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  1. 1. Learning By Dr. Rajesh Patel
  2. 2. What is learning ? By Dr. Rajesh Patel
  3. 3. Layman’s view: “ It’s what we did when we went to school.” Dr. Rajesh Patel
  4. 4. A generally accepted definition of learning is ‘ any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.’ Dr. Rajesh Patel
  5. 5. Our definition has several components that deserve clarification. First learning involves change . This may be good or bad from an organizational point of view. People can learn unfavorable behaviors – to hold prejudices or to restrict their output , for example – as well as favourable behaviors. Second, the change must be relatively permanent . Temporary changes may be only reflexive and fail to represent any learning. Therefore this requirement rules out behavioral changes caused by fatigue or temporary adaptations. Third, our definition is concerned with behavior. Learning takes place where there is a change in actions . A change in an individual's thought processes or attitudes, if accompanied by no change in behavior , would not be learning. Finally , some form of experience is necessary for learning. They may be acquired directly through observation or practice, or it may result from an indirect experience, such as that acquired through reading. The crucial test still remains : does this experience result in a relatively permanent change in behavior? If the answer is ‘ yes ’ we can say that learning has taken place. Dr. Rajesh Patel
  6. 6. Theories Of Learning Dr. Rajesh Patel
  7. 7. There are three theories of learning 3. Social learning 2.Operant learning 1.Classical conditioning Dr. Rajesh Patel
  8. 8. 1.Classical Conditioning “ A type of conditioning where an individual responds to some stimulus that would not invariably produce such a response.”
  9. 9. 2. Operant Conditioning “ A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.”
  10. 10. 3. Social Learning “ People can learn through observation and direct experience .”
  11. 11. The influence of social learning model is central to four process have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual : 1. Attention process. 2. Retention process. 3. Motor reproduction process. 4. Reinforcement process.
  12. 12. 1. Attention Process People only learn from a model when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influended by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, Or similar to us in our estimation.
  13. 13. 2.Retention Process. A model influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the models action, after the model is no longer ready available.
  14. 14. 3.Motor reproduction process . After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model. The watching must be converted to doing . This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities.
  15. 15. 4.Reinforning Process Systematically reinforcing each successive steps that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  16. 16. Methods Of Shaping Behavior
  17. 17. There are four ways in which to shape behavior : 1. Positive reinforcement. 2. Negative reinforcement. 3. Punishment reinforcement. 4. Extinction reinforcement.
  18. 18. Schedules Of Reinforcement
  19. 19. 1.Continuous reinforcement. 2.Intermittent reinforcement.
  20. 20. 1.CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT . A continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated. For example in the case of someone who has historically has trouble arriving at work on time, every time , he is not tardy his manager might complement him on his desirable behavior.
  21. 21. Intermittent reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating , but not every time it is demonstrated.
  22. 22. Intermittent reinforcement An intermittent reinforcement can be of a ratio or interval type . Ratio schedule depend on how many responses the subject makes. the individual is reinforced after giving a certain number of specific types of behavior. Interval schedules depends on how much time has passed since the last reinforcement . With interval schedule , the individual is reinforced on the first appropriate behavior after a particular time has elapsed. A reinforcement can also classified as fixed or variable.
  23. 23. Some Specific Organizational Applications 1. Using lotteries to reduce absenteeism
  24. 24. 2. well pay vs. sick pay Most organization provide their salaried employees with paid sick leave as part of the employee's fringe benefit program. But ironically, organization who paid sick leave programs experience almost twice the absenteeism of organization with out such programs. The reality is that sick leave reinforces the wrong behavior – absence from work. As the case in point , one Midwest organization implemented a well pay program that paid a bonus to employees who had no absence for any given four week period and then only paid for sick leave after the first eight hours of absence.
  25. 25. Every manager will, at some time , have to deal with an employee who drinks on the job, is insubordinate, steals company property arrives consistently late for work , or engages in similar problem behavior. Managers will respond with disciplinary actions such as oral reprimands , written warning and temporary suspensions . Research on discipline shows that the manager should act immediately to correct the problem, match the severity of the punishment to the severity of the crime, and ensure that the employee sees the link between the punishment and undesirable behavior. but our knowledge about punishment’s effect on behavior indicates that the use of discipline carries costs. It may provide only a short term solution and result in serious side effects. Employee discipline
  26. 26. The popularity of discipline undoubtedly lies in its ability to produce fast results in the short run. Managers are reinforced for using discipline because it produces as immediate change in the employee’s behavior. But over the long run , when used without positive reinforcement of desirable behaviors, it is likely to lead to employee frustration , fear of the manager , reoccurrences of the problem behaviors , and increases in absenteeism and turnover. Employee discipline
  27. 27. Developing Training Programme
  28. 28. Social learning theory offers such a guide . It tells us that training should offer a model to grab the trainee’s attention ; provide motivational properties ; help the trainee file away what he or she has learned for later use; provide opportunities to practice new behaviors ; offer positive rewards for accomplishments; and , if the training has taken place off the job, allow the trainee some opportunity to transfer what he or she has learned to the job.
  29. 29. Organizational application of learning concepts are not restricted to managing the behavior of others. These concepts can also be used to allow individuals to manage their own behavior and , in so doing , reduce the need for managerial control . This is called self management. Self Management
  30. 30. Self management requires an individual to deliberately manipulate stimuli, internal process, and responses to achieve personal behavioral outcomes. The basic process involve observing one’s own behavior, comparing the behavior with a standard , and rewarding oneself if the behavior meets the standard. Self Mannagement