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1 sex offenders

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Dixon, IL Presentation

Dixon, IL Presentation

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  • 108 General finding is a “quasi-linear” -- i.e., positive and monotonic -- relationship between PCL-R and failure: The higher the PCL-R score, the higher the risk of failure, even among nonpsychopaths. Similar findings are emerging for Young Offenders, female offenders, etc. Hemphill, J., & Wong, S. (in press). Psychopathy and risk for recidivism: A meta-analysis. Legal and Criminological Psychology . Rogers, R. (1995). Diagnostic and structured interviewing: A handbook for psychologists . Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Simourd, D., Bonta, J., Andrews, D., & Hoge, R. D. (1990). Criminal behavior and psychopaths: A meta-analysis [Abstract]. Canadian Psychology , 31 , 347.
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    • 1. Crimes Against Children Sex Offenders Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.
    • 2. Agenda <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent Sex Offenders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Offender Treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 3. Handouts <ul><li>www.annasalter.com </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    • 4. Police Report <ul><li>“ I observed defendant driving without headlights on. Defendant’s vehicle was swaying from westbound curb lane to eastbound # 1. As defendant’s vehicle passed, I observed defendant with a large dog helping defendant drive (dog had front paws on steering wheel, possibly trying to save its own life.). Upon stopping defendant’s vehicle, defendant began yelling, ‘Fuck Skippy [the dog]. You really got me fucked this time.’ Skippy had no statement.” </li></ul>
    • 5. Community Studies <ul><li>Molested as children </li></ul><ul><li>20 to 38% females </li></ul><ul><li>9 to 16% males </li></ul>
    • 6. Child Molesters <ul><ul><ul><li>Why Do Some Men Molest Children? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. 1. Deviant Arousal Pattern <ul><li>Sexually attracted to children </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise responsible </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., teachers, priests, youth leaders, doctors, businessmen, etc. </li></ul>
    • 8. Successful Predators <ul><li>Charming </li></ul><ul><li>Do Favors </li></ul><ul><li>Genial, Affable, Likeable </li></ul>
    • 9. Deviant Arousal <ul><li>“ When I jerked off, I tried to fantasize about girls my age in my classes, but it didn’t work. When I thought about kids, I felt guilty, but I got really aroused and I could ejaculate. Although I didn’t really want them to be, the fantasies were about feeling these kids up and sucking their dicks. The more I did it, the easier it got.” </li></ul>
    • 10. Sexually Attracted to Children <ul><li>Q. “How old were you when you began to have fantasies about children? </li></ul><ul><li>A. About 13 or 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Q. How often would you say during masturbation you had sexual fantasies involving children? </li></ul><ul><li>A. All the time.” </li></ul>
    • 11. Sexually Attracted to Children <ul><li>Q. How much of the time do you fantasize about boys?’’ </li></ul><ul><li>A. I’d say about half the day. It’s when I’m not doing anything.” </li></ul>
    • 12. Minister Who Molested Grandchildren <ul><li>“ I suppose that being a devout religious person, if I had believed with all of my mind and heart that the earth was going to open up and swallow me into hell, I would have went ahead and done it anyway.” </li></ul>
    • 13. <ul><li>“ People often confuse issues of traits of character with issues of . . . the type of sexual interest an individual has. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who may be compulsive pedophiles, for instance, may obey the law in other ways, may be responsible in their work, may have concern for other persons.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Berlin, quoted in Knopp, 1984, p. 9) </li></ul>
    • 14. Sexually Abused as Children? <ul><li>No Future </li></ul><ul><li> Polygraph Polygraph </li></ul><ul><li>67% 29% </li></ul><ul><li>65% 32% </li></ul><ul><li>61% 30% </li></ul><ul><li>(Hindman &amp; Peters, 2001) </li></ul>
    • 15. 2. Antisocial Motivation <ul><li>Criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of other crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Want sex; violate anybody’s rights </li></ul>
    • 16. <ul><li>“ I plain and simple needed to get some good, hot, kinky sex but resented having to rely on the generosity of women to hit on their pussies. . . My days of begging . . . Were over.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Athens, 1997, p. 10) </li></ul>
    • 17. Frustrative <ul><li>“ The way she moved made my rocks shake. I had to have her. So I pretended to look for my dog. . . She was polite but bitchy, you know. . . She goes, yea like get lost. Now I don’t give a fuck, you know. I reach for her neck. Fuck you, I goes and drag her inside the fuck’en shed.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Stevens, 2001, p. 40) </li></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li>“ A young woman came in with a bad cut on her arm. . . From the way she talked and acted, I got the impression she made men come after her. She was conceited and all wrapped up in herself. . . I tried to get something going but her nose was too far up in the air.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Athens, 1997, p. 8) </li></ul>
    • 19. 3. Loneliness <ul><li>Relate poorly to adults </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidated by women </li></ul><ul><li>Children accepting, nonjudgmental, </li></ul><ul><li>open-hearted </li></ul>
