The Low Rumble - Harley Davidson Rider Segmentation Study

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The Low Rumble - Harley Davidson Rider Segmentation Study

  1. 1. The Characteristic Low Rumble: Lifestyles of Harley Davidson Market Segments William R. Swinyard Professor of Business Management Marriott School of Management 480 TNRB Brigham Young University Provo, Utah 84602 The author expresses appreciation to the JCPenney Retail Research Program, which funded this study.
  2. 2. 1 The Characteristic Low Rumble: Lifestyles of Harley Davidson Market Segments INTRODUCTION During the past five years, sales of Harley Davidson motorcycles and motorcycle parts and accessories increased 15 percent a year, yet are still constrained by production capabilities. Shipments do not come even close to meeting demand. Walk in with your cash to most U.S. dealerships and your Harley order will be filled in two years. The used motorcycle market reflects this lack of supply. Enthusiasts can nearly double their money on Harley Davidsons purchased used five years ago. Although about $13,500 new, customers who simply have their order in the queue have sold their undelivered motorcycle for $20,000, and nearly-new Harley Davidsons command up to $22,000. This dramatic increase in Harley Davidson motorcycle demand is due to a confluence of sociological changes which make Harley Davidsons more than simply motorcycles. These changes include a nostalgia boom, the “buy American” movement, the image of Harleys as a Hollywood icon, a revolt against synthetics and imitations, the pursuit of quality, and the rebirth of traditional masculinity. Combined with these changes is the surge of 80.6 million baby boomers now reaching the age typical of Harley buyers. Harley Davidson is a true American phenomenon which has captured the interest of just about everybody in America. This unusual interest led us to start asking Harley owners some questions. Just why do you ride? Why a Harley Davidson instead of some other motorcycle? How are Harley owners alike? How are they different? Is the stereotype correct that Harley Davidson riders are hard core outlaw gang bikers? Curiously, people speak of Harley Davidson enthusiasts as if they are all alike. But this
  3. 3. 2 article examines the diversity of these men and women ... the heterogeneity of their attitudes and behaviors, particularly with regard to their view of motorcycling. By means of a descriptive study based on a national sample of Harley owners we define and then profile six motorcycling- lifestyle segments and show the very substantial differences between Harley Davidson riders. THE STUDY The study was conducted among registered Harley Davidson owners across the United States. We mailed 2500 questionnaires to a probability sample of owners, identified by a professional list broker (Compilers Plus, 1993), using names and addresses obtained from vehicle registration records. Each mailout included a cover letter, a dense four-page question- naire, and a business-return envelope. By the cutoff date, 761 responses had been received, for a rate-of-return of 30.4 percent. Measures The questionnaire included measures of: C motorcycle background (ownership, number and type of motorcycles owned, annual miles ridden, etc.) C 72 motorcycle lifestyle statements adapted from a study (McAlexander and Schouten, forthcoming) on the ethnography of Harley Davidson riders, C 78 general-population lifestyle statements drawn principally from a Newspaper Advertising Bureau study (1973) on American psychographic segments, C the 9-item List of Values (LOV) scale, developed at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and tested by others (Kahle 1983; Veroff, Douvan, and Kulka 1981) which measures key life values, and C standard demographics. From the start, the Harley owners were to be segmented on the basis of their motorcycling lifestyle characteristics. Our aim for the inclusion of lifestyle measures was to draw recognizably human portraits of the rider segments. Every effort was made to develop a
  4. 4. 3 battery of lifestyle statements that portray the entire spectrum of motorcycle activities, interests, and opinions. And so the motorcycle lifestyle measures dealt widely with all aspects of motorcycling, including ... C motorcycle riding style (“Riding bikes is something I love,” I like to ride aggressively,” “I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip”), C motorcycle apparel (“I usually wear leather chaps when I ride,” I like to wear bright colors when I ride,” “I would like to have a/another tattoo,” “I think it’s true that ‘real men wear black’ ”), C companions (“I spend most of my free time with my bike buddies,” “Some people would call me and my friends ‘outlaws’,” “I usually ride with someone on the back of my bike”), C attractiveness of brand or type (“I think Harleys are the best bikes in the world,” “All things considered, I think Japanese bikes are the best,” “I like dirt bikes”), C motorcycle styling (“I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers,” “My bike is pretty much stock,” “I like to have my bike look really different”), C fantasies (“When I ride I feel like an Old Wild West cowboy,” “I would like to do ‘gang’ biker things”), and C spiritual aspects (“When I’m on my bike it’s sometimes a spiritual experience,” “To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom,” “When I am riding in a group, the group becomes one”), among others. Respondents indicated how descriptive each statement was of them personally, using a five-point scale (1 = not at all descriptive; 5 = extremely descriptive). Analysis The 72 motorcycle life-style measures and 78 general life-style measures were reduced to a more manageable number of factors or characteristics by means of factor analysis. Factor analysis helps us here to understand the few fundamental characteristics which are important. Following the factor analysis, respondents were segmented into homogeneous groups using cluster analysis on the motorcycle life-style statements. This approach to segmenting the motorcyclists assures that the segments are grouped according to their distinctive motorcycling lifestyles and experiences.
