friendshiplocked up is the ultimate test of our friendship and love.”and love.” (Female employee to male inmate, Marquart,(Female employee to male inmate, Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001, p. 897)Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001, p. 897)
  21. 21. DiscoveryDiscovery Cell searchesCell searches PhotosPhotos LettersLetters Cell phones (4)Cell phones (4) Body tattoos (2)Body tattoos (2) SpousesSpouses Love lettersLove letters ColleaguesColleagues
  22. 22. Motivations for ViolationsMotivations for Violations  Rescue fantasiesRescue fantasies 55 (No remorse)(No remorse)  Naiveté or accidentsNaiveté or accidents 100100 (Remorse)(Remorse)  LovesicknessLovesickness 356356 (No remorse)(No remorse)
  23. 23. Types of ViolationsTypes of Violations BoundaryBoundary 8% (38)8% (38) Dual RelationsDual Relations 80% (428)80% (428) Sexual ContactSexual Contact 12% (42)12% (42) (Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)(Marquart, Barnhill & Balshaw-Biddle, 2001)
  24. 24. Violent InmatesViolent Inmates
  25. 25. Theories of ViolenceTheories of Violence Loss of ControlLoss of Control Product of Distorted ThinkingProduct of Distorted Thinking
  26. 26. Loss of ControlLoss of Control Impulse ControlImpulse Control Stop and ThinkStop and Think Exit Risky SituationsExit Risky Situations
  27. 27. Loss of ControlLoss of Control  Interviews 20 Violent OffendersInterviews 20 Violent Offenders  Meaning Units = PhrasesMeaning Units = Phrases Loss of ControlLoss of Control 12%12% (Polaschek et a., 2010)(Polaschek et a., 2010)
  28. 28. Violent SchemasViolent Schemas Violence is NormalViolence is Normal No ChoiceNo Choice Hostile Attribution BiasHostile Attribution Bias Social StatusSocial Status Self ImageSelf Image Victim Deserved It (Widget Theory)Victim Deserved It (Widget Theory)
  29. 29. Violence is NormalViolence is Normal Normal for disciplineNormal for discipline Normal for achieving goalsNormal for achieving goals
  30. 30. Elway: Attacked Officer – StabbedElway: Attacked Officer – Stabbed in Headin Head  ““I feel like it was justified. The only thingI feel like it was justified. The only thing was my objective wasn’t fully completed.was my objective wasn’t fully completed. But other than that.”But other than that.” Q. “What was your objective?”Q. “What was your objective?” A. “To kill him. I wasn’t stabbing him just toA. “To kill him. I wasn’t stabbing him just to be stabbing.”be stabbing.”
  31. 31. Elway: Effect on Victims?Elway: Effect on Victims? A. “Probably none.”A. “Probably none.” Q. “Why not?”Q. “Why not?” A. “Cause none of them are dead or paralyzed.”A. “Cause none of them are dead or paralyzed.” Q. “So it wouldn’t have any effect?”Q. “So it wouldn’t have any effect?” A. “I think it will on certain people – like young,A. “I think it will on certain people – like young, someone 14 or probably people who live in ansomeone 14 or probably people who live in an area where it’s pretty much peaceful andarea where it’s pretty much peaceful and nonviolent so it would be strange to seenonviolent so it would be strange to see anything violent.”anything violent.”
  32. 32. ElwayElway ““ The rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphereThe rest of us live in a pretty violent atmosphere and it’s pretty normal – anybody who works inand it’s pretty normal – anybody who works in DOC it wouldn’t have any effect unless they’reDOC it wouldn’t have any effect unless they’re dead or paralyzed or give them a big scar ondead or paralyzed or give them a big scar on their face so they have to look at it every day.their face so they have to look at it every day. So if I attack an officer that’s what I’d try to do,So if I attack an officer that’s what I’d try to do, so they’re dead or paralyzed or they have toso they’re dead or paralyzed or they have to see it every day and know I did it to them.”see it every day and know I did it to them.”
  33. 33. Hit a Man on a Bike with His CarHit a Man on a Bike with His Car Just to See What It Would Do toJust to See What It Would Do to HimHim ““Do I consider myself a criminal? No.Do I consider myself a criminal? No. Basically just doing stuff, just breaking theBasically just doing stuff, just breaking the law.”law.”
