Understanding Reclaimed Water Ld West Conference

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Presenated at the 2007 LD-West Conference. Primer on Reclaimed water and its current and historical uses including technology advances.

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Understanding Reclaimed Water Ld West Conference

  1. 1. 65 1 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  2. 2. Brandon Squire, P.E. Mr. Squire is a professional engineer in Arizona. His engineering practice is focused on forward planning for water production and distribution, water storage systems, wastewater collection, and treatment systems. Practice focus on water/wastewater systems. Doug Patriquin, LEED AP Mr. Patriquin is a LEED accredited professional. His engineering practice is focused on working with clients to develop strategies for LEED certification that maximize credits, from forward planning through design and construction. 2 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  3. 3. Overview Definitions – What is reclaimed water? Applications – How is it used? History Quick Stats Current and Emerging Technology Regulations – What do governments require? Q&A 3 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  4. 4. Why “reclaimed water” matters Water, a finite, non-renewable resource. Potable water usage continues to climb, through increasing population and land development. Reclaimed water allows us to extend the life of our most valuable resource. U.S. per capita daily water usage is highest in the world. 4 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  5. 5. Why “reclaimed water” matters Luckily, we have access to advanced reclaimed technology. Water is too valuable to use once! 5 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  6. 6. What is “Reclaimed Water”? Reclaimed Water: Water that is treated for use. Recycled Water: The internal use of water by the original user before discharge. Reuse: The use of untreated or slightly treated water in a different process or application. 6 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  7. 7. What is “Reclaimed Water”? Indirect potable reuse: The introduction of reclaimed water to a surface water or groundwater system that ultimately is used as a potable water supply. Dual distribution systems: Reclaimed water is delivered through a parallel network of distribution mains separate from the potable water distribution system. The reclaimed water distribution system becomes a third water utility, in addition to wastewater and potable water. (One of the oldest municipal dual distribution systems in the U.S., in St. Petersburg, Florida, began operation in 1977.) 7 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  8. 8. Typical Use Criteria Secondary treatment - Minimum Confine application to authorized areas: minimize runoff confine direct and windblown spray keep spray away from food and drinking water Microbial elimination Public notification and signage Pipes, valves, outlets, controllers, tank trucks shall be marked “purple pipe” Back flow prevention devices shall be used at potable connections 8 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  9. 9. Typical Current Uses The United States uses 9.8 billion gallons of reclaimed water per day. That volume is increasing 15% annually. Typical uses include: Urban / Recreation Water features Car wash Snow Fire Protection Street Cleaning Golf Sports fields Play Grounds Agriculture Irrigation Construction Dust Control Concrete 9 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  10. 10. Typical Current Uses Industrial Cooling towers Pulp and Paper Textiles Salt water intrusion barrier Dual Plumbing Toilet Flushing Power Generation Steam Hydropower Hatcheries 10 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  11. 11. Typical Current Uses Aquifer Recharge Direct/Indirect Potable reuse Environmental Wetlands Stream Augmentation Ponds 11 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  12. 12. Direct/Indirect Potable uses NEWater – Singapore Windhoek, Namibia – Goreangab Water Reclamation Plant Water Factory 21 – Orange California Aurora, CO – Prairie Waters Las Vegas, NV – Lake Mead 12 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  13. 13. Statistics 13 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  14. 14. Reclaimed Water Statistics Overview of current water reuse regulations and guidelines, as of 2004: 25 states have adopted regulations 16 states have guidelines or design standards 9 states have no regulations or guidelines 14 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  15. 15. Reclaimed Water Statistics In 1975, approximately 679 MGD of effluent was reused. In 1995, effluent reuse jumped up to 1.06 billion gallons per day. 15 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  16. 16. Reclaimed Water Statistics In 2004, 9.8 billion gallons per day of reclaimed water was used for a beneficial purpose. According to the WaterReuse Associations reclaimed water use is growing at an estimated rate of 15% per year. 16 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  17. 17. Reclaimed Water Statistics California Usage 17 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  18. 18. Where does Arizona’s Water Come From? Currently, Arizona Arizona Water Use gets water from four sources: • Colorado River Colorado River • Streams within 40% 2,800,000 AF the state, including Groundwater the Gila, Salt, 19% 2,900,000 AF Verde, and Agua Surface Water 1,400,000 AF Fria rivers 39% Effluent • Groundwater 2% 140,000 AF • Reclaimed water (this is the only source that has the potential to increase) 18 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  19. 19. Prescott Valley, Arizona Town development on Hold October 29th & 30th Auctioned 2,724 Ac-ft of reclaimed water 100 year assured water supply (ADWR) Minimum Bid of $22,500 per Ac-ft Winning bid = $24,650 19 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  20. 20. History of Reclaimed Water Reuse has been around in some form since the advent of “sewers.” 3000 BC – Minoan civilization in ancient Greece uses wastewater for agricultural irrigation. 1500 – Germany uses sewage farms for wastewater disposal. 1833 – Legal use of sewers instituted in Boston 1890 – Mexico City uses wastewater drainage canals to irrigate agricultural areas. 1906 – Jersey City, NJ, begins chlorination of water supply. 1906 – The earliest reference to water quality requirements for reuse of wastewater in Oxnard, CA. 1926 – Grand Canyon Nat’l Park uses reclaimed water in dual system for toilets, sprinklers, cooling water, and boiler feed water. 1929 – The City of Pomona, CA begins to use reclaimed water for irrigation of lawns and gardens. 