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  • 108 General finding is a “quasi-linear” -- i.e., positive and monotonic -- relationship between PCL-R and failure: The higher the PCL-R score, the higher the risk of failure, even among nonpsychopaths. Similar findings are emerging for Young Offenders, female offenders, etc. Hemphill, J., & Wong, S. (in press). Psychopathy and risk for recidivism: A meta-analysis. Legal and Criminological Psychology . Rogers, R. (1995). Diagnostic and structured interviewing: A handbook for psychologists . Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Simourd, D., Bonta, J., Andrews, D., & Hoge, R. D. (1990). Criminal behavior and psychopaths: A meta-analysis [Abstract]. Canadian Psychology , 31 , 347.

Transcript

  • 1. Crimes Against Children Sex Offenders Anna C. Salter, Ph.D.
  • 2. Agenda
            • Characteristics of Sex Offenders
            • Female Sex Offenders
            • Adolescent Sex Offenders
            • Deception
            • Interviewing
            • Sex Offender Treatment
  • 3. Handouts
    • www.annasalter.com
    • [email_address]
  • 4. Police Report
    • “ I observed defendant driving without headlights on. Defendant’s vehicle was swaying from westbound curb lane to eastbound # 1. As defendant’s vehicle passed, I observed defendant with a large dog helping defendant drive (dog had front paws on steering wheel, possibly trying to save its own life.). Upon stopping defendant’s vehicle, defendant began yelling, ‘Fuck Skippy [the dog]. You really got me fucked this time.’ Skippy had no statement.”
  • 5. Community Studies
    • Molested as children
    • 20 to 38% females
    • 9 to 16% males
  • 6. Child Molesters
        • Why Do Some Men Molest Children?
  • 7. 1. Deviant Arousal Pattern
    • Sexually attracted to children
    • Otherwise responsible
    • E.g., teachers, priests, youth leaders, doctors, businessmen, etc.
  • 8. Successful Predators
    • Charming
    • Do Favors
    • Genial, Affable, Likeable
  • 9. Deviant Arousal
    • “ When I jerked off, I tried to fantasize about girls my age in my classes, but it didn’t work. When I thought about kids, I felt guilty, but I got really aroused and I could ejaculate. Although I didn’t really want them to be, the fantasies were about feeling these kids up and sucking their dicks. The more I did it, the easier it got.”
  • 10. Sexually Attracted to Children
    • Q. “How old were you when you began to have fantasies about children?
    • A. About 13 or 14
    • Q. How often would you say during masturbation you had sexual fantasies involving children?
    • A. All the time.”
  • 11. Sexually Attracted to Children
    • Q. How much of the time do you fantasize about boys?’’
    • A. I’d say about half the day. It’s when I’m not doing anything.”
  • 12. Minister Who Molested Grandchildren
    • “ I suppose that being a devout religious person, if I had believed with all of my mind and heart that the earth was going to open up and swallow me into hell, I would have went ahead and done it anyway.”
  • 13.
    • “ People often confuse issues of traits of character with issues of . . . the type of sexual interest an individual has.
    • Persons who may be compulsive pedophiles, for instance, may obey the law in other ways, may be responsible in their work, may have concern for other persons.”
    • (Berlin, quoted in Knopp, 1984, p. 9)
  • 14. Sexually Abused as Children?
    • No Future
    • Polygraph Polygraph
    • 67% 29%
    • 65% 32%
    • 61% 30%
    • (Hindman & Peters, 2001)
  • 15. 2. Antisocial Motivation
    • Criminals
    • Variety of other crimes
    • Want sex; violate anybody’s rights
  • 16.
    • “ I plain and simple needed to get some good, hot, kinky sex but resented having to rely on the generosity of women to hit on their pussies. . . My days of begging . . . Were over.”
    • (Athens, 1997, p. 10)
  • 17. Frustrative
    • “ The way she moved made my rocks shake. I had to have her. So I pretended to look for my dog. . . She was polite but bitchy, you know. . . She goes, yea like get lost. Now I don’t give a fuck, you know. I reach for her neck. Fuck you, I goes and drag her inside the fuck’en shed.”
    • (Stevens, 2001, p. 40)
  • 18.
    • “ A young woman came in with a bad cut on her arm. . . From the way she talked and acted, I got the impression she made men come after her. She was conceited and all wrapped up in herself. . . I tried to get something going but her nose was too far up in the air.”
    • (Athens, 1997, p. 8)
  • 19. 3. Loneliness
    • Relate poorly to adults
    • Intimidated by women
    • Children accepting, nonjudgmental,
    • open-hearted
  • 20. Identification with Children
    • Uncomfortable around adults his age
    • “ They seemed so much more grown up than I was.” “I felt awkward, like I couldn’t get one foot in front of the other.”
