Speaking in Lolcats, Take 2:  What Literacy Means in teh Digital Era Stephen Downes November 25, 2009
Let’s look at some LOLcats http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/11/funny-pictures-toes-passing-in-5-4-3/
LOLCats combine familiar images with cultural context http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/11/funny-pictures-love-2/
Not so much celebrating popular culture as mocking it… http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/10/funny-pictures-later-years...
Correct spelling - even real words - is optional (but teh spelling mistakes have to make sense) http://icanhascheezburger....
LOLcats have a characteristic spelling and syntax… It looks like txtspeek, it looks like l33tspeek, it mocks both http://i...
Above all, LOLCats are commentary on everyday life http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/09/funny-pictures-same-since-deca...
One thesis: That new media constitute a vocabulary, and then when people create artifacts, they are, literally, “speaking ...
What do you suppose people are saying when they share this video? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMAtxuCpsMU
What do you suppose the artist is saying? XKCD http://xkcd.com/530/
What do you suppose  this  artist is saying? Gaping Void http://www.gapingvoid.com/   http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/01/26/...
The Accidental Tourist… 9-11 Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
Iconic… Hindenberg Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
Ironic… Kanye Interrupts Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
There are other languages … The first thesis is to be taken literally New media is a language The artifacts are  words htt...
Body language, for example … http://forum.xcitefun.net/body-language-actions-do-speak-louder-than-words-t13371.html
Clothing, uniforms, flags, drapes … http://www.armystrongstories.com/blogAssets/wayne-wall/12%20JUN%20Arab%20Clothing.jpg
Maps, diagrams, graphics… http://www.armystrongstories.com/blogAssets/wayne-wall/12%20JUN%20Arab%20Clothing.jpg
A second thesis: We can understand these languages within a logical/semiotic framework http://filserver.arthist.lu.se/kult...
ACK!!!!!  A What? http://filserver.arthist.lu.se/kultsem/sonesson/ImatraCourseTx1.html   The semiotic function and the gen...
<ul><li>A framework that describes: </li></ul><ul><li>what we are saying </li></ul><ul><li>how we are saying it </li></ul>...
The same  sort  of thing underlies information theory… http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Consciousness_Studies/The_Philosophica...
But more… The same sort of thing underlies inference and belief We understand the future in the same way we understand the...
Science as language, learning as conversation, knowledge as inference “ What if…”: The Use of Conceptual Simulations in Sc...
The Second Thesis, Part B This means getting beyond narrow text-based conceptions we have of media
Conceptions Like: <ul><li>messages have a sender and a receiver </li></ul><ul><li>words get meaning from what they represe...
A frame for understanding new media Morris, Derrida and a little Lao Tzu We need this frame because (as Jukes said) if we ...
Syntax Forms: archetypes? Platonic ideals? Rules: grammar = logical syntax Operations: procedures, motor skills Patterns: ...
Semantics -  Sense and reference (connotation and denotation) - Interpretation (Eg. In probability, Carnap - logical space...
Pragmatics <ul><li>Speech acts (J.L. Austin, Searle)  assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, declarations (but ...
Cognition <ul><ul><li>description - X   (definite description, allegory, metaphor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>definition -...
Context <ul><li>- explanation (Hanson, van Fraassen, Heidegger) </li></ul><ul><li>- meaning (Quine);  tense - range of pos...
Change <ul><li>relation and connection: I Ching,  logical relation </li></ul><ul><li>flow:  Hegel - historicity, direction...
21 st  Century Skills Languages The ‘skills’ described by Jenkins –  performance, simulation, appropriation, etc   - are a...
21 st  Century Languages Languages Elements Performance Simulation Appropriation Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Cognition Con...
Example: Performance - Syntax Languages Elements Performance  (the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose...
A third thesis: Fluency in these languages constitutes “21st century learning”
Describing “21st century learning”… (using the language of 20th century teaching) http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documen...
Focusing on tools… …  is like focusing on pens, pencils, the printing press, instead of the Magna Carta, the Gutenberg Bible
Focusing on content… …   is like focusing on what Magna Carta, the Gutenberg Bible said instead of what they did, what peo...
Papert - constructionism when people construct artifacts they are constructing media with which to think http://www.tpemag...
