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Hardware and Software Basics With Dr. Poirot
Module Objectives <ul><li>Describe the appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and networking compone...
Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>A digital device uses discrete data. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>An analog device operates on  continuously varying   data...
Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical read...
Computer Hardware  <ul><li>Central Processing Unit   - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor </l...
Computer Hardware  <ul><li>Central Processing Unit  - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li>...
Computer Hardware  <ul><li>Central Processing Unit  - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li>...
Computer Hardware  <ul><li>Central Processing Unit  - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li>...
CPU Types <ul><li>CPU or microprocessor  is often described as the brain of a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>CPU is an integr...
CPU types <ul><li>CPU speed is measured by the number of completed  instruction cycles  per second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Microcomputer Platforms <ul><li>All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or  comp...
Microcomputer Platforms <ul><li>Compatibility   refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way. </li></ul><u...
Memory (RAM) <ul><li>RAM  or  R andom  A ccess  M emory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.  </li></ul><...
Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Amount of RAM installed will determine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which software applications will run  (...
Memory (RAM) <ul><li>All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Storage Technology <ul><li>Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data. </li></ul><ul><li>Toda...
Storage Technology <ul><li>Magnetic storage devices  store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a li...
Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard Disk Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes). </...
Storage Devices <ul><li>Floppy Disk Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes). ...
Storage Devices <ul><li>CD-ROM Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on devi...
Storage Devices <ul><li>CD-ROM Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) techn...
Storage Devices <ul><li>Other Types of Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Drives  – Several different capacities are available. ...
Input Devices <ul><li>Input   is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources: </l...
Input Devices <ul><li>Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands. </li></ul><ul><li>Prim...
Input Devices <ul><li>Scanners  are peripheral input devices which allow users to import: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li>...
Input Devices <ul><li>Digital Cameras  are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a...
Output Devices <ul><li>Monitors  are the most commonly used output device. </li></ul><ul><li>Most monitors use a  bitmap  ...
Output Devices <ul><li>Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the  video   adapter  or  grap...
Output Devices <ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Dot matrix   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom used in a classroom. </li></ul...
Output Devices <ul><li>Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger scre...
Networks  <ul><li>A collection of computers and other devices that communicate to share data, hardware, and software. </li...
Networks Network nodes include workstations, printers,  and servers.
Networks  <ul><li>A  server  is a computer connected to a network that distributes and stores resources for other network ...
Networks <ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN )  –  a network located in a limited area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs are found i...
Networks <ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN)  –  a network that covers a large geographical area. TENET is a classic example. ...
Networks <ul><li>The  Internet  - largest of all networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication standards called  protocols  al...
Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Speed versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>How fast are you able to access and save data on the har...
Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Capacity versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>How many applications can you store on a hard disk dr...
Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Quality versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium versus Celeron </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printer...
Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Speed versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Quality versus Co...
Software <ul><li>Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a t...
System Software <ul><li>An  Operating System   (OS) is the master controller within a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: ...
System Software <ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular operating system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
System Software <ul><li>Network operating system   (NOS)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages network resources. </li></ul></ul>...
System Software <ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Utilities includ...
Application Software <ul><li>Accomplishes specific tasks for users. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a computer to become a multi...
Application Software <ul><li>Productivity Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database...
Application Software <ul><li>Graphics Creation and Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Animation and 3D Graphics </li></ul><ul>...
Programming Languages <ul><li>Basic building blocks of any software. </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages allow a progr...
Instructional Support <ul><li>What problems do you need solved and which application software will help solve the problems...
What technology-based resources are available? <ul><li>Technology Plan (District-wide) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Plan (...
What technology-based resources are available? <ul><li>Stand-alone computer(s) in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Networke...
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  1. 1. Hardware and Software Basics With Dr. Poirot
  2. 2. Module Objectives <ul><li>Describe the appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and networking components.  </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the use of various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the differences between analog and digital technology systems and give examples of each type of system. </li></ul><ul><li>Delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues and cross-platform connectivity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>A digital device uses discrete data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete data is distinct or separate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Numbers or digits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as “Off” and “On” or “0” and “1”. </li></ul>“ The Journey Inside” from Intel's website provides animation and video along with teacher resources.
  4. 4. Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>An analog device operates on continuously varying data. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously varying data has an infinite number of possible states. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Devices <ul><li>Digital versus Analog </li></ul><ul><li>A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical reading when used to measure someone’s body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>An old fashioned mercury thermometer’s reading of someone’s body temperature could be interpreted differently by different users. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul>View an animated illustration on how integrated circuits or “chips” are made.
  7. 7. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul>
  8. 8. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul>
  9. 9. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul>
  10. 10. CPU Types <ul><li>CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data. </li></ul><ul><li>CPU types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium II, III, IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Celeron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMD Athlon </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CPU types <ul><li>CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing </li></ul>Watch an animated illustration of a CPU at work.
  12. 12. Microcomputer Platforms <ul><li>All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or computer platforms . </li></ul><ul><li>PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Microcomputer Platforms <ul><li>Compatibility refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software. </li></ul><ul><li>All software is designed for a specific platform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows, Mac or Unix versions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Memory (RAM) <ul><li>RAM or R andom A ccess M emory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Waiting room” for computer’s CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data. </li></ul><ul><li>Ram is measured by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed (in Nanoseconds) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Amount of RAM installed will determine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which software applications will run (efficiently)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check your computer manual for RAM type ( DIMM, SDRAM ) and speed ( 100, 90ns ). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Memory (RAM) <ul><li>All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software. </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement. </li></ul>Visit the Memory Technology Exhibit at Intel’s Virtual museum.