  5. 5. 4 RESULTS Lifestyles The study’s main purpose was to discover the Harley-owner “segments” ... with each segment representing a core group of Harley owners that reflects a unique motorcycling life- style and perspective. But before getting to the segments, it will be helpful to consider some life-style results from the study to be able to better understand the segments. As indicated, we gave the Harley owners two batteries of life-style statements. The motorcycle life-style statements and the general life-style statements. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the results of the factor analysis, showing the factors and the top two statements found to describe them. -------------------------------------------------- Tables 1 and 2 About Here -------------------------------------------------- We see from Table 1 that motorcycle lifestyles can be defined by 11 broad factors, including a spiritual dimension (“at-one-ness”), motorcycle preferences (“Harley zeal,” “in the dirt,” and “trick bike modifications”), the inclination to be a “hard core” biker, riding preferences (“always in the saddle”and “ride fast and hard”), riding companions (“passenger preference” and “solitary rider”), riding apparel (“wear leathers”), and time (“time poor rider”). These factors are broad stroke descriptors which distinguish one Harley Davidson enthusiast from another. Similarly, the Harley owners in our study can also be distinguished by the more general life-style factors shown in Table 2. These 13 factors do not deal specifically with motorcycles, but represent attitudes, interests, and opinions across a variety of human experiences. The Segments We wanted to find and describe Harley Davidson-owner segments that are similar in the
  6. 6. 5 way they view and respond to motorcycling. To do this, we used cluster analysis—an analytical tool that identified segments of motorcyclists that were similar in their answers to the motorcycle life-style questions. Six Harley-owner segments were identified. Let us discuss a few characteristics of each segment. To simplify our understanding of such a great amount of data, we use “radar” charts to explain the segments. For example, we will see that “Tour Gliders” have the motorcycle lifestyles shown in the radar chart on the left in Figure 1. The chart’s axis values convey important information. Values of 0 are at the average of the entire sample, while numbers higher or lower than 0 reflect the degree to which the segment is distinguished from the rest of the market on that factor. This chart shows the Tour Glide segment to be strongly characterized by the “always in the saddle” factor (value of +1.0), and somewhat less by “passenger preference” (+0.51). It is near average on “wear leathers” (+0.11) and “Harley zeal” (-0.06), but it is disassociated with “ride fast and hard” (-0.45) and “trick bike modifications” (-0.49). Let us now summarize what we found about each segment. Tour Gliders. The 14 percent of the sample that are members of the Tour Glider segment get the greatest value from their motorcycle in using it for long trips. See Figure 1. They like riding long distances, use their bike both for touring and everyday transportation, are more interested in the comfort of their motorcycle than its speed, prefer riding with a passenger, and wear helmets. More than the average Harley rider, Tour Gliders are traditionally religious, have somewhat old-fashioned tastes and habits, are disciplinarians with their children, like reading, and feel they live a full and interesting life. They are less ambitious than others, and are distinctively unattracted by social gatherings and danger.
