A person caught in a traffic jam while rushing to office is under stress. A student preparing for examinations is under stress. Stress is every where and influences everyone.
Stress is a physiological and psychological imbalance . It arises due to the demands on a person and that person’s inability to meet these demands. Stress is the body’s way of reacting to any situation and it can have serious repercussions on an individual's life.
“ stress is the result produced when a structure system, or organism is acted upon by forces that disrupt equilibrium or produce strain.”- By Taber’s cyclopedic Dictionary..
Stress in individuals is defined as anything that disrupts the normal person’s physical or mental well – being. It occurs when the body performs activities outside its capabilities or when a person faces extraordinary demands. A simple display of stress may be a bad mood while an extreme display may be an act of violence.
Stress is unavoidable and has become an inherent part of human life. It arises as a result of the imbalance between the demands placed on an individual and his her capacity to meet those demands. For instance if the demands are away below his her capacity , then the individual may feel bored and disinterested . Conversely , if demands are way above his her capacity , then the individual may feel overwhelmed and thus feel the pressure. One way to handle such a situation is find a balance between the demands and capacities.
Sources Of Stress
EXTEREMAL SOURCES SOURCES OF STRESS INTERNAL SOURCES
INTERNAL STRESS Internal stress generally happens when individuals worry about things outside their control. The personality of an individual plays a vital role in stress management. Every individual can be categorized into two type A and type B personalities . An individual of type A personality has a continual sense of urgency and has an excessive competitive drive. He she is always in a hurry and is impatient . People with type A personality are are obsessive about winning and do not have the ability to spend leisure time productively. These people are likely to be under stress even in minor situation. People with type B personality never sense the urgency of time. They work at their own pace. With no need to prove their achivements. These people are less likely to be under stress.
External Stress This type of stress is the result of environmental influence on an individual. External stress is a result of stress from the environment. This can be stress from family , work , peers and friends . Physical conditions such as poor lighting , loud noise . Poor seating arrangements and extreme workplace temperatures (a too hot or too cold cabin ) are also stressors. Even the climate where one resides can be a significant contributor to one’s stress level. In particular , living in extreme climates can heighten an individual’s stress level. Temperature extremes and the amount of sunshine that exists on a daily , weekly , or monthly basis can affect the level of stress experienced.
Types Of Stress
TYPES OF STREES Personal Stress Work–related Stress
Personal stress Family stress Health related stress Society – related Stress Family stress may arise from conflict of ideas or relationships with spouse, children , sibling, parents. This stress may also be caused by the ill heath of a family member , financial problems, a divorce, or the death of a dear one. This may be a result of undetected or neglected health problems. For example a person may neglect minor ill health , which over a period may develop into a serious health problem that may require immediate attention. Often people ignore heath and give importance to work . This results in loss of health andin stress. Society related stress occur due to the influence of the society on an individual . Here friends , colleagues and neighbors are the influencing factors .
WORK RELATED STRESS This is organizational stress . Work related stress relates to the working environment and policies of the organization . work related stress can be further classified into organizational stress and job stress.
1. Lack of organizational skills Poor organization skill lead to confusion over delegation of authority and responsibility . For instance and employee may given many responsibilities without sufficient authority . This would result in stress in performing duties and responsibilities.
2. Long work hours. Everyone has a natural body clock. Working against this clock can create stress . Attempt to alter the body clock result in stress . Studies on call center executives . Show clearly the toll long work hours take in terms of stress related illness.
Job insecurity Job insecurity is a major stress factor. This kind of insecurity and lack of growth or promotions act as stressors. The higher the uncertainty higher in the stress. A sudden change in management and work policies can also result in stress.
Time And Stress Stress is a result of doing things at the wrong times. It is a result of managing time and striving hard to stick to deadlines. By developing the art of time management people can reduce stress. Effective time management and stress management are inter dependent.
Job Stress Stress due to lack of resources or scare resources at the workplace is called job stress .
Every employee has to handle a difficult client at some point of time . A difficult or dissatisfied client is a stress creator. Non-cooperative colleagues and subordinates too can build up high stress levels at the workplace. Superiors often feel that putting pressure on subordinates too can build up high stress levels at the workplace.
2. personal inadequacy. there can be lack of knowledge or skills to handle a particular task or job. This can create stress.
2. Role conflict . This is a conflict between a person’s likes , values , and jobs requirements. For instance , a manager may have to take a decision regarding firing a subordinate keeping the organization interest in mind even though he she may like the subordinate’s work . This creates a conflict between his her likes and job responsibilities , resulting in stress.
3. Setting high goals. Setting high goals for oneself is a major stressor. For example , a sales manager may fix some high sales target for self in a month. Not achieving the target may result in stress and in extreme cases may even lead to depression.
4. Overwork and deadlines. Extended periods of work or continuous work can lead to extreme stress situations. Employees especially those in the BPO industry are required to work in shifts that result in stress. Strict deadlines and rigid plans create stress in employees.