How do we converse? <ul><li>Who is in charge of that zone, who is in charge of that scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>What voc...
The CCK09 Course… …  is about learning as a conversation
Using the language of LOLCats… …  to learn how to think and discover, and learn… http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.com/
Examples for Discussion… 1. Financial Literacy: language or skill? If ‘financial skills’ are a language, who talks, what i...
Examples for Discussion… 3. Critical Thinking and Text How do we apply the principles of critical thinking to non-text art...
Examples for Discussion… 4. The Farleyfile How do we keep data? How do we remember people we have met? Gist: A Farleyfile ...
Examples for Discussion… 5. An Operating System for the Mind 21st century skills constitute the processes and capacities t...
Examples for Discussion… 6.  50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive http://www.moskalyuk.com/blog/yes-50-scientifi...
Examples for Discussion… 7.  The Eggcorn Database 'guess workers' for 'guest workers' by klakritz  'beta breath' for 'bate...
Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca
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Speaking in Lolcats, Take 2

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Reprise of my talk from last week, in more detail and some new slides. The internet has introduced us to a world in which we can communicate with each other in a wide variety of media. Where formally we could only talk and sing to each other, now we can create videos, author animations, link to videos and images and cartoons, and more, mix and match these in a complex open-ended vocabulary. What it means to be literate in such an information age is fundamentally distinct from the literacy of the 3Rs, and teaching new literacy an evolving challenge for those of us still struggling to learn it. This talk looks at the elements of 21st century literacies, redefines critical thinking for the internet age, and suggests a redefinition of what we think of as 'core' curriculum. Audio at http://www.downes.ca/downes/233 Elluminate session recording (with video) at http://eci831.wikispaces.com/11-24-09

Published in: Education, Technology

Speaking in Lolcats, Take 2

  1. 1. Speaking in Lolcats, Take 2: What Literacy Means in teh Digital Era Stephen Downes November 25, 2009
  2. 2. Let’s look at some LOLcats http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/11/funny-pictures-toes-passing-in-5-4-3/
  3. 3. LOLCats combine familiar images with cultural context http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/11/funny-pictures-love-2/
  4. 4. Not so much celebrating popular culture as mocking it… http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/10/funny-pictures-later-years/
  5. 5. Correct spelling - even real words - is optional (but teh spelling mistakes have to make sense) http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/09/funny-pictures-i-triangulatered/
  6. 6. LOLcats have a characteristic spelling and syntax… It looks like txtspeek, it looks like l33tspeek, it mocks both http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/10/funny-pictures-dis-watr-is-wet/
  7. 7. Above all, LOLCats are commentary on everyday life http://icanhascheezburger.com/2009/11/09/funny-pictures-same-since-decaff/
  8. 8. One thesis: That new media constitute a vocabulary, and then when people create artifacts, they are, literally, “speaking in LOLcats” It’s not just LOLCats, of course… http://www.flickr.com/photos/nobodyssweetheart/40898054 61
  9. 9. What do you suppose people are saying when they share this video? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMAtxuCpsMU
  10. 10. What do you suppose the artist is saying? XKCD http://xkcd.com/530/
  11. 11. What do you suppose this artist is saying? Gaping Void http://www.gapingvoid.com/ http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/01/26/50-viral-images-part-two/
  12. 12. The Accidental Tourist… 9-11 Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
  13. 13. Iconic… Hindenberg Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
  14. 14. Ironic… Kanye Interrupts Tourist Guy http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blphoto-wtc.htm
  15. 15. There are other languages … The first thesis is to be taken literally New media is a language The artifacts are words http://img166.imageshack.us/img166/3827/virusbignl0.jpg
  16. 16. Body language, for example … http://forum.xcitefun.net/body-language-actions-do-speak-louder-than-words-t13371.html
  17. 17. Clothing, uniforms, flags, drapes … http://www.armystrongstories.com/blogAssets/wayne-wall/12%20JUN%20Arab%20Clothing.jpg
  18. 18. Maps, diagrams, graphics… http://www.armystrongstories.com/blogAssets/wayne-wall/12%20JUN%20Arab%20Clothing.jpg
  19. 19. A second thesis: We can understand these languages within a logical/semiotic framework http://filserver.arthist.lu.se/kultsem/sonesson/ImatraCourseTx1.html