  7. 7. 6 More than other segments, they agree with statements like, “I like long-distance touring bikes,” “I use my bike for touring,” and “My bike is made more for comfort than for speed.” They disagree with statements such as, “My bike is really quick,” “I only wave at other riders on bikes like mine,” and “I like to ride aggressively.” See Table 3. -------------------------------------------- Figure 1 and Table 3 About Here -------------------------------------------- Dream Riders. Dream Riders represent a large segment—40 percent of the sample. They are unremarkable motorcyclists that seem to like the idea of motorcycling better than motorcycling itself. This is the largest, oldest, among the best educated and wealthiest segment of Harley owners; they have the newest motorcycles, yet ride them least and spend the least accessorizing them. As shown in Figure 2, Dream Riders like wearing a helmet, tend to have a “stock” bike, and mainly use it for short trips around town. They are distinctively unaffiliated with the “live to ride” ethic, and receive relatively little psychic satisfaction from riding. Their motorcycle is a possession, not a “family member.” Dream Riders are conservative in their moral values, marital roles, and daily behavior. As shown in Table 3, more than other segments, they agree with statements like, “Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked,” “I like wearing a helmet when I ride,” and “I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles.” They disagree with statements like, “It's true that ‘I live to ride and ride to live,’ ” “Riding, to me, is often a magical experience,” and “To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom.” -------------------------------------------- Figure 2 About Here --------------------------------------------
  8. 8. 7 Hard Core. Hard Core riders are “bikers,” the ten percent of the sample living on the fringe of society. They are the youngest, least educated, and certainly the poorest, yet spend nearly 50 percent more than any other segment in accessorizing their bikes. Nearly all are blue- collar workers. Hard Core members are cultural bikers, associate with bikers, and identify themselves as part of a group of bikers. Much more likely than others to feel like outlaws, believing people refer to them and their friends as “dirty bikers” (but note that they still only “slightly agree” that these lifestyles describe them well). See Figure 3. More than other segments, members of the Hard Core like to be outrageous, like danger, favor legalizing marijuana, and embrace the ethic of “eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die.” More than other segments, they agree with statements like, “Some people would call me and my friends ‘outlaws,’ ” “I have spent lots on speed modifications for my bike,” “Sometimes I feel like an ‘outlaw,’” and “Some people would call me a ‘dirty biker.’ ” They disagree with statements like, “My bike is pretty much stock,” “Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked,” and “I like wearing a helmet when I ride.” See Table 3. -------------------------------------------- Figure 3 About Here -------------------------------------------- Hog Heaven. Nine percent of the sample are members of the Hog Heaven segment. These enthusiasts seem to have a feeling of at-one-ness simply because they own a Harley. They own a Harley Davidson; therefore, they are. Although their accessories spending on their motorcycle this past year is lowest of any, they spent second highest over their many years of owning this bike. As suggested by Figure 4, more than others these riders feel like an “old wild west cowboy” and closer to nature when they ride. They have many motorcycle friends, and
  9. 9. 8 when group riding they feel the group becomes “one.” They do not like helmets, and feel cars are like a “cage.” This segment is distinctively mechanically inclined, likes to work on their motorcycles, have old-fashioned tastes and habits, read relatively little, and are less likely than others to believe in a life after death. Hog Heaven members often think about how short life really is. As shown in Table 3, more than other segments, they agree with statements like, “When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me,” “I really believe that cars are confining, like a ‘cage,’ ” and “Women admire my motorcycle.” They disagree with statements like, “I like dirt bikes,” “I like wearing a helmet when I ride,” and “I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers.” -------------------------------------------- Figure 4 About Here -------------------------------------------- Zen Riders. To the 20 percent of the sample that are Zen Riders, motorcycling is a spiritual experience. They include the highest percentage of married riders, but otherwise are typical of Harley owners in most demographic characteristics. More than others, Zen Riders find motorcycling fulfilling in many of its dimensions: their motorcycle seems alive, they like dirt bikes and even the sound of 4-cylinder Japanese motorcycles. Zen Riders are more impulsive and believe they are more ambitious than other segments, like to party, and have trouble relaxing in everyday life. They are “modern” husbands, are opposed to legalizing marijuana, but are willing to take chances and to run risks. See Figure 5. More than other segments, they agree with statements such as, “I like dirt bikes,” “When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me,” and “I like the attention I get when I'm on my bike.” They disagree with statements like, “When I ride I wear leather boots,” “I use my bike for
