Introduction• Images are fundamental in the day-to-day practice of dentistry. They serve as documentation of dental procedures and as forensic evidence, and they play an essential role in dentist-patient communication, providing the basis for patients’ expectations for treatment.
Ring Flash Recommendation• A ring flash, invented by Lester, in 1952 originally for use in dental photography, is a circular photographic flash that fits around the lens, especially for use in macro photography.• Its most important characteristic is providing even illumination with few shadows visible in the photograph, as the origin of the light is very close to the optical axis of the lens.
Mirror• Dental mirrors are used by the dentist or dental auxiliary to view a mirror image of the teeth in locations of the mouth where visibility is difficult or impossible. They also are useful for reflecting light onto desired surfaces.
Retractors• Dental retractors have been used in dentistry for various purposes such as intraoral photography, and fillings. They assist the operator by moving away the lips and cheeks of a subject temporarily.
Extra-oral PhotographyThe pre-requisites for successful images are;• The patient’s frontal and lateral images are best taken.• Include the patient’s shoulders and down as far as the underarms.• light clear background such as: wall.• About 6 feet between the camera and subject.
Frontal Photography• Ears and shoulder must be visible.• Lips at rest and patient smiling.
Lateral Photography• Ears and shoulder must be visible.• Lips at rest and patient smiling.• Always pull hair back to view ears and neck.
Tip1Plastic double-ended cheek retractors arerecommended to retract cheeks. Plasticretractors hold the cheeks out better than metalretractors which allow the cheeks to caveinward.
Tip2Position the lens as close as possible to theobject being photographed to maximize clarity ofthe image. The object should be centered in thephotograph and should also be the main focus ofthe image.
Tip3Avoid showing any of the retractors in theimage.
Tip4Identify the most important part of the imagebeing photographed and eliminate all otherdistracting objects such as: tongue, saliva, lips.
Tip5The main object of the image should becentered vertically and horizontally within thephotograph.
Tip6The occlusal and incisal planes should bepositioned parallel to the horizon and in thecenter of the image.
Tip7Place an optimal amount of light on the imagebeing photographed. This may include changingthe strength of the flash and the amount of lightdirected to the image from overhead lights.
Tip8Dry and clean the area to be photographed withsuction and/or gauze. Eliminate extraneousblood and saliva before taking the photograph.
Tip9Mirrors are required for lateral or buccalimages. Buccal surfaces of molars cannot bephotographed without mirrors.
Tip10Warm the mirrors before the intraoralphotograph is taken by flowing warm waterover them. Be sure to dry them thoroughly withmoisture-free air from the air/water syringe.
Tip11Intraoral mirrors should be used to photographbuccal, lingual and occlusal images. The edges ofthe mirrors should not be visible in thephotograph.
Tip12A solid, non-textured surface should be used asa background when photographing products orprostheses extraorally. Black or colors with lowvalues should be used.
:References• Clinics of North American Dentistry, C. Freehe• Biomedical Photography, J.P. Vetter• Worschech, C.C; Moura, J.R; Fonseca, D.M: Micro-operative dentistry: Why do it?QDT 2007, 199-205• http://thedigitaldentist- site.org.uk/techniques.asp• www.3i-online.com