? What is tetanus• Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers.• The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani.
… Cont• Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw")
Epidemiology• Tetanus - Greek Word -- Tetanos-to Contract• Tetanus was first described in Egypt over 3000 years ago.• Toxoid was first widely used during world war II• Tetanus Remains a Major Public Health Problem in the Developing World and Is Still Encountered in the Developed World.
… Cont• There Are Between 800 000 and 1 Million Deaths Due to Tetanus Each Year. Eighty Per Cent of These Deaths Occur in Africa and South East Asia and It Remains Endemic in 90 Countries World Wide.
Causes of tetanus• Tetanus is caused by the Clostridium tetani bacterium. Clostridium tetani spores are able to survive for a long time outside of the body. They are most commonly found in animal manure and contaminated soil, but may exist virtually anywhere.
… Cont• When Clostridium tetani enter the body they multiply rapidly and release tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin (poison that affects the nervous system). When tetanospasmin enters the bloodstream it rapidly spreads around the body, causing tetanus symptoms.
… Cont• Tetanospasmin interferes with the signals sent from the brain to the nerves in the spinal cord, and then on to the muscles, causing muscle spasms and stiffness.• Puncture wounds - Clostridium tetani enters the body mainly through a skin lesion (skin cut or puncture wound).