    • 20. Identification with Children <ul><li>Uncomfortable around adults his age </li></ul><ul><li>“ They seemed so much more grown up than I was.” “I felt awkward, like I couldn’t get one foot in front of the other.” </li></ul><ul><li>Children: “They weren’t trying to live up to some social standard.” “I envied them because they seemed so free, so at ease in their world.” </li></ul>
    • 21. Identification with Children <ul><li>“ I will admit that I especially liked looking at the boys. They were so cute, bright eyed, smooth skin. It sounds silly, but I wished that I could look like that, rather than a hulky, almost adult male.” </li></ul>
    • 22. Child Molesters <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Deviant Arousal Pattern </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Anti-social Attitudes &amp; Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Includes Psychopaths) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Emotional Loneliness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. Thinking Errors of Nonsadistic Sex Offenders <ul><li>The child wanted me to do those things to him. </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoyed it as much as I did. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew what he was doing. </li></ul><ul><li>She was just a little flirt. </li></ul><ul><li>He came on to me. </li></ul>
    • 24. 4. Sadists <ul><li>Sexually Aroused </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Pain, Suffering, Terror and Humiliation </li></ul>
    • 25. Sadistic Behavior A man shot off a teenage girl’s arm for the sexual thrill it gave him. ( Abel, 1981)
    • 26. Sadistic Behavior A serial killer would smother his wife with a plastic bag until she passed out and then would have sex. He beat her with belts and burned her with cigarettes. (Groth, 1979, p. 48)
    • 27. Sadistic Behavior A rapist of thirteen-year girls preferred to anally rape them on cement floors so that the rapes would be more painful. (Abel, 1977)
    • 28. Sadistic Offenders <ul><li>5% of sex offenders </li></ul>
    • 29. Sadistic Sexual Arousal <ul><li>Type of Stimuli Percentage of Full </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Consenting Sex 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Rape 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Nonsexual Violence 79 </li></ul><ul><li>(Abel, 1977) </li></ul>
    • 30. Sadists Who Murder <ul><li>Percent </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Con in approaching victim 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Preselected location 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Captivity 24 hours 65 </li></ul><ul><li>(Warren, Hazelwood &amp; Dietz, 1996) </li></ul>
    • 31. Whom Sadists Target <ul><li>Age of Victims Percent of Sadists </li></ul><ul><li>Adults 87 </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents &amp; Adults 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Children 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(Freund, 1990) </li></ul>
    • 32. <ul><li>“ First I’m going to torture you in the most horrible and painful manner I can think of. Then I’m going to abuse you sexually in the most degrading way I possibly can think of. Then I’ll kill you in the slowest and most painful way I can conceive. . . Do you have any questions?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Heilbroner, 1993, p. 147) </li></ul>
    • 33. <ul><li>“ The picture in my mind was one of torturing a victim with everything from matches and cigarette butts to a propane torch, electrical stimulation, needles, and so forth. . . The first victims were female, because I had an impulse to rape and hurt. The last three were female for rape reasons, but with more emphasis on hurting and humiliation. . . And, on a few occasions, there have been concepts of taking a ‘dry run’ or a practice run using a small child as victim, male or female.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Groth, 1979, p. 56) </li></ul>
    • 34. Female Sadists <ul><li>“ I just can’t explain the feeling it gave me. . . You couldn’t understand, nothing compares to the high, nothing, no drink, drugs nothing. It’s power I think, I feel really strong, powerful and important nothing and no one can hurt me. The high is incredible. There’s nothing, there just aren’t words to describe it.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Saradjian, 1996) </li></ul>
    • 35. Typology of Rapists <ul><li>Opportunistic </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasively Angry </li></ul><ul><li>Vindictive </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Sadistic </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Sadistic </li></ul><ul><li>(Knight, 1990) </li></ul>
    • 36. The High “ What helps me so much is I have something about me I can really attract people to me. . . The person gets to really care and trust me. The problem I always had is where the excitement would come in. I would get them to trust me and I would set them up for the fall. It’s almost like a power that you have. It’s like a rush that you get from it.”
    • 37. The High “ It’s like a rush. I really don’t know how to explain it. I’ve never been into drugs real strong. From just what I have seen it’s like somebody who’s addicted to heroin or cocaine. An incredible feeling. Strongest at the end when I know I’m going to let them down in some way.”
    • 38. The High “ The best part I just basically told them you are so fucking stupid. You know I am a sex offender. I have child victims. You are stupid enough. You and your wife both. You are fucking morons. Everything that’s happened to you – you deserve.”
    • 39. Callousness “ I’ve never been physical. . . Kind of what I felt is when you hurt someone physically, that goes away. When you hurt someone emotionally, that never goes away. That was the thrill.”