  34. 34. Why Not a Criminal?Why Not a Criminal? ““A criminal is one who terminally focuses onA criminal is one who terminally focuses on doing crime. They don’t just think aboutdoing crime. They don’t just think about it on the spur of the moment. Criminalsit on the spur of the moment. Criminals plan it more. They scheme. I don’t everplan it more. They scheme. I don’t ever scheme.”scheme.”
  35. 35. Home Invasion Looking for Drugs:Home Invasion Looking for Drugs: Killed a Man and a 7 MonthKilled a Man and a 7 Month Pregnant Woman – Couple Had NoPregnant Woman – Couple Had No DrugsDrugs ““ It was part of the way I was living. It didn’tIt was part of the way I was living. It didn’t feel right or wrong. Actually, it didn’t feelfeel right or wrong. Actually, it didn’t feel wrong. It felt I was forced to do somethingwrong. It felt I was forced to do something I really didn’t want to do, but . . . itI really didn’t want to do, but . . . it happened.”happened.”
  36. 36. No ChoiceNo Choice ““She wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit herShe wouldn’t listen to me unless I hit her first.”first.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  37. 37. No ChoiceNo Choice ““How else was I going to get through to himHow else was I going to get through to him that schoolwork was important?”that schoolwork was important?” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  38. 38. Violence is NormalViolence is Normal Meaning UnitsMeaning Units 46%46% (Polaschek et al., 2010)(Polaschek et al., 2010)
  39. 39. Gang MemberGang Member Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed?Q. Do you feel bad about the people you killed? A. I don't talk about that. . . . When the incidentA. I don't talk about that. . . . When the incident first took place I didn't have no remorse at allfirst took place I didn't have no remorse at all because I thought it was the right thing. But Ibecause I thought it was the right thing. But I have thought about it and I think I was wrong forhave thought about it and I think I was wrong for what took place on that day.what took place on that day.
  40. 40. Q.Q. How do you know you were wrong?How do you know you were wrong? A. The situation and the circumstances. Cause I didn'tA. The situation and the circumstances. Cause I didn't have to do it. It was all over territory and I had tohave to do it. It was all over territory and I had to prove my loyalty. I thought that was right. That's whatprove my loyalty. I thought that was right. That's what I had to do to be accepted in the GangsterI had to do to be accepted in the Gangster Disciples. . . . You're the first person I ever saidDisciples. . . . You're the first person I ever said anything about it to. . . . It was absolutely wrong. Itanything about it to. . . . It was absolutely wrong. It was an utter mistake.was an utter mistake.
  41. 41.  ““But you have to understand that. You may haveBut you have to understand that. You may have grown up in a different family. But I grew up Chicagogrown up in a different family. But I grew up Chicago where people die every day. In order to be in awhere people die every day. In order to be in a certain organization you have to do certain things.certain organization you have to do certain things. And me being brainwashed in that way I had to doAnd me being brainwashed in that way I had to do that thing. And it protected me. Because I could gothat thing. And it protected me. Because I could go to somebody and they would protect me. ‘Hey man,to somebody and they would protect me. ‘Hey man, let's go shoot up those n. . . . Let's take their familylet's go shoot up those n. . . . Let's take their family hostage and teach them a lesson.’ That's how I washostage and teach them a lesson.’ That's how I was taught.”taught.”
  42. 42. ““Violent prisoners spoke of violence as aViolent prisoners spoke of violence as a routine occurrence between people thatroutine occurrence between people that hardly needs explaining and that could behardly needs explaining and that could be helpful in achieving some personal andhelpful in achieving some personal and social goals.”social goals.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)
  43. 43. ““Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’Violence ‘resolves’ conflicts, ‘persuades’ others to do things, can be exhilarating orothers to do things, can be exhilarating or simply make you feel better, and usually itsimply make you feel better, and usually it makes others treat you with respect.”makes others treat you with respect.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 86)
  44. 44. Self ImageSelf Image
  45. 45.  ““I guess when you’re young, you want toI guess when you’re young, you want to be feared, you want to be respected.”be feared, you want to be respected.”
  46. 46. Self ImageSelf Image Q.Q. Whose responsibility were these offenses?Whose responsibility were these offenses? A. “I don’t know how to put it into sense. The 07 itA. “I don’t know how to put it into sense. The 07 it was all about my second baby mother. Shewas all about my second baby mother. She was pregnant with my youngest son. I didn’twas pregnant with my youngest son. I didn’t have no job. I just came home. I was outhave no job. I just came home. I was out hustling. Even though I was hustling I washustling. Even though I was hustling I was spending money on frivolous shit. I tried tospending money on frivolous shit. I tried to justify that I wanted to get that money tojustify that I wanted to get that money to provide for my son. But the truth of the matterprovide for my son. But the truth of the matter is I couldn’t let a dude do me like that. .is I couldn’t let a dude do me like that. .
