Section 1 Byzantine Empire--World History 1


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Section 1 Byzantine Empire--World History 1

  1. 1. Chapter 10 – The Byzantine Empire and Russia Section 1 – The Byzantine Empire Pages 234-239
  2. 2. Pages 234-239 <ul><li>I. The Growth of Byzantine Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Setting the Scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. The Roman emperor Constantine rebuilt the Greek city of Byzantium and gave it the name Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. In 330, he made Constantinople the new capital of the empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. As the cities of the western Roman empire crumbled, Constantinople prospered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. With its high walls and golden domes, it stood as the proud capital of the Byzantine empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Roads fanned out in all directions to the Balkans, Middle East and North Africa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>B. Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Geography of the city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Excellent harbor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Protected on three sides by water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Located on the shores of the Bosporus, a strait that linked the Mediterranean and Black seas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Later emperors built an elaborate system of land and sea walls to bolster its defenses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e. Location enabled it to command the key trade routes linking Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Constantinople was for centuries, Europe’s busiest market place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Byzantine emperors and empresses lived in splendor in the center of the city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Hippodrome, an arena built in the 200s, sported chariot races </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>C. A Blending of Cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine empire eventually declined to a small area around the city of Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Empire was still in existence 1,000 years after the fall of the western Roman empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Promoted a brilliant civilization that blended ancient Greek, Roman, and Christian influences with other traditions of the Mediterranean world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pages 234-239 <ul><li>II. The Age of Justinian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. The Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under the emperor Justinian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Justinian ruled from 527-565 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Byzantine armies, led by the brilliant general Belisarius, reconquered North Africa, Italy, and southern Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. This campaign exhausted Justinian’s treasury and weakened his defenses in the east </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Justinian’s successors would lose these bitterly contested lands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>B. Hagia Sophia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Justinian launched a program to beautify Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Greatest triumph was the church of Hagia Sophia “Holy Wisdom” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Justinian divided 10,000 workers into two crews and had them compete to finish opposite sides of the church </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Gold glittered from the ceiling and marble gleamed from the walls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Completed in less than 6 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Church still survives today </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>C. Code of Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Corpus Juris Civilis “Body of Civil Law” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Collection and revision of all the laws of ancient Rome </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Compiled by a commission established by Justinian </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Justinian’s Code of Laws had an impact far beyond the Byzantium empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. 1100s it had reached Western Europe and the Roman Catholic Church and medieval monarchs modeled their laws on its principles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Centuries later, the code also guided legal thinkers who began to put together the international law in use today </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>D. Absolute Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Justinian used the Code of Laws to unite his empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Rules as an autocrat “sole ruler with complete authority” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. He was deemed as Christ’s co-ruler on Earth and had power over the Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Unlike monarchs in Western Europe, Justinian combined spiritual authority with political power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Aided by his wife Theodora, a shrewd politician, who served as Justinian’s adviser and co-ruler </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>E. Changing Fortunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. In the centuries after Justinian, the fortunes of the empire rose and fell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Attacks by Persians, Slavs, Vikings, and Mongols and Turks were largely unsuccessful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Byzantium served as a buffer for Western Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. By 600s-700s, Arab armies gained control of much of the Mediterranean world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Constantinople and the Byzantines held onto their heartland in the Balkans and Asia Minor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Empire’s greatest strengths came from a strong central government and a prosperous economy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Peasants formed the backbone of the empire; working the land, paying taxes, and providing soldiers for the military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Byzantium preserved a healthy money economy; the “bezant” a gold coin stamped with the emperor’s image circulated from England to China </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pages 234-239 <ul><li>III. Byzantine Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Differences East and West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine emperor controlled the Church affairs and appointed the “patriarch” or highest Church official </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Byzantine Christians rejected the pope’s claim to authority over all Christians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Byzantine clergy could marry; Catholic clergy could not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Greek was the language of the Byzantine Church; Latin was the language of the Catholic Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. The chief Byzantine holy day was Easter; the western Christians placed greater emphasis on Christmas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>B. Schism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. During Middle Ages, the two branches of Christianity drew further apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. In the 700s, a Byzantine emperor outlawed the veneration of icons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. The ban set off violent battles within the empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Pope excommunicated the Byzantine emperor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. A later empress eventually restored the use of icons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. By 1054, a permanent split between the Byzantine, “Eastern Greek Orthodox Church” and “Roman Catholic” Churches occurred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Roman Catholic Pope and East Orthodox Patriarch excommunicated each other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Two Churches acted as rivals rather than as branches of the same faith </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Contacts between the two churches were guarded and distant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Pages 234-239 <ul><li>IV. Crisis and Collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Time of the Schism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine empire was declining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Struggles over succession, court intrigues, and constant wars undermined its strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Powerful local lords gained control of large areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. As the empire faltered, its enemies advanced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Normans conquered southern Italy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Seljuk Turks advanced across Asia Minor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>B. The Crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. 1090s, the Byzantine emperor called for western help to fight the Seljuk Turks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. During later Crusades, trade rivalry sparked violence between the Byzantine empire and Venice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. During Fourth Crusade, Venetian merchants persuaded knights to attack Constantinople in 1204 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Western Christians ruled Constantinople for 50 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. A Byzantine emperor reclaimed the capital in the 1260s, but the empire never recovered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Eventually, the Ottoman Turks overran most of Asia Minor and the Balkans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>C. Constantinople Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. 1453, Ottoman forces surrounded the city of Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. After a siege of 2 months, they stormed the broken walls of the city-Byzantine emperor fought to his death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Ottoman ruler Muhammad II entered the city in triumph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Constantinople was renamed “Istanbul” and became the capital of the Ottoman empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Hagia Sophia was turned into an Islamic house of worship </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Istanbul soon emerged as a great center of Muslim culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pages 234-239 <ul><li>V. The Byzantine Heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. End of an Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. For Europeans, the empire had stood for centuries as the enduring symbol of Roman civilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Throughout the Middle Ages, Byzantine influence radiated across Europe; even Ottoman conquerors adapted features of Byzantine government, social life, and architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. For 1,000 years, the Byzantines built on the culture of the Hellenic world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Byzantine civilization blended Christian religious beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts and literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. The Byzantines also extended Roman achievements in engineering and law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>B. The Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine artists made unique contributions, especially in religious art and architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Influenced western styles from the Middle Ages to the present time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Icons, designed to evoke the presence of God, gave viewers a sense of personal contact with the sacred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Mosaics brought scenes from the Bible to glowing life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. In architecture, Byzantine palaces and churches blended Greek, Roman, Persian, and other Middle Eastern styles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Pages 234-239 <ul><ul><li>The World of Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Byzantine scholars preserved the classic works of ancient Greece </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Byzantine scholars also produced their own great books, especially in the field of history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Herodotus and Thucydides, Byzantine historians, were mostly concerned with writing about their own times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Procopius, an adviser to the general Belisarius, chronicled the Byzantine campaign against Persia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Procopius, in his “Secret History” savagely criticized Justinian and Theodora </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Anna Comnena, another Byzantine historian, is considered by many scholars to be the western world’s first important female historian; wrote “Alexiad” where she analyzed the reign of her father Emperor Alexius I </li></ul></ul></ul>