Extrinsic stains

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Extrinsic stains

  1. 1. Extrinsic stains<br />Amin Amusallamah<br />
  2. 2. Extrinsic stains<br />Extrinsic stains are defined as stains located on the outer surface of the tooth structure and caused by topical or extrinsic agents. <br />
  3. 3. The Nathoo classification system of extrinsic dental stain describes 3 categories<br />Nathootype 1 (N1): N1-type colored material (chromogen) binds to the tooth surface. The color of the chromogen is similar to that of dental stains caused by tea, coffee, wine, chromogenic bacteria, and metals. <br />
  4. 4. Cont…<br />2.Nathootype 2 (N2): N2-type colored material changes color after binding to the tooth. The stains actually are N1-type food stains that darken with time.<br />
  5. 5. Cont…<br />3.Nathoo type 3 (N3): N3-type colorless material binds to the tooth and undergoes a chemical reaction to cause a stain. N3-type stains are caused by carbohydrate-rich foods (eg, apples, potatoes), stannous fluoride, and chlorhexidine.<br />
  6. 6. Predisposing factors<br />Certain factors predispose children and adults to extrinsic stains include:<br />Enamel defects<br />Salivary dysfunction<br />poor oral hygiene.<br />Microscopic pits, fissures, and defects in the outer surface of the enamel are susceptible to the accumulation of stain-producing food, beverages, tobacco, and other topical agents.<br />
  7. 7. Severe tobacco staining.<br /> Red extrinsic stain at the G.M ,I & IP regions with a habit of chewing pan <br />Stained supragingival plaque and calculus deposits.<br />Extrinsic dental staining by long-term of 0.12% T chlorhexidine M.W<br />Pan is combination of betel nut and lime<br />
  8. 8. Thank you<br />Reverence <br />Nathoo SA. The chemistry and mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration. J Am Dent Assoc. Apr 1997;128 Suppl:6S-10S. <br />Hattab FN, Qudeimat MA, al-Rimawi HS. Dental discoloration: an overview. J Esthet Dent. 1999;11(6):291-310. <br />atel K, Cheshire D, Vance A. Oral and systemic effects of prolonged minocycline therapy. Br Dent J. Dec 12-26 1998;185(11-12):560-2.<br />McKenna BE, Lamey PJ, Kennedy JG, Bateson J. Minocycline-induced staining of the adult permanent dentition: a review of the literature and report of a case. Dent Update. May 1999;26(4):160-2.<br />Ayaslioglu E, Erkek E, Oba AA, Cebecioglu E. Doxycycline-induced staining of permanent adult dentition. Aust Dent J. Dec 2005;50(4):273-5<br />

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