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1 sex offenders

  1. 1. Sex Offenders and Victims: Current Trends Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What Works? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Offender Treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RP Vs Good Lives Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which Tx Components? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence as a Way of Life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child Pornography </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Handouts <ul><li>www.annasalter.com </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Community Studies <ul><li>Molested as children </li></ul><ul><li>20 to 38% females </li></ul><ul><li>9 to 16% males </li></ul>
  5. 5. Child Molesters <ul><ul><ul><li>Why Do Some Men Molest Children? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sexually Abused as Children? <ul><li>No Future </li></ul><ul><li> Polygraph Polygraph </li></ul><ul><li>67% 29% </li></ul><ul><li>65% 32% </li></ul><ul><li>61% 30% </li></ul><ul><li>(Hindman & Peters, 2001) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Deviant Arousal Pattern <ul><li>Sexually attracted to children </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise responsible </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., teachers, priests, youth leaders, doctors, businessmen, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Successful Predators <ul><li>Charming </li></ul><ul><li>Do Favors </li></ul><ul><li>Genial, Affable, Likeable </li></ul>
  9. 9. Deviant Arousal <ul><li>“ When I jerked off, I tried to fantasize about girls my age in my classes, but it didn’t work. When I thought about kids, I felt guilty, but I got really aroused and I could ejaculate. Although I didn’t really want them to be, the fantasies were about feeling these kids up and sucking their dicks. The more I did it, the easier it got.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sexually Attracted to Children <ul><li>Q. “How old were you when you began to have fantasies about children? </li></ul><ul><li>A. About 13 or 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Q. How often would you say during masturbation you had sexual fantasies involving children? </li></ul><ul><li>A. All the time.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sexually Attracted to Children <ul><li>Q. How much of the time do you fantasize about boys?’’ </li></ul><ul><li>A. I’d say about half the day. It’s when I’m not doing anything.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Minister Who Molested Grandchildren <ul><li>“ I suppose that being a devout religious person, if I had believed with all of my mind and heart that the earth was going to open up and swallow me into hell, I would have went ahead and done it anyway.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ People often confuse issues of traits of character with issues of . . . the type of sexual interest an individual has. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who may be compulsive pedophiles, for instance, may obey the law in other ways, may be responsible in their work, may have concern for other persons.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Berlin, quoted in Knopp, 1984, p. 9) </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Antisocial Motivation <ul><li>Criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of other crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Want sex; violate anybody’s rights </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ I plain and simple needed to get some good, hot, kinky sex but resented having to rely on the generosity of women to hit on their pussies. . . My days of begging . . . Were over.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Athens, 1997, p. 10) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Frustrative <ul><li>“ The way she moved made my rocks shake. I had to have her. So I pretended to look for my dog. . . She was polite but bitchy, you know. . . She goes, yea like get lost. Now I don’t give a fuck, you know. I reach for her neck. Fuck you, I goes and drag her inside the fuck’en shed.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Stevens, 2001, p. 40) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ A young woman came in with a bad cut on her arm. . . From the way she talked and acted, I got the impression she made men come after her. She was conceited and all wrapped up in herself. . . I tried to get something going but her nose was too far up in the air.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Athens, 1997, p. 8) </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Loneliness <ul><li>Relate poorly to adults </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidated by women </li></ul><ul><li>Children accepting, nonjudgmental, </li></ul><ul><li>open-hearted </li></ul>
  19. 19. Identification with Children <ul><li>Uncomfortable around adults his age </li></ul><ul><li>“ They seemed so much more grown up than I was.” “I felt awkward, like I couldn’t get one foot in front of the other.” </li></ul><ul><li>Children: “They weren’t trying to live up to some social standard.” “I envied them because they seemed so free, so at ease in their world.” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Identification with Children <ul><li>“ I will admit that I especially liked looking at the boys. They were so cute, bright eyed, smooth skin. It sounds silly, but I wished that I could look like that, rather than a hulky, almost adult male.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Child Molesters <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Deviant Arousal Pattern </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Anti-social Attitudes & Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Includes Psychopaths) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Emotional Loneliness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Thinking Errors of Nonsadistic Sex Offenders <ul><li>The child wanted me to do those things to him. </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoyed it as much as I did. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew what he was doing. </li></ul><ul><li>She was just a little flirt. </li></ul><ul><li>He came on to me. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 4. Sadists <ul><li>Sexually Aroused </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Pain, Suffering, Terror and Humiliation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sadistic Behavior A man shot off a teenage girl’s arm for the sexual thrill it gave him. ( Abel, 1981)
  25. 25. Sadistic Behavior A serial killer would smother his wife with a plastic bag until she passed out and then would have sex. He beat her with belts and burned her with cigarettes. (Groth, 1979, p. 48)
  26. 26. Sadistic Behavior A rapist of thirteen-year girls preferred to anally rape them on cement floors so that the rapes would be more painful. (Abel, 1977)
  27. 27. Sadistic Offenders <ul><li>5% of sex offenders </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sadistic Sexual Arousal <ul><li>Type of Stimuli Percentage of Full </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Consenting Sex 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Rape 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Nonsexual Violence 79 </li></ul><ul><li>(Abel, 1977) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sadists Who Murder <ul><li>Percent </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Con in approaching victim 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Preselected location 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Captivity 24 hours 65 </li></ul><ul><li>(Warren, Hazelwood & Dietz, 1996) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Whom Sadists Target <ul><li>Age of Victims Percent of Sadists </li></ul><ul><li>Adults 87 </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents & Adults 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Children 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(Freund, 1990) </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>“ First I’m going to torture you in the most horrible and painful manner I can think of. Then I’m going to abuse you sexually in the most degrading way I possibly can think of. Then I’ll kill you in the slowest and most painful way I can conceive. . . Do you have any questions?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Heilbroner, 1993, p. 147) </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>“ The picture in my mind was one of torturing a victim with everything from matches and cigarette butts to a propane torch, electrical stimulation, needles, and so forth. . . The first victims were female, because I had an impulse to rape and hurt. The last three were female for rape reasons, but with more emphasis on hurting and humiliation. . . And, on a few occasions, there have been concepts of taking a ‘dry run’ or a practice run using a small child as victim, male or female.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Groth, 1979, p. 56) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Female Sadists <ul><li>“ I just can’t explain the feeling it gave me. . . You couldn’t understand, nothing compares to the high, nothing, no drink, drugs nothing. It’s power I think, I feel really strong, powerful and important nothing and no one can hurt me. The high is incredible. There’s nothing, there just aren’t words to describe it.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Saradjian, 1996) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Typology of Rapists <ul><li>Opportunistic </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasively Angry </li></ul><ul><li>Vindictive </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Sadistic </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Sadistic </li></ul><ul><li>(Knight, 1990) </li></ul>