Personal Learning the Web 2.0 Way Stephen Downes May 20, 2007
Overview <ul><li>AI and Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Design </li></ul><ul><li>The Connectivist Alternative </...
Expert Systems <ul><li>Two major aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference engine...
Properties of Expert Systems <ul><li>Expert systems are goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Good expert systems are  efficient...
AI Requires… <ul><li>Knowledge Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter expert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Re...
Learning Design <ul><li>“ Much of the work on Learning Design focuses on technology to automatically “run” the sequence of...
IMS Learning Design <ul><li>Based on Education Modelling Language (Rob Koper) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples… </li></ul><ul><u...
Competency-Based Learning http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ldv1p0/imsld_bestv1p0.html#1505452
LD: Conceptual Model Koper  http://www.ifets.info/journals/9_1/3.pdf
LD Tools Berggren   et.al.  http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/02/ A,B University of Duisburg www.unfold-project.net:8085/UNFOLD/...
The Lego Metaphor http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/11/ Berlanda & Garcia  http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/11/
The Learning Refinery <ul><li>LD but one element of a larger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Learning Objects, reposito...
Connectionism Minsky: Symbolic vs. Analogical Man: Top-Down vs. Bottom Up  http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/papers/Symboli...
Messy vs. Neat
Enter the Network Everything is connected  to everything else (Theory-laden data) http://dsv.su.se/~kjellman/e-subjectorie...
Pattern Recognition… Gibson
stands for? Or is caused by? Distributed Representation = a pattern of connectivity Hopfield
 
Where is the PLE?
The way networks learn is the way people learn…
Network Learning… <ul><li>Hebbian associationism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on concurrency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back pr...
Leads to This… Personal Learning… To  teach  is to  model  and to  demonstrate To  learn  is to  practice  and  reflect
What is the PLE?
We can get an idea of what the PLE looks like by drilling down into the pieces… <ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>conceptual...
<ul><li>Demonstrate </li></ul><ul><li>reference examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>code library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ima...
<ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>supported practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>game interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>san...
<ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>guided reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms-based input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Choice – Identity - Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>simulated or actual environments that present tasks or problems <...
http://www.downes.ca Downes
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Personal Learning The Web 2.0 Way

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Personal Learning The Web 2.0 Way

  1. 1. Personal Learning the Web 2.0 Way Stephen Downes May 20, 2007
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>AI and Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Design </li></ul><ul><li>The Connectivist Alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expert Systems <ul><li>Two major aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference engine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogy: the wizard </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expert_system http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/expert_systems.php
  4. 4. Properties of Expert Systems <ul><li>Expert systems are goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Good expert systems are efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems should be adaptive </li></ul>http://www.expertise2go.com/webesie/tutorials/ESIntro/
  5. 5. AI Requires… <ul><li>Knowledge Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter expert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. creation of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. creation of if-then structures </li></ul></ul>http://www.eco.utexas.edu/faculty/Norman/long.extra/Info.S98/Exp/intro.html
  6. 6. Learning Design <ul><li>“ Much of the work on Learning Design focuses on technology to automatically “run” the sequence of student activities (facilitated by the educator via computers), but an activity in a Learning Design could be conducted without technology.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Dalziel </li></ul></ul>http://blog.worldcampus.psu.edu/index.php/2007/05/16/learning-design-and-open-source-teaching/ http://zope.cetis.ac.uk/lib/media/WhatIsLD_web.pdf
  7. 7. IMS Learning Design <ul><li>Based on Education Modelling Language (Rob Koper) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competency-based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Idea that LDs are “pedagogically neutral” </li></ul>http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ldv1p0/imsld_bestv1p0.html
  8. 8. Competency-Based Learning http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ldv1p0/imsld_bestv1p0.html#1505452
  9. 9. LD: Conceptual Model Koper http://www.ifets.info/journals/9_1/3.pdf
  10. 10. LD Tools Berggren et.al. http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/02/ A,B University of Duisburg www.unfold-project.net:8085/UNFOLD/general_resources_folder/cosmos_tool.zip Cosmos 5 A University of Quebec www.licef.teluq.uquebec.ca/gp/eng/productions/mot.htm Mot+ 4 A,B University of Piraeus www.ask.iti.gr ASK LDT 3 A,B,C Reload www.reload.ac.uk/ldeditor.html Reload LD Editor 2 A OUNL www.copperauthor.org CopperAuthor 1 Levels Author Link Tool Name Nr.
  11. 11. The Lego Metaphor http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/11/ Berlanda & Garcia http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/11/
  12. 12. The Learning Refinery <ul><li>LD but one element of a larger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Learning Objects, repositories, etc </li></ul><ul><li>“ LDs by themselves are of limited value without a bundle of surrounding documentation, metadata, and taxonomies” </li></ul>Greller http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/12/
  13. 13. Connectionism Minsky: Symbolic vs. Analogical Man: Top-Down vs. Bottom Up http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/papers/SymbolicVs.Connectionist.html
  14. 14. Messy vs. Neat
  15. 15. Enter the Network Everything is connected to everything else (Theory-laden data) http://dsv.su.se/~kjellman/e-subjectoriented.htm Lakatos
  16. 16. Pattern Recognition… Gibson
  17. 17. stands for? Or is caused by? Distributed Representation = a pattern of connectivity Hopfield
  18. 19. Where is the PLE?
  19. 20. The way networks learn is the way people learn…
  20. 21. Network Learning… <ul><li>Hebbian associationism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on concurrency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back propagation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on desired outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boltzman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on ‘settling’, annealing </li></ul></ul>This…
  21. 22. Leads to This… Personal Learning… To teach is to model and to demonstrate To learn is to practice and reflect
  22. 23. What is the PLE?
  23. 24. We can get an idea of what the PLE looks like by drilling down into the pieces… <ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>conceptual frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wiki (wiki API, RSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concept maps (SVG, mapping format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gliffy (SVG?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>reference frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video / 2L 3D representation – embedded spaces </li></ul></ul>The question is – how to transport and represent models that are actually used?
  24. 25. <ul><li>Demonstrate </li></ul><ul><li>reference examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>code library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>thought processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>show experts at work (Chaos Manor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stories </li></ul></ul>The question is, how can we connect the learner with the community at work?
  25. 26. <ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>supported practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>game interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sandboxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>job aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flash cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cheat sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>games and simulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mod kits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mmorpgs </li></ul></ul>The question is, how can we enable access to multiple environments that support various activities?
  26. 27. <ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>guided reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms-based input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentations and seminars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>journaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blogs, wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion, sharing </li></ul></ul>The question is, how can we assist people to see themselves, their practice, in a mirror?
  27. 28. <ul><li>Choice – Identity - Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>simulated or actual environments that present tasks or problems </li></ul><ul><li>OpenID, authentication, feature or profile development </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios & creative libraries </li></ul>People talk about ‘motivation’ – but the real issue here is ownership
  28. 29. http://www.downes.ca Downes

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