1942 – Bethlehem Steel begins using reclaimed water. 1955 – Industrial water is supplied from wastewater treatment plant in Japan. 1956 – Direct potable reuse occurred in Chanute, Kansas. During a 5 month period, chlorinated secondary effluent was collect behind the dam on the Neosho River and used as intake water for the city’s water treatment plant. The most serious problem was that of public acceptance, due to a pale yellow color, an unpleasant taste and odor, and foaming of the water. 20 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  21. 21. History of Reclaimed Water 1960 – California encourages wastewater reclamation and reuse in State Water Code. 1968 – Direct potable reuse begun at water reclamation plant in Namibia. It’s still in use today. 1971 – AWWA issues reclaimed water statement. The American Water Works Association encourages responsible use of reclaimed water instead of potable water for irrigation, industrial, and other non-potable uses within a public drinking water supplier’s service area when such use can reduce the demands placed on limited supplies of potable water. 1972 - U.S. Congress passes Clean Water Act 1974 - U.S. Congress passes Save Drinking Water Act 1975 – Orange County Water District begins recharging groundwater by directly injecting reclaimed water into underground aquifers. 1982 – Tucson mandates use of reclaimed water for golf courses, cemeteries, parks, and school grounds. 1984 – Tucson Water reclaimed water system begins operation. First customers are U of A farm and golf course. 1986 – Ocotillo Golf Course in Chandler, AZ begins operation using reclaimed water. 1992 – U.S. EPA and U.S. AID first publish Guidelines for Water Reuse 2004 – U.S. EPA and U.S. AID revise Guidelines for Water Reuse 2006 – City of Scottsdale achieves “Safe Yield” by recharging the same about of effluent as they pull out in groundwater. 2007 – Great presentation: Understanding Reclaimed Water at LD West Conference! 21 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  22. 22. Treatment Technologies 22 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  23. 23. Understanding Treatment Technologies Many Ways to Reach the End! Source: Water Reuse. Metcalf & Eddy, 2007 23 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  24. 24. Understanding Treatment Technologies Source: Water Recycling and Reuse: The Environmental Benefits. EPA 24 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  25. 25. Primary Treatment Screen and clarifiers 25 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  26. 26. Secondary Treatment Biological treatment (Aerobic/Anaerobic/anoxic treatment) Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) Trickling filters Oxidation ditch Plug flow Deep ShaftTM Specialized Activated sludge processes Captor and Linpor Kaldnes 26 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  27. 27. Tertiary Treatment Reverse Osmosis Membrane Bioreactor Advanced Oxidation 27 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  28. 28. Tertiary Treatment Filtration Cloth Disc Diamond Membranes Micro – 0.1-10µm Ultra – 0.01-0.03µm Nano – 0.001-0.005µm Reverse Osmosis – 0.0001-0.0005µm Electrodialysis 28 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  29. 29. Tertiary Treatment - Finishing Disinfection UV Chlorine Ozone Granular Activated Carbon 29 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  30. 30. Regulations 30 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  31. 31. Federal Regulations No federal regulations cover water reuse Clean Water Act - 1972 Safe Drinking Water Act – 1974 31 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  32. 32. Regulations / Guidelines 2004 U.S.EPA Guidelines for Water Reuse Urban Industrial Agricultural Recreation Recharge Case Studies Many states have guidelines or regulations for the design and operation of wastewater reuse facilities, but wide discretion in interpreting EPA’s guidelines has resulted in standards that differ significantly across the states. 32 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  33. 33. California - Title 22 The California Department of Health Services water and treatment reliability criteria for water recycling under Title 22, Chapter 4, of the California Code of Regulations. California Water Code Section 13550- 13556 states that using potable domestic water for nonpotable uses, including cemeteries, golf courses, parks, industrial and residential irrigation, and toilet flushing, is an unreasonable use of potable water if recycled water is available. 33 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  34. 34. Regulations / Guidelines Nevada Nevada Administrative Code Nevada Division of Environmental Quality Water Technical Sheets Clark County Mandates reclaimed water on golf courses Eliminate decorative fountains Commercial Properties 34 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  35. 35. Regulations / Guidelines Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Regulation No. 84 – Category 1 – Category 2 – Category 3 35 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  36. 36. Arizona Guidelines Arizona Administrative Code Title 18, Chapter 9 ARTICLE 7: Direct Reuse of Reclaimed Water Title 18, Chapter 11 Article 3: Reclaimed Water Quality Standards Basic Guidelines 36 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  37. 37. Regulations – Tucson, AZ Mandates Any new Golf Course after January 1, 2007 shall utilize irrigation water, unless otherwise exempted by the board of supervisors. Irrigation water: directly served effluent, reclaimed water or Central Arizona Project (CAP) water, pursuant to Title 45, Chapter 3.1, Arizona Revised Statutes. Tucson Water Design Standards Reclaimed Water System Design Standards 37 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  38. 38. Green Potential LEED Points Available Water Efficiency Credits Credit 1.1: Water Efficient Landscaping: Reduce by 50% Credit 1.2: Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies Credit 3.1: Water Use Reduction: 20% Reduction Credit 3.2: Water Use Reduction: 30% Reduction 38 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  39. 39. Where is the future of Reclaimed Water? Public perception “Toilet to Tap” Population Growth Increasing Demand Future Mandates 39 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007
  40. 40. Questions and Answers Thank you for attending. For more detailed questions, please call Brandon Squire or Doug Patriquin at 602-944-5500. 40 ZweigWhite Land Development West 2007 | Conference and Expo | December 4-5, 2007

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