  47. 47. If you back down from one battle you open up theIf you back down from one battle you open up the door to many more. You let one cat run on you;door to many more. You let one cat run on you; everybody is going to run on you. He thought Ieverybody is going to run on you. He thought I was sweet. . . . I couldn’t stand on it.”was sweet. . . . I couldn’t stand on it.”
  48. 48. Shot an Officer, a Deputy andShot an Officer, a Deputy and Escaped from VehicleEscaped from Vehicle
  49. 49. Attitudes Towards ViolenceAttitudes Towards Violence ““I had a lot of time. I didn’t want to do the time. II had a lot of time. I didn’t want to do the time. I had to do something for myself. I tried to helphad to do something for myself. I tried to help myself. I owed that to myself to try to regainmyself. I owed that to myself to try to regain my freedom. I was going to leave the countrymy freedom. I was going to leave the country and never come back. I was quite young then,and never come back. I was quite young then, compared to what I am now and fearless [pridecompared to what I am now and fearless [pride expression] -- intrepid at that time --and didn’texpression] -- intrepid at that time --and didn’t think the way I think now. I would be morethink the way I think now. I would be more concerned about my welfare now and my familyconcerned about my welfare now and my family – something happen to me what would they– something happen to me what would they think – then I didn’t consider those things.”think – then I didn’t consider those things.”
  50. 50. Violent Self ImageViolent Self Image ““I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. .I’m a man, and I want to be treated like a man. . . I don’t care who a person is or who they think. I don’t care who a person is or who they think they are either; they better not play around withthey are either; they better not play around with me. I’ll show them who in the hell they’reme. I’ll show them who in the hell they’re playing with. They’ll find out fast they aren’tplaying with. They’ll find out fast they aren’t fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . .fucking with any boy when they fuck with me. . . I’ve ruined more than one good man in myI’ve ruined more than one good man in my time, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s thetime, and Jack, I’ll do it again too. That’s the way I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day Iway I am and that’s the way I’ll be until the day I die.”die.” (Athens, 1997, p. 57)(Athens, 1997, p. 57)
  51. 51. ““My son was getting into fights at school.My son was getting into fights at school. So I taught both sons to box after school,So I taught both sons to box after school, so they could defend themselves. I didn’tso they could defend themselves. I didn’t want my sons looking like [cowards] orwant my sons looking like [cowards] or being walking [being walking [sic]sic] over by every Tom,over by every Tom, Dick, or Harry. Everyone needs respect.”Dick, or Harry. Everyone needs respect.” (Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)(Polaschek et a., 2010, p. 87)
  52. 52. Self-Image/Social StatusSelf-Image/Social Status Meaning Units = PhrasesMeaning Units = Phrases 20 violent offenders20 violent offenders 57% of Meaning Units57% of Meaning Units Self ImageSelf Image (Polaschek et al., 2010)(Polaschek et al., 2010)
  53. 53. Victim Deserved ItVictim Deserved It (Widget Theory)(Widget Theory)
  54. 54. ““I don’t attack people who have doneI don’t attack people who have done nothing to me. I go after people who havenothing to me. I go after people who have done something to me. Who have hurtdone something to me. Who have hurt me. I have to have a reason.”me. I have to have a reason.”
  55. 55. LeroyLeroy  Staff alone in boothStaff alone in booth  Left booth to make snack for unitLeft booth to make snack for unit  His door unlockedHis door unlocked  ““Don’t hurt me”Don’t hurt me”  Beat her head on floor repeatedly –Beat her head on floor repeatedly – multiple skull fracturesmultiple skull fractures  Stripped her, dragged her 117’ and left herStripped her, dragged her 117’ and left her
  56. 56. 16-Year-Old After Battery and Attempted16-Year-Old After Battery and Attempted Homicide of Female Staff Member:Homicide of Female Staff Member: LeroyLeroy  ““It didn’t matter who was in the booth, . . I wasIt didn’t matter who was in the booth, . . I was gonna go, and it didn’t matter who was there.gonna go, and it didn’t matter who was there. I was gonna fight them and take them down.I was gonna fight them and take them down. It’s not very hard to take that little punyIt’s not very hard to take that little puny pathetic staff down. I’d rather be dead thanpathetic staff down. I’d rather be dead than locked up. .. . I told the staff six months ago Ilocked up. .. . I told the staff six months ago I was gonna get out no matter what, and when Iwas gonna get out no matter what, and when I got out I was gonna strip them naked and draggot out I was gonna strip them naked and drag their assess down the hall and put them in thattheir assess down the hall and put them in that room where they put us.”room where they put us.”
