Complications of systemic lupus erythematosus


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Complications of systemic lupus erythematosus

  1. 1. Complications of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus By Amin Ambusallamah
  2. 2. Complications of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Complications of the Blood Raynaud's Phenomenon Heart &Circulation Complications Lung Complications Kidney Complications Central Nervous System Gastrointestinal Complications Joint, Muscle, and Bone Complications Eye Complications
  3. 3. Complications of the Blood About half of SLE patients are anemic. Antiphospholipids: Their actions have complex effects that include causing narrowing and abnormalities of blood vessels. Thrombocytopenia &Neutropenia Theeffects on blood vessels have also been associated with confusion, headaches, and seizures. Leg ulcers can also develop.
  4. 4. Patients who have APS have a very incidence of blood clots, which most often occur in the deep veins in the legs (32%). Blood clotting in turn puts patients at higher risk for stroke (13%) and pulmonary embolism (clots in the lungs) (9%).
  5. 5. Raynaud's Phenomenon Raynaud's phenomenon is a condition in which cold or stress can cause spasms in impaired blood vessels resulting in pain in fingers and toes. It occurs as part of the inflammatory response in blood vessels, which can narrow them and reduce circulation. In extreme cases, gangrene can result
  6. 6. Heart &Circulation Complications Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of death in lupus patients. SLE treatments (particularly corticosteroids) affect cholesterol, weight, and other factors that can also affect the heart Atherosclerosis. Increased stiffness in the arteries. Unhealthy cholesterol and lipid (fatty molecules) levels.
  7. 7. Cont….. High blood pressure. Congestive heart failure. Pericarditis & (myocarditis) Elevated levels of homocysteine, which occurs with deficiencies of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid. Homocysteine is now a strong suspect in heart attack, strokes, and blood clots.
  8. 8. Lung Complications Inflammation of the membrane lining the lung (pleuritis) is the most common problem. In some cases, fluid accumulates, a condition called pleural effusion, and can cause stabbing localized pain that worsens when coughing, sneezing, laughing, or taking a deep breath. Inflammation of the lung itself in SLE is called lupus pneumonitis.
  9. 9. Kidney Complications About 50% of SLE patients exhibit inflammation of the kidneys (called lupus nephritis)
  10. 10. Central Nervous System Irritability. Emotional disorders (anxiety, depression). Mild impairment of concentration and memory. Occasionally, the reflex systems, sensation, vision, hearing, and motor control can be affected. The most serious CNS disorder is inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain, which occurs in 10% of SLE patients. Fever, seizures, psychosis, and even coma can occur.
  11. 11. Gastrointestinal Complications About 45% of SLE patients suffer gastrointestinal problems, including: Nausea Weight loss Mild abdominal pain Diarrhea Vomiting Rarely intestinal perforation.
  12. 12. Joint, Muscle & Bone Complications The inflammatory process can, however, damage muscles and cause weakness. SLE patients also commonly experience reductions in bone mass density (osteoporosis) and have a higher risk for fractures,
  13. 13. Eye Complications Inflamed blood vessels in the eye can reduce blood supply to the retina, resulting in degeneration of nerve cells and a risk of hemorrhage in the retina. The most common symptoms are cotton-wool-like spots on the retina. In about 5% of patients sudden temporary blindness and ulcer may occur .
  14. 14. Thank you -- Lupus Foundation of America, -- SLE Foundation of America (800-74-LUPUS) -- American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, Inc.