    • Children: “They weren’t trying to live up to some social standard.” “I envied them because they seemed so free, so at ease in their world.”
  • 21. Identification with Children
    • “ I will admit that I especially liked looking at the boys. They were so cute, bright eyed, smooth skin. It sounds silly, but I wished that I could look like that, rather than a hulky, almost adult male.”
  • 22. Child Molesters
            • 1. Deviant Arousal Pattern
            • 2. Anti-social Attitudes & Beliefs
            • (Includes Psychopaths)
            • 3. Emotional Loneliness
  • 23. Thinking Errors of Nonsadistic Sex Offenders
    • The child wanted me to do those things to him.
    • She enjoyed it as much as I did.
    • He knew what he was doing.
    • She was just a little flirt.
    • He came on to me.
  • 24. 4. Sadists
    • Sexually Aroused
    • By
    • Pain, Suffering, Terror and Humiliation
  • 25. Sadistic Behavior A man shot off a teenage girl’s arm for the sexual thrill it gave him. ( Abel, 1981)
  • 26. Sadistic Behavior A serial killer would smother his wife with a plastic bag until she passed out and then would have sex. He beat her with belts and burned her with cigarettes. (Groth, 1979, p. 48)
  • 27. Sadistic Behavior A rapist of thirteen-year girls preferred to anally rape them on cement floors so that the rapes would be more painful. (Abel, 1977)
  • 28. Sadistic Offenders
    • 5% of sex offenders
  • 29. Sadistic Sexual Arousal
    • Type of Stimuli Percentage of Full
    • Sexual Arousal
    • Consenting Sex 17
    • Rape 61
    • Nonsexual Violence 79
    • (Abel, 1977)
  • 30. Sadists Who Murder
    • Percent
    • Careful planning 95%
    • Con in approaching victim 80
    • Preselected location 80
    • Captivity 24 hours 65
    • (Warren, Hazelwood & Dietz, 1996)
  • 31. Whom Sadists Target
    • Age of Victims Percent of Sadists
    • Adults 87
    • Adolescents & Adults 9
    • Children 2
    • (Freund, 1990)
  • 32.
    • “ First I’m going to torture you in the most horrible and painful manner I can think of. Then I’m going to abuse you sexually in the most degrading way I possibly can think of. Then I’ll kill you in the slowest and most painful way I can conceive. . . Do you have any questions?”
    • (Heilbroner, 1993, p. 147)
  • 33.
    • “ The picture in my mind was one of torturing a victim with everything from matches and cigarette butts to a propane torch, electrical stimulation, needles, and so forth. . . The first victims were female, because I had an impulse to rape and hurt. The last three were female for rape reasons, but with more emphasis on hurting and humiliation. . . And, on a few occasions, there have been concepts of taking a ‘dry run’ or a practice run using a small child as victim, male or female.”
    • (Groth, 1979, p. 56)
  • 34. Female Sadists
    • “ I just can’t explain the feeling it gave me. . . You couldn’t understand, nothing compares to the high, nothing, no drink, drugs nothing. It’s power I think, I feel really strong, powerful and important nothing and no one can hurt me. The high is incredible. There’s nothing, there just aren’t words to describe it.”
    • (Saradjian, 1996)
  • 35. Typology of Rapists
    • Opportunistic
    • Pervasively Angry
    • Vindictive
    • Sexual
    • Sadistic
    • Non-Sadistic
    • (Knight, 1990)
  • 36. The High “ What helps me so much is I have something about me I can really attract people to me. . . The person gets to really care and trust me. The problem I always had is where the excitement would come in. I would get them to trust me and I would set them up for the fall. It’s almost like a power that you have. It’s like a rush that you get from it.”
  • 37. The High “ It’s like a rush. I really don’t know how to explain it. I’ve never been into drugs real strong. From just what I have seen it’s like somebody who’s addicted to heroin or cocaine. An incredible feeling. Strongest at the end when I know I’m going to let them down in some way.”
  • 38. The High “ The best part I just basically told them you are so fucking stupid. You know I am a sex offender. I have child victims. You are stupid enough. You and your wife both. You are fucking morons. Everything that’s happened to you – you deserve.”
  • 39. Callousness “ I’ve never been physical. . . Kind of what I felt is when you hurt someone physically, that goes away. When you hurt someone emotionally, that never goes away. That was the thrill.”