  10. 10. 9 everyday transportation,” and “ I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip.” See Table 3. -------------------------------------------- Figure 5 About Here -------------------------------------------- Live to Ride. Members of this small segment represent the sample’s eight percent that “lives to ride and rides to live.” This segment is most likely to have bought their motorcycle new, and ride it the most by a wide margin. Although in some respects they resemble the Hard Core, they are substantively different from that group. While the Hard Core segment loves the society of motorcyclists, the Live to Ride segment loves motorcycling itself. They simply love riding. More than other Harley Davidson owners they use their bike for all their transportation needs: for everyday transportation as well as for long distances and touring. Motorcycling is a total lifestyle to this segment. As shown in Figure 6, more than some segments they find riding to be a magical experience. Except for their family, members of this segment say they would quit their jobs and take off. They have an “eat, drink, and be merry” perspective about life, like to be outrageous, like danger, and get lots of satisfaction from their hobbies (motorcycling). They care relatively little about their appearance and tend not to believe in a life after death. More than other segments, they agree with statements as, “I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip,” “Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me,” and “Riding, to me, is often a magical experience.” They disagree with statements like, “I mainly use my bike for short trips around town,” “Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked,” and “My bike is pretty much stock.” See Table 3. -------------------------------------------- Figure 6 About Here --------------------------------------------
  11. 11. 10 CONCLUSION Imagine you get in your car and head home from work. At the first stop light you are startled by an unmuffled roar as a group of leathered, browned, tattooed, and frankly hair-raising bikers blast by you on custom chopped, stripped old Harleys. You are still thinking about them at at the light halfway home, where next to you sits a pleasant seniors-age couple on a huge Harley Davidson touring motorcycle, wearing matching satin jackets and full-face helmets. Then at the stop sign near your home a neighbor—a CPA, wearing tan slacks and a golf shirt—waves at you as he pulls up to on his new Harley. As you are pulling into your driveway a stylish young woman cruises past your home on a new Harley Sportster. You begin to think, who are these Harley riders? How are they alike? How are they different? Can the old stereotype be correct, that Harley riders are hard core outlaw gang bikers? This story is repeated everyday. The stereotype is not correct. Harley Davidson owners buy their bikes for many different reasons and get benefit from them in many different ways. True enough, some are gang bikers. But more are riding Harleys because it suits them in other ways—they make wonderful touring machines, they find spiritual solace in riding, are simply in love with the Harley mystique, or now that they have their Harley they are trying to figure out just why they bought it. This study found six segments of Harley Davidson owners, defined by their motorcycling lifestyles, that approach the riding experience for widely different reasons, in response to different values, and in pursuit of different sets of satisfactions. And while each emits a characteristic low rumble, the tunes are not the same.
  12. 12. 11 Table 1 Motorcycle Lifestyle Factors 1. At-One-Ness Riding, to me, is often a magical experience. My motorcycle often seems like it's alive. 2. Hard Core I would like to do "gang" biker things. Some people would call me and my friends "outlaws." 3. Always in the Saddle I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. I use my bike for touring. 4. Trick Bike Modifications I've spent lots of money customizing my bike. I have spent a lot of money modifying my bike. 5. Harley Zeal I think Harleys are the best bikes in the world. I (don’t) like good bikes no matter where they are made. 6. Ride Fast and Hard I like to ride fast. I like to ride aggressively. 7. Passenger Preference I usually ride with someone on the back of my bike. I like it best when someone is on my bike with me. 8. In the Dirt I like dirt bikes. I get excited about motocross or scrambling. 9. Wear Leathers I always wear a leather jacket when I ride. I usually wear leather chaps when I ride. 10. Solitary Rider I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. I like to ride alone. 11. Time Poor Rider During riding season, my family or job limits my time to ride. I ride to escape my day-to-day worries.