  57. 57. LeroyLeroy  ““I heard it crack when her head hit. At first itI heard it crack when her head hit. At first it surprised me. I told her to shut up, but shesurprised me. I told her to shut up, but she wouldn’t. She cried louder. . . I slammed herwouldn’t. She cried louder. . . I slammed her dead down on the floor. I had a limited time todead down on the floor. I had a limited time to get out of there. I was running out of time.get out of there. I was running out of time. The guards were checking every ten minutes.The guards were checking every ten minutes. I slammed her head against the floor fourI slammed her head against the floor four more times because she wouldn’t shut up. Imore times because she wouldn’t shut up. I was fixing to break her neck. Every time Iwas fixing to break her neck. Every time I slammed her head on the floor, I heard herslammed her head on the floor, I heard her
  58. 58. LeroyLeroy  ““She was quiet for a minute after the third timeShe was quiet for a minute after the third time and I thought that was it, but then she startedand I thought that was it, but then she started moving again, so I did it two more times. Imoving again, so I did it two more times. I thought she was dead. I didn’t care. I wasthought she was dead. I didn’t care. I was gonna kill any staff. It didn’t matter to me.”gonna kill any staff. It didn’t matter to me.”
  59. 59. LeroyLeroy  ““Q. Do you know the difference in rightQ. Do you know the difference in right and wrong?”and wrong?”  A. “I don’t think about right and wrong. I’mA. “I don’t think about right and wrong. I’m cold-hearted.”cold-hearted.”
  60. 60. LeroyLeroy  Q. “Did you think you were doing anythingQ. “Did you think you were doing anything wrong?”wrong?”  A. “No, cause I was thinking I got threeA. “No, cause I was thinking I got three minutes to leave before they come.”minutes to leave before they come.”
  61. 61. Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy At sentencingAt sentencing  Headaches every day, sometimes excruciatingHeadaches every day, sometimes excruciating  DizzinessDizziness  NauseaNausea  Permanent loss of smell and tastePermanent loss of smell and taste  Neck and back painNeck and back pain  Some days couldn’t get out of bedSome days couldn’t get out of bed  Couldn’t driveCouldn’t drive  Wouldn’t be aloneWouldn’t be alone  Nightmares, flashbacksNightmares, flashbacks
  62. 62. Impact on Victim: LeroyImpact on Victim: Leroy  Sensitive to light, noise and motionSensitive to light, noise and motion  Left alone for a few hours – locked self inLeft alone for a few hours – locked self in bathroombathroom
  63. 63. Impact on Victims:Impact on Victims: Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response  ““I’m not sure? I’m not going to go off intoI’m not sure? I’m not going to go off into the guessing. I only know what they put inthe guessing. I only know what they put in the files and none of that has beenthe files and none of that has been substantiated. . . It’s only her side of thesubstantiated. . . It’s only her side of the story, the side of the story that they wantstory, the side of the story that they want to portray. “to portray. “
  64. 64. Leroy’s ResponseLeroy’s Response  ““All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”All this was is battery. I got railroaded.”
  65. 65. Callousness: EthanCallousness: Ethan Robbed and beat 86 year-old womanRobbed and beat 86 year-old woman Robbed 74 year-old womanRobbed 74 year-old woman
  66. 66. Impact on Victim: EthanImpact on Victim: Ethan DeterioratedDeteriorated Unable to live aloneUnable to live alone Incoherent within monthsIncoherent within months
  67. 67. Ethan: NarcissismEthan: Narcissism  Q. “How do you feel about little old ladyQ. “How do you feel about little old lady deteriorating? “deteriorating? “  A. “She took a deposition. Are you sure it’s him?A. “She took a deposition. Are you sure it’s him? She didn’t want to say it was me. She started toShe didn’t want to say it was me. She started to waiver. She was a school teacher. She knew theywaiver. She was a school teacher. She knew they were going to hang me. She didn’t want that towere going to hang me. She didn’t want that to happen. I believe. She told a story about somehappen. I believe. She told a story about some horse thieves . . . the posse came along and arrestedhorse thieves . . . the posse came along and arrested all of them. . . a young boy was there and they triedall of them. . . a young boy was there and they tried to hang him too . . she asked the detective was thisto hang him too . . she asked the detective was this right? That’s the parable she tried to tell him. Iright? That’s the parable she tried to tell him. I believe it was a message to me. . . I will always honorbelieve it was a message to me. . . I will always honor her for that as I honor all women.”her for that as I honor all women.”