  20. 20. ACK!!!!! A What? http://filserver.arthist.lu.se/kultsem/sonesson/ImatraCourseTx1.html The semiotic function and the genesis of pictorial meaning, Göran Sonesson
  21. 21. <ul><li>A framework that describes: </li></ul><ul><li>what we are saying </li></ul><ul><li>how we are saying it </li></ul>http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=IJP.085.1423A Charles Sanders Peirce http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/jzeman/peirces_theory_of_signs.htm
  22. 22. The same sort of thing underlies information theory… http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Consciousness_Studies/The_Philosophical_Problem/Machine_Consciousness Knowledge and the Flow of Information http://www.press.uchicago.edu/presssite/metadata.epl?mode=synopsis&bookkey=3642299
  23. 23. But more… The same sort of thing underlies inference and belief We understand the future in the same way we understand the past, by studying the signs - S. Downes http://www.downes.ca/post/20
  24. 24. Science as language, learning as conversation, knowledge as inference “ What if…”: The Use of Conceptual Simulations in Scientific Reasoning http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/1925728116-26233474/ftinterface~db=all~content=a788101161~fulltext=713240928
  25. 25. The Second Thesis, Part B This means getting beyond narrow text-based conceptions we have of media
  26. 26. Conceptions Like: <ul><li>messages have a sender and a receiver </li></ul><ul><li>words get meaning from what they represent </li></ul><ul><li>truth is based on the real world </li></ul><ul><li>events have a cause, and causes can be known </li></ul><ul><li>science is based on forming and testing hypotheses </li></ul>These, taken together, constitute, a static, linear, coherent picture of the world The world, as though it were a book, or a library Not everyone sees it that way
  27. 27. A frame for understanding new media Morris, Derrida and a little Lao Tzu We need this frame because (as Jukes said) if we aren’t looking for these things, we just won’t see them. Syntax Cognition Semantics Context Pragmatics Change
  28. 28. Syntax Forms: archetypes? Platonic ideals? Rules: grammar = logical syntax Operations: procedures, motor skills Patterns: regularities, substitutivity (eggcorns, tropes) Similarities: Tversky - properties, etc Not just rules and grammar
  29. 29. Semantics - Sense and reference (connotation and denotation) - Interpretation (Eg. In probability, Carnap - logical space; Reichenbach - frequency; Ramsey - wagering / strength of belief) - Forms of association: Hebbian, contiguity, back-prop, Boltzmann - Decisions and decision theory: voting / consensus / emergence theories of truth / meaning / purpose / goal http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~tom7/csnotes/fall02/semantics.gif
  30. 30. Pragmatics <ul><li>Speech acts (J.L. Austin, Searle) assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, declarations (but also - harmful acts, harassment, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogation (Heidegger) and presupposition </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning (Wittgenstein - meaning is use) </li></ul>use, actions, impact
  31. 31. Cognition <ul><ul><li>description - X (definite description, allegory, metaphor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>definition - X is Y (ostensive, lexical, logical (necess. & suff conds), family resemblance - but also, identity, personal identity, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>argument - X therefore Y - inductive, deductive, abductive (but also: modal, probability (Bayesian), deontic (obligations), doxastic (belief), etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explanation - X because of Y (causal, statistical, chaotic/emergent) </li></ul></ul>reasoning, inference and explanation http://www.mkbergman.com/category/description-logics/
  32. 32. Context <ul><li>- explanation (Hanson, van Fraassen, Heidegger) </li></ul><ul><li>- meaning (Quine); tense - range of possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>- vocabulary (Derrida); ontologies, logical space </li></ul><ul><li>Frames (Lakoff) and worldviews </li></ul>placement, environment http://www.occasionbasedmarketing.com/what-it-is
  33. 33. Change <ul><li>relation and connection: I Ching, logical relation </li></ul><ul><li>flow: Hegel - historicity, directionality; McLuhan - 4 things </li></ul><ul><li>- progression / logic -- games, for example: quiz&points, branch-and-tree, database </li></ul><ul><li>- scheduling - timetabling - events; activity theory / LaaN </li></ul>
  34. 34. 21 st Century Skills Languages The ‘skills’ described by Jenkins – performance, simulation, appropriation, etc - are actually languages and should be understood in terms of these six dimensions http://spotlight.macfound.org/btr/entry/new_media_literacies/