Techno - stress Technological innovations like mobiles, laptops, and game stations are adding to the stress levels of individuals. E-Strees or techno-stress is a physical and psychological reaction to the changing technological environment. Some clinical psychologist. Have defined techno stress an any negative impact on attitudes , thoughts behaviours or body psychology caused directly or indirectly by technology.
Effects Of Stress
The human body reaction to stress is natural . It results from the need to resist stressful situation. For example , when a person is nervous. There is an increase in his her pulse rate. however , things can go out of control if too much stress is present. the person may have a heart attack or a nervous breakdown.
1. Physical stress. 2. Psychological stress .
Models of Stress Management
Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable. 
In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress, and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). The model conceptualizes stress as a result of how a stressor is appraised and how a person appraises his/her resources to cope with the stressor. The model breaks the stressor-stress link by proposing that if stressors are perceived as positive or challenging rather than a threat, and if the stressed person is confident that he/she possesses adequate rather than deficient coping strategies, stress may not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. The model proposes that stress can be reduced by helping stressed people change their perceptions of stressors, providing them with strategies to help them cope and improving their confidence in their ability to do so.
Health realization/innate health model The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does), the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model, stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind," "inner wisdom," and "common sense" This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thought--especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural positive feelings--will reduce their stress.
Techniques of stress management There are several ways of coping with stress. Some techniques of time management may help a person to control stress. In the face of high demands, effective stress management involves learning to set limits and to say "No" to some demands that others make. Techniques of stress management will vary according to the theoretical paradigm adhered to, but may include some of the following
Autogenic training Cognitive therapy Conflict resolution Exercise Meditation Deep Breathing Nootropic s Relaxation techniques Natural medicine Time management Listening to certain types of relaxing music
Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz and first published in 1932. The technique involves the daily practice of sessions that last around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening. During each session, the practitioner will repeat a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation . Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures ( e.g. lying down, sitting meditation, sitting like a rag doll, etc. ). The technique can be used to alleviate many stress -induced psychosomatic disorders. Schultz emphasized parallels to techniques in yoga and meditation . It is a method for influencing one's autonomic nervous system . Abbe Faria and Emile Coue are the forerunners of Schultz. There are many parallels to progressive relaxation .
Cognitive therapy Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s . Becoming disillusioned with long-term psychodynamic approaches based on gaining insight into unconscious emotions and drives, Beck came to the conclusion that the way in which his clients perceived and interpreted and attributed meaning—a process known scientifically as cognition —in their daily lives was a key to therapy.Beck initially focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" in thinking that he proposed could cause or maintain depression, including arbitrary inference , selective abstraction , over-generalization , and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives). Cognitive therapy seeks to identify and change "distorted" or "unrealistic" ways of thinking, and therefore to influence emotion and behaviour. Beck outlined his approach in Depression: Causes and Treatment in 1967 . He later expanded his focus to include anxiety disorders, in Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders in 1976, and other disorders and problems.  He also introduced a focus on the underlying "schema"—the fundamental underlying ways in which people process information—whether about the self, the world or the future. Treatment is based on collaboration between client and therapist and on testing beliefs.
Conflict resolution Conflict resolution is the process of attempting to resolve a dispute or a conflict . Successful conflict resolution occurs by listening to and providing opportunities to meet the needs of all parties, and to adequately address interests so that each party is satisfied with the outcome. Conflict Practitioners talk about finding the win-win outcome for parties involved, vs. the win-lose dynamic found in most conflicts. While 'conflict resolution' engages conflict once it has already started , 'conflict prevention' aims to end conflicts before they start or before they lead to verbal, physical, or legal fighting or violence. Conflict itself has both positive and negative outcomes. Practitioners in the field of Conflict Resolution aim to find ways to promote the positive outcomes and minimize the negative outcomes. There is a debate in the field of conflict work as to whether or not all conflicts can be resolved, thus making the term conflict resolution one of contention. Other common terms include Conflict Management, Conflict Transformation and Conflict Intervention. Conflict management can be the general process in which conflict is managed by the parties toward a conclusion. However it is also referred to as a situation where conflict is a deliberate personal, social and organizational tool, especially used by capable politicians and other social engineers. Conflict Practitioners work on conflict in many arenas - internationally, domestically, interpersonally and intrapersonally.
Physical exercise A physical exercise is a bodily activity that develops and maintains physical fitness and overall health . It is often practiced to strengthen muscles and the cardiovascular system, and to hone athletic skills. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease , cardiovascular disease , Type .
Meditation is a discipline in which the mind is focused on an object of thought or awareness . It usually involves turning attention to a single point of reference. The practice may engender a higher state of consciousness . Meditation is recognized as a component of almost all religions, and has been practiced for over 5,000 years.Meditative disciplines encompass a wide range of spiritual and/or psychophysical practices which can emphasize development of either a high degree of mental concentration, or the apparent converse, mental quiescence . The word meditation comes from the Latin meditatio , which originally indicated every type of physical or intellectual exercise, then later evolved into the more specific meaning " contemplation ."