  68. 68. EthanEthan  Q. “She got beaten.”Q. “She got beaten.”  A. “Yes, but she resisted. This woman fought me asA. “Yes, but she resisted. This woman fought me as hard as anybody could fight. I know how it looks. Ihard as anybody could fight. I know how it looks. I was not intending to use any more force than I neededwas not intending to use any more force than I needed to. This woman fought me fiercely. Never for oneto. This woman fought me fiercely. Never for one moment did she admit. I was saying, ‘Lady, ladymoment did she admit. I was saying, ‘Lady, lady please.’ Yes, she got beat but I know in my heart Iplease.’ Yes, she got beat but I know in my heart I didn’t do it sadistically and I didn’t do it any more thandidn’t do it sadistically and I didn’t do it any more than was necessary.”was necessary.” 
  69. 69. EthanEthan  ““We are in a society that lacks mercy.We are in a society that lacks mercy. They want to punish a guy forever.”They want to punish a guy forever.”
  70. 70. Attacked Officers in JailAttacked Officers in Jail  ““That incident in the county jail it wasn’t personal. ItThat incident in the county jail it wasn’t personal. It wasn’t one of those things that officer so and so iswasn’t one of those things that officer so and so is working today – whoever was working – it was goingworking today – whoever was working – it was going to happen. . . You go into that situation knowing . . .to happen. . . You go into that situation knowing . . . Just like if you go in a robbery with a gun, you don’tJust like if you go in a robbery with a gun, you don’t think you are going to kill someone. But you knowthink you are going to kill someone. But you know you need to take the gun in the robbery because youyou need to take the gun in the robbery because you might need to kill someone. Of course that’s wrong.might need to kill someone. Of course that’s wrong. But you don’t care. Why should I care? That’s whyBut you don’t care. Why should I care? That’s why you need to get to the point where you care.”you need to get to the point where you care.”
  71. 71. Shallow AffectShallow Affect  Q. “ Were you ever in love?”Q. “ Were you ever in love?”  A. “I was very much emotionally attached to allA. “I was very much emotionally attached to all of them in a sense. I don’t want to say I was inof them in a sense. I don’t want to say I was in love with them because I still don’t know whatlove with them because I still don’t know what love is.”love is.”
  72. 72. Shallow Affect (continued)Shallow Affect (continued)  ““I exposed myself – I did in some sense – I don’tI exposed myself – I did in some sense – I don’t mean any disrespect when I say this – women – youmean any disrespect when I say this – women – you demand some kind of connection – you hunger fordemand some kind of connection – you hunger for something more than a mutual friendship. Eventuallysomething more than a mutual friendship. Eventually they wore me down in the sense that I did tell themthey wore me down in the sense that I did tell them certain things but I did this in a way that if they saidcertain things but I did this in a way that if they said something to someone else I would know who saidsomething to someone else I would know who said it.”it.”