  17. 17. Storage Technology <ul><li>Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices . </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and speed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Storage Technology <ul><li>Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard Disk Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes). </li></ul><ul><li>Typically permanently installed. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage device. </li></ul>Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
  20. 20. Storage Devices <ul><li>Floppy Disk Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage device with the smallest capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most portable storage media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage device. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Storage Devices <ul><li>CD-ROM Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s). </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes). </li></ul><ul><li>Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Storage Devices <ul><li>CD-ROM Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is read from CD by a laser. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical storage device. </li></ul>Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website .
  23. 23. Storage Devices <ul><li>Other Types of Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common. </li></ul><ul><li>DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems. </li></ul>Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware .
  24. 24. Input Devices <ul><li>Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A storage device on computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A peripheral device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Input Devices <ul><li>Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary input device: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands, manipulate text, images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Input Devices <ul><li>Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Input Devices <ul><li>Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some require specialized software to import images into the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Output Devices <ul><li>Monitors are the most commonly used output device. </li></ul><ul><li>Most monitors use a bitmap display. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user to resize the display. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called pixels . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the resolution of the monitor. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Output Devices <ul><li>Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card . </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Output Devices <ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Dot matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom used in a classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still frequently used in business. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bubble or ink jet </li></ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul>
  31. 31. Output Devices <ul><li>Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction. </li></ul>View and excellent tutorial on hardware basics at Macromedia’s site . Requires log-in and browser plug-in download.
  32. 32. Networks <ul><li>A collection of computers and other devices that communicate to share data, hardware, and software. </li></ul><ul><li>A stand-alone computer is called a workstation on a network. </li></ul><ul><li>A workstation provides access to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your computer’s local resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network resources </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Networks Network nodes include workstations, printers, and servers.
  34. 34. Networks <ul><li>A server is a computer connected to a network that distributes and stores resources for other network users. </li></ul><ul><li>With proper licensing, many network users can use the same applications and data files simultaneously and share other resources, such as storage space or a printer. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Networks <ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN ) – a network located in a limited area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs are found in most businesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many campuses use LANs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A network interface card (NIC) – a key hardware component. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects a workstation to the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Networks <ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) – a network that covers a large geographical area. TENET is a classic example. </li></ul><ul><li>All types of networks require special networking hardware and networking software to allow different computers to communicate with each other. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Networks <ul><li>The Internet - largest of all networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication standards called protocols allow for global exchange of information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these communication standards or TCP/IP . </li></ul><ul><li>Special hardware ( modem ) and software ( browser ) are required. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Speed versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>How fast are you able to access and save data on the hard drive? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast will application software open? </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly will software respond to commands? </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly will your printer produce a document? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Capacity versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>How many applications can you store on a hard disk drive? </li></ul><ul><li>How much data can you store on a secondary storage device? </li></ul><ul><li>How many applications can be opened simultaneously? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Quality versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium versus Celeron </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printer versus Ink Jet printer </li></ul><ul><li>Limited functionality editions versus full versions of software </li></ul><ul><li>15 inch monitor versus 21 inch monitor </li></ul>
  41. 41. Options and Tradeoffs <ul><li>Speed versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Quality versus Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-Cost-Cost </li></ul>PC World online provides hardware reviews and comparison charts that are updated each month.
  42. 42. Software <ul><li>Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task. </li></ul><ul><li>System software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. System Software <ul><li>An Operating System (OS) is the master controller within a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS, UNIX, Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An operating system interacts with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All software installed or running from a storage device on a computer system. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. System Software <ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular operating system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MacOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Macintosh computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not have same functionality and support for software and peripheral devices. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. System Software <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages network resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks user accounts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles communication between workstations and servers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular network operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT, Novell Netware, UNIX </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. System Software <ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Utilities includes device drivers and Troubleshooting capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities provide file management capabilities such as copying, moving or renaming a file. </li></ul><ul><li>Norton Utilities includes an undelete function that can recover deleted files. </li></ul><ul><li>Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add protection for all system and data files. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Application Software <ul><li>Accomplishes specific tasks for users. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a computer to become a multi-purpose machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce worksheets and reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Automate record keeping like attendance and grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Create flow charts and graphic organizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate worldwide. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Application Software <ul><li>Productivity Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation Software </li></ul><ul><li>Document Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management Software </li></ul>
  49. 49. Application Software <ul><li>Graphics Creation and Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Animation and 3D Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Video Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Website Creation and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Games and Tutorials </li></ul>
  50. 50. Programming Languages <ul><li>Basic building blocks of any software. </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages allow a programmer to write instructions that a computer can understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages have some resemblance to the English language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BASIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pascal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Instructional Support <ul><li>What problems do you need solved and which application software will help solve the problems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Learning Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drill, Tutorial, Simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and Information Access </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. What technology-based resources are available? <ul><li>Technology Plan (District-wide) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Plan (Building) </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula Plan </li></ul>
  53. 53. What technology-based resources are available? <ul><li>Stand-alone computer(s) in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Networked computers in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Computer laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Computer for every kid </li></ul>
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