  • 40. Incest and Domestic Violence
    • Incest mothers victims of domestic violence
    • 73%
    • (Truesdell, McNeil, & Deschner, 1986)
  • 41. Severely Violent Couples
    • N of Couples
    • Battering group 63
    • Some violence 27
    • Unhappy, not violent 33
    • Happily married 20
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 42. Battering Group
    • Degree of Violence W/in Last Year
    • Low Level 6 or more
    • (Pushing or slapping)
    • Severe 2
    • (Kicking or hitting w/ fist)
    • Potentially lethal 1
    • (Beaten up, use of weapon)
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 43. Battering Group
    • Wives required medical attention
    • 80%
  • 44. Low Level
    • Did Not Escalate
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998 )
  • 45. Battering for a Reason
            • Control
            • Intimidate
            • Subjugate
  • 46. Battering Group
            • Always emotional abuse
  • 47. Method
            • Interviewed separately
            • Physiological measures
            • Heart rate
            • Blood reading periphery
            • How fast blood moving
            • How much moving
            • How much sweating
            • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 48. Types of Batterers Cobras vs Pit Bulls
  • 49. Pit Bulls
          • 80%
          • Slow Burn
          • Wives less intimidated
          • Wives argued back
          • Insecure
          • Feared abandonment
          • Intrusive and controlling
          • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 50. Cobras
      • 20%
            • More aggressive instantly
            • More threatened or used weapon
            • More severe violence
            • Decrease in heart rate as verbal aggression increased
            • Calmer than when relaxed
            • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 51. Cobras
    • Distanced from intimacy
    • Dangerous when wives want more
    • Do not fear abandonment
    • Will not be controlled
    • ( Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 52. Cobras
        • Often anti-social
        • Drug and alcohol abuse
        • Severe emotional abuse
        • Severe physical abuse
        • Often charismatic
        • Husbands economically dependent
        • Wives attached
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 53. Who is More Dangerous?
    • Cobras
    • More severe violence
    • Wives less often leave
    • Dangerous when wives want something
    • Can let go and move on
    • Pit Bulls
    • Less severe violence
    • Many wives leave
    • Dangerous when abandoned
    • Become obsessed
  • 54. Pitt Bulls
    • Beaten w/ closed fist,
    • often strangling 62%
    • Threatened with knife or gun 4%
    • Used knife or gun 0
    • Violent outside marriage 3%
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 55.
    • Bulls Cobras
    • Beaten w/ closed fist,
    • often strangling 62% 91%
    • Threatened with knife
    • or gun 4% 38%
    • Used knife or gun 0 9%
    • Violent outside marriage 3% 44%
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 56. Anti-social
        • Cobras 90%
        • Pit Bulls 33%
        • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 57. Wives of Pit Bulls
          • More angry
          • Less fearful
          • More constantly controlled
  • 58.
    • [A man] “must be aware of all this:
    • Get his satisfaction early
    • Isolate her contacts with others
    • Don’t let her make any decisions
    • Don’t let her acquire any skills (working, driving, social skills, etc.)
    • Don’t let her have any power (bank accounts, ownership, inside information – material for blackmail).”
    • Never trust her completely
    • Don’t ‘enlighten’ her with knowledge (especially of psychology”
  • 59.
    • “ Always remember that the relationship is temporary + likewise prepare to ‘cut her loose’ before she does it to you
    • Set the ‘price’ higher than needed at first; whip, infidelity, extreme humiliation – then gradually reduce to keep at an adequate level.
    • Actively seek a ‘new’ partner when she begins showing signs of rebellion
    • Make her more dependent: drugs? Live in country. No phone (or hidden – for my use only) no drivers license, no books (except fantasy) no fancy clothes, no doctors.
    • Never show weakness, guilt or insecurity.”
  • 60. Psychopathy and Nature of Crime
    • (Woodworth & Porter, 2002)
    • Study of 125 Canadian murderers
    • Murder classified as
        • Primarily reactive (e.g., crime of passion, extreme provocation, self-defense)
        • Primarily instrumental (e.g., cold-blooded, premeditated, settle a score)
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64. Why Batter?
    • Because it works
  • 65. Does Treatment Work?
    • Not Clear
  • 66. Conning and Manipulating
    • Prior to Attempted Murder
    • “ In my professional opinion, Roy no longer constitutes a danger to his wife, Helen. He has been a model patient. He has accepted responsibility for being a batterer, has shown no inclination to repeat the violence from the past, and even stands a chance of qualifying for work as a therapist himself.”
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 67. Leaving w/in two years
    • Pit Bulls 38%
    • Cobras 0
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)
  • 68. Leaving w/in 5 years
        • Cobras 25%
    • (Jacobson & Gottman, 1998)