  73. 73. Interaction of Genes andInteraction of Genes and EnvironmentEnvironment Males with low MAOA activity alleleMales with low MAOA activity allele (specific gene)(specific gene) ++ Childhood maltreatmentChildhood maltreatment Increased antisocial behaviorIncreased antisocial behavior (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  74. 74. Genetic Contribution to ViolentGenetic Contribution to Violent BehaviorBehavior ½ Variance in antisocial behavior½ Variance in antisocial behavior Due to genetic factorsDue to genetic factors ( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)& Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)
  75. 75. Genetics & EnvironmentGenetics & Environment InteractiveInteractive (Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)
  76. 76. Working with Manipulative andWorking with Manipulative and Violent InmatesViolent Inmates Don’t take it personallyDon’t take it personally Give choicesGive choices Avoid power strugglesAvoid power struggles Give reasonsGive reasons
  77. 77. Giving ReasonsGiving Reasons The word “because”The word “because”
  78. 78. ReasonsReasons ““Excuse me. I have 5 pages.Excuse me. I have 5 pages. May I use the Xerox machine.”May I use the Xerox machine.” Compliance 60%Compliance 60% (Langer et al., 1978)(Langer et al., 1978)
  79. 79. ReasonsReasons ““Excuse me. I have five pages.Excuse me. I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machineMay I use the Xerox machine because I’m in a rush.”because I’m in a rush.” Compliance 94%Compliance 94% (Langer et al., 1978)(Langer et al., 1978)
  80. 80. ReasonsReasons ““Excuse me. I have 5 pages. May I useExcuse me. I have 5 pages. May I use the Xerox machine because I need tothe Xerox machine because I need to make some copies.”make some copies.” 93%93% (Langer et al., 1978)(Langer et al., 1978)
  81. 81. Body language mattersBody language matters MatchingMatching RelaxedRelaxed
  82. 82. Use humorUse humor
  83. 83. Violence Delinquency ScaleViolence Delinquency Scale  How many times past 12 months hurt someoneHow many times past 12 months hurt someone badly enough to require medical attentionbadly enough to require medical attention  Used a weapon to get something fromUsed a weapon to get something from someonesomeone  Took part in a group fightTook part in a group fight (Beaver, 2008)(Beaver, 2008)
  84. 84. Violent AdolescentsViolent Adolescents 3 samples3 samples Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment Assessment Before ReleaseAssessment Before Release (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  85. 85. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors 00 1 or more1 or more Pretrial AssessmentPretrial Assessment High riskHigh risk 40%40% 6%6% Low riskLow risk 1212 66 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  86. 86. Impact of Protective FactorsImpact of Protective Factors Institutional AssessmentInstitutional Assessment High riskHigh risk 8686 5454 Low riskLow risk 4444 1313 Pre-ReleasePre-Release High riskHigh risk 7878 3333 Low riskLow risk 3838 33 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  87. 87. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)
  88. 88. Which Factors?Which Factors?  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments to prosocial adultsStrong attachments to prosocial adults
  89. 89. PsychopathyPsychopathy
  90. 90. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & ViolenceViolence Age RangeAge Range HighHigh LowLow Younger (13 - 15.5)Younger (13 - 15.5) 52%52% 12%12% Mid (15.5 - 18)Mid (15.5 - 18) 64%64% 54%54% Older (18 - 20.5)Older (18 - 20.5) 48%48% 33%33% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  91. 91. High Vs Low PsychopathyHigh Vs Low Psychopathy AdolescentsAdolescents 10 or More10 or More Violent ActsViolent Acts  High PsychopathyHigh Psychopathy 64%64%  Low PsychopathyLow Psychopathy 37%37% (Forth, 1995)(Forth, 1995)
  92. 92. Psychopathic AdolescentsPsychopathic Adolescents  More criminal actsMore criminal acts  More types of criminal actsMore types of criminal acts  Earlier age of onset for violent & nonviolentEarlier age of onset for violent & nonviolent offensesoffenses  More likely to have threatened with a weaponMore likely to have threatened with a weapon  More likely to commit robbery & arsonMore likely to commit robbery & arson  More likely to commit a sexual offenseMore likely to commit a sexual offense (Forth & Burke, 1998)(Forth & Burke, 1998)
  93. 93. Psychopathic Adolescent SexPsychopathic Adolescent Sex OffendersOffenders  Threatened moreThreatened more  Used more severe violenceUsed more severe violence (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  94. 94. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow NonviolentNonviolent 66%66% 27%27% ViolentViolent 31%31% 12%12% (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  95. 95. Adolescent Psychopathy &Adolescent Psychopathy & RecidivismRecidivism N = 189N = 189 HighHigh LowLow Months toMonths to RecidivismRecidivism 1616 2727 (Gretton et al., 1994)(Gretton et al., 1994)
  96. 96. Protective FactorsProtective Factors Adolescent Violent OffendersAdolescent Violent Offenders  Prosocial involvementProsocial involvement  Strong social supportStrong social support  Strong attachments & bondsStrong attachments & bonds  Positive attitude towards interventionPositive attitude towards intervention and authorityand authority  Strong commitment to school & workStrong commitment to school & work  Resilient personalityResilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)(Lodewijks et al., 2010)

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