  35. 35. 21 st Century Languages Languages Elements Performance Simulation Appropriation Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Cognition Context Change
  36. 36. Example: Performance - Syntax Languages Elements Performance (the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery) (subcategories?) Syntax: - Forms - Rules - Operations - Patterns - Similarities - Presentation acting, method acting - “Know your lines” etc http://filmtvcareers.about.com/od/gettingthejob/a/GJ_Actor_Tips.htm - Stanislavski’s system (etc…) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislavski%27s_system - Ritual Performance (etc.) http://www.let.rug.nl/koster/papers/JHP.Koster2.Edit.pdf - Comparing Tales (etc.) http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/2343/
  37. 37. A third thesis: Fluency in these languages constitutes “21st century learning”
  38. 38. Describing “21st century learning”… (using the language of 20th century teaching) http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/MILE_Guide_091101.pdf … as content and skills…
  39. 39. Focusing on tools… … is like focusing on pens, pencils, the printing press, instead of the Magna Carta, the Gutenberg Bible
  40. 40. Focusing on content… … is like focusing on what Magna Carta, the Gutenberg Bible said instead of what they did, what people did with them http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/01_01_revolution.html
  41. 41. Papert - constructionism when people construct artifacts they are constructing media with which to think http://www.tpemagazine.com/2009/index.php/2009-06-23-12-22-23/22-issue03/44-constructionism-lego-education
  42. 42. How do we converse? <ul><li>Who is in charge of that zone, who is in charge of that scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>What vocabularies are we using in our digital materials? What vocabularies are publishers using? Are students using? </li></ul><ul><li>What languages do we model ? </li></ul>http://englishinguiabasico.wordpress.com/2009/01/
  43. 43. The CCK09 Course… … is about learning as a conversation
  44. 44. Using the language of LOLCats… … to learn how to think and discover, and learn… http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.com/
  45. 45. Examples for Discussion… 1. Financial Literacy: language or skill? If ‘financial skills’ are a language, who talks, what is being said, and how are meaning and truth expressed? … PROMPT: Province to teach financial skills in schools… http://www.parentcentral.ca/parent/article/719574--province-to-teach-money-skills-in-schools http://blogs.siliconindia.com/itsSHANKARGURU/Wealth_Generation__Management-bid-w4Fkd8Bs78142943.html
  46. 46. Examples for Discussion… 3. Critical Thinking and Text How do we apply the principles of critical thinking to non-text artifacts? * What is the author’s fundamental purpose? * What is the author’s point of view with respect to the issue? * What assumptions is the author making in his or her reasoning? * What are the implications of the author’s reasoning? * What information does the author use in reasoning through this issue? * What are the most fundamental inferences or conclusions in the article? * What are the most basic concepts used by the author? * What is the key question the author is trying to answer? The teleological theory of meaning http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=407700&c=1
  47. 47. Examples for Discussion… 4. The Farleyfile How do we keep data? How do we remember people we have met? Gist: A Farleyfile for the 21st century http://www.mcgeesmusings.net/2009/09/24/gist-a-farleyfile-for-the-21st-century/
  48. 48. Examples for Discussion… 5. An Operating System for the Mind 21st century skills constitute the processes and capacities that make it possible for people to navigate a fact-filled landscape, a way to see, understand and acquire those facts in such a way as to be relevant and useful, and in the end, to be self-contained.,.. http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2009/09/operating-system-for-mind.html http://positivebutterflies.com om/
  49. 49. Examples for Discussion… 6. 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive http://www.moskalyuk.com/blog/yes-50-scientifically-proven-ways-to-be-persuasive Fallacious tropes Inconvenience the audience by creating an impression of product scarcity. It’s the famous change from “Call now, the operators are standing by” to “If the line is busy, call again”, that greatly improved the call volume by creating the impression that everybody else is trying to buy the same product.
  50. 50. Examples for Discussion… 7. The Eggcorn Database 'guess workers' for 'guest workers' by klakritz 'beta breath' for 'bated breath' by klakritz 'alimoney' for 'alimony' by klakritz http://eggcorns.lascribe.net/
  51. 51. Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca

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