    • 40. Incest and Domestic Violence <ul><li>Incest mothers victims of domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>73% </li></ul><ul><li>(Truesdell, McNeil, &amp; Deschner, 1986) </li></ul>
    • 41. Severely Violent Couples <ul><li>N of Couples </li></ul><ul><li>Battering group 63 </li></ul><ul><li>Some violence 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy, not violent 33 </li></ul><ul><li>Happily married 20 </li></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 42. Battering Group <ul><li>Degree of Violence W/in Last Year </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level 6 or more </li></ul><ul><li>(Pushing or slapping) </li></ul><ul><li>Severe 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(Kicking or hitting w/ fist) </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially lethal 1 </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaten up, use of weapon) </li></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 43. Battering Group <ul><li>Wives required medical attention </li></ul><ul><li>80% </li></ul>
    • 44. Low Level <ul><li>Did Not Escalate </li></ul><ul><li> (Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998 ) </li></ul>
    • 45. Battering for a Reason <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjugate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 46. Battering Group <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always emotional abuse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 47. Method <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewed separately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological measures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood reading periphery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How fast blood moving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much moving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much sweating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 48. Types of Batterers Cobras vs Pit Bulls
    • 49. Pit Bulls <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow Burn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wives less intimidated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wives argued back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared abandonment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive and controlling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 50. Cobras <ul><ul><li>20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More aggressive instantly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More threatened or used weapon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More severe violence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in heart rate as verbal aggression increased </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calmer than when relaxed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 51. Cobras <ul><li>Distanced from intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous when wives want more </li></ul><ul><li>Do not fear abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Will not be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>( Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 52. Cobras <ul><ul><ul><li>Often anti-social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and alcohol abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe emotional abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe physical abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often charismatic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Husbands economically dependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wives attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 53. Who is More Dangerous? <ul><li>Cobras </li></ul><ul><li>More severe violence </li></ul><ul><li>Wives less often leave </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous when wives want something </li></ul><ul><li>Can let go and move on </li></ul><ul><li>Pit Bulls </li></ul><ul><li>Less severe violence </li></ul><ul><li>Many wives leave </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous when abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Become obsessed </li></ul>
    • 54. Pitt Bulls <ul><li>Beaten w/ closed fist, </li></ul><ul><li>often strangling 62% </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened with knife or gun 4% </li></ul><ul><li>Used knife or gun 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Violent outside marriage 3% </li></ul><ul><li> (Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 55. <ul><li>Bulls Cobras </li></ul><ul><li>Beaten w/ closed fist, </li></ul><ul><li>often strangling 62% 91% </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened with knife </li></ul><ul><li>or gun 4% 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Used knife or gun 0 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Violent outside marriage 3% 44% </li></ul><ul><li> (Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 56. Anti-social <ul><ul><ul><li>Cobras 90% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pit Bulls 33% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 57. Wives of Pit Bulls <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More angry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less fearful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More constantly controlled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 58. <ul><li>[A man] “must be aware of all this: </li></ul><ul><li>Get his satisfaction early </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate her contacts with others </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let her make any decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let her acquire any skills (working, driving, social skills, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let her have any power (bank accounts, ownership, inside information – material for blackmail).” </li></ul><ul><li>Never trust her completely </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t ‘enlighten’ her with knowledge (especially of psychology” </li></ul>
    • 59. <ul><li>“ Always remember that the relationship is temporary + likewise prepare to ‘cut her loose’ before she does it to you </li></ul><ul><li>Set the ‘price’ higher than needed at first; whip, infidelity, extreme humiliation – then gradually reduce to keep at an adequate level. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively seek a ‘new’ partner when she begins showing signs of rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Make her more dependent: drugs? Live in country. No phone (or hidden – for my use only) no drivers license, no books (except fantasy) no fancy clothes, no doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>Never show weakness, guilt or insecurity.” </li></ul>
    • 60. Psychopathy and Nature of Crime <ul><li>(Woodworth &amp; Porter, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Study of 125 Canadian murderers </li></ul><ul><li>Murder classified as </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily reactive (e.g., crime of passion, extreme provocation, self-defense) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily instrumental (e.g., cold-blooded, premeditated, settle a score) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 61. &nbsp;
    • 62. &nbsp;
    • 63. &nbsp;
    • 64. Why Batter? <ul><li>Because it works </li></ul>
    • 65. Does Treatment Work? <ul><li>Not Clear </li></ul>
    • 66. Conning and Manipulating <ul><li>Prior to Attempted Murder </li></ul><ul><li>“ In my professional opinion, Roy no longer constitutes a danger to his wife, Helen. He has been a model patient. He has accepted responsibility for being a batterer, has shown no inclination to repeat the violence from the past, and even stands a chance of qualifying for work as a therapist himself.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 67. Leaving w/in two years <ul><li>Pit Bulls 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Cobras 0 </li></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>
    • 68. Leaving w/in 5 years <ul><ul><ul><li>Cobras 25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Jacobson &amp; Gottman, 1998) </li></ul>

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