  13. 13. 12 Table 2 General Lifestyle Factors 1. Life is a Strain Life is a strain for me much of the time. I feel like I am in a rut much of the time. 2. Full & Active Life My life is as full and interesting as anyone's. I often get that "on top of the world" feeling. 3. Traditionally Religious Religious observances are very important to me. I think something is wrong if a person has no religious feeling. 4. Party Animal I love social gatherings of any kind. I enjoy parties. 5. On the Edge I like danger. I like to be outrageous. 6. Easily Upset I get upset easily when things go wrong. It takes an awful lot to get me down. 7. Impulsive When I see something I like, I want to buy it right away. I like to have people admire me. 8. Mechanically Inclined I am good at fixing mechanical things. I often do a lot of repair work on my own car and bike. 9. Conservative I always consider a thing very carefully before l do it. I don't believe in taking chances or running risks. 10. Eat, Drink, & Be Merry I agree that, "Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die." If I didn't have a family, I would quit my job and take off. 11. Careful & Deliberate I feel safer buying a well-known brand. It's important to me to be treated well. 12. Unafraid of Death I am not much afraid to die. The thought of death seldom enters my mind. 13. Modern Husband I don't mind doing housework. I (don’t) think a woman's place is in the home.
  14. 14. 13 Table 3 Most and Least Frequent Motorcycle Lifestyle Descriptors, By Segment (Rank Orders, Based on Relative Standard Scores) Most Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With T O U R G L I D E R S I like long-distance touring bikes. I use my bike for touring. My bike is made more for comfort than for speed. I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I usually ride with someone on the back of my bike. I like it best when someone is on my bike with me. When I ride I wear leather boots. I use my bike for everyday transportation. My bike is really quick. I only wave at other riders on bikes like mine. I like to ride aggressively. I have spent a lot of money modifying my bike. I like to have my bike look really different. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I have spent lots on speed modifications for my bike. I get excited about motocross or scrambling. I like dirt bikes. D R E A M R I D E R S Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. My bike is pretty much stock. I mainly use my bike for short trips around town. To me, a motorcycle is just transportation. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. All things considered, I think Japanese bikes are the best. Hot 4-cylinder bikes sound fantastic. I like to ride alone. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." Riding, to me, is often a magical experience. To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. My bike is everything to me. When I am riding in a group, the group almost becomes one. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I spend most of my free time with my bike buddies. I like to have my bike look really different. H A R D C O R E Some people would call me and my friends "outlaws." I have spent lots on speed modifications for my bike. Sometimes I feel like an "outlaw." Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I think it's true that "real men wear black." My bike is everything to me. I have spent a lot of money modifying my bike. I spend most of my free time with my bike buddies. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. I like tattoos. My bike is pretty much stock. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I like the spacecraft look of some bikes today. Hot 4-cylinder bikes sound fantastic. My bike is made more for comfort than for speed. I mainly use my bike for short trips around town.
  15. 15. 14 Table 3 (continued) Most Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With H O G H E A V E N When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I really believe that cars are confining, like a "cage." Women admire my motorcycle. When I ride I feel like an Old Wild West cowboy. I feel close to other motorcyclists I see on the road. When I am riding in a group, the group almost becomes one. When I'm on my bike I feel closer to nature. I like the attention I get when I'm on my bike. To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." I like dirt bikes. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I like long-distance touring bikes. All of my real friends ride bikes. My bike is pretty much stock. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. Hot 4-cylinder bikes sound fantastic. Z E N R I D E R S I like dirt bikes. When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I like the attention I get when I'm on my bike. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I get excited about motocross or scrambling. I think it's true that "real men wear black." Hot 4-cylinder bikes sound fantastic. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. I like to have my bike look really different. My motorcycle often seems like it's alive. When I ride I wear leather boots. I use my bike for everyday transportation. I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. I use my bike for touring. Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I like to ride alone. To me, a motorcycle is just transportation. I usually wear leather chaps when I ride. I like to wear chapter "colors." I really believe that cars are confining, like a "cage." L I V E T O R I D E I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. Riding, to me, is often a magical experience. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." My bike is everything to me. My bike sometimes seems to have magical power. Sometimes I feel like an "outlