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  • 1. The cerebrospinal Fluid [CSF] is a clear, colorless transparent, tissue fluid present in the cerebral ventricles, spinal canal, and subarachnoid spaces.
  • 2. CSF is largely formed by the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle and remainder in the third and fourth ventricles. About 30% of the CSF is also formed from the ependymal cells lining the ventricles and other brain capillaries. The choroid plexus of the ventricles actively secrete cerebrospinal fluid. The choroid plexuses are highly vascular tufts covered by ependyma.
  • 3. This plexus projects mainly into 1) the temporal horn of each lateral ventricle, 2) the posterior portion of the third ventricle, 3) the roof of the fourth ventricle.
  • 4. The entire cerebral cavity enclosing the brain and spinal cord has a capacity of about 1600 to 1700 milliliters About 150 milliliters of this capacity is occupied by cerebrospinal fluid and the remainder by the brain and cord.
  • 5. Rate of formation: About 20-25 ml/hour 550 ml/day in adults. Turns over 3.7 times a day Total quantity: 150 ml: 30-40 ml within the ventricles About 110-120 ml in the subarachnoid space [of which 75-80 ml in spinal part and 25-30 ml in the cranial part].
  • 6. Lateral ventricle Foramen of Monro [Interventricular foramen] Third ventricle: Subarachnoid space of Brain and Spinal cord Fourth ventricle: Cerebral aqueduct Foramen of megendie and formen of luschka
  • 7. The arachnoidal villi are fingerlike inward projections of the arachnoidal membrane through the walls into venous sinuses. villi form arachnoidal granulations can protruding into the sinuses. The endothelial cells covering the villi have vesicular passages directly through the bodies of the cells large enough to allow relatively free flow of (1) cerebrospinal fluid, (2) dissolved protein molecules, and (3) even particles as large as red and white blood cells into the venous blood.
  • 8. ROUTE AND ABSORPTION OF CSF  Arachnoid villi are microscopic one-way valves (modified pia and arachnoid) that penetrate the meningeal dural layer that line the sinuses; hence, arachnoid villi reside within the sinuses (especially the superior sagittal sinus).  Clumps of arachnoid villi = arachnoid granulations = macroscopic.
  • 9. Proteins = 20-40 mg/100 ml Glucose = 50-65 mg/100 ml Cholesterol = 0.2 mg/100 ml Na+ = 147 meq/Kg H2O Ca+ = 2.3 meq/kg H2O Urea = 12.0 mg/100 ml Creatinine = 1.5 mg/100 ml Lactic acid = 18.0 mg/100 ml
  • 10. Nature: Colour = Clear, transparent fluid Specific gravity = 1.004-1.007 Reaction = Alkaline and does not coagulate Cells = 0-3/ cmm Pressure = 60-150 mm of H2O The pressure of CSF is increased in standing, coughing, sneezing, crying, compression of internal Jugular vein (Queckenstedt’s sign
  • 11. Liliequist classification of C.S.F cisterns Ventral Cisterns Dorsal Cisterns Communicating cisterns General subarachnoid space over the convexities.
  • 12. Ventral cisterns Median unpaired cisterns Medullary cistern Pontine cistern Interpeduncular cistern Chiasmatic cistern Paramedian paired cisterns C.P angle cisterns Crural cisterns Carotid cisterns Sylvian cisterns
  • 13. Dorsal cisterns Median unpaired cisterns Supra-cerebellar cistern Quadrigeminal cistern Pericallosal cistern Paramedian paired cisterns Ambient cisterns Retrothalamic cisterns
  • 14. Communicating cisterns Cisterna magna Lamina terminalis cistern
  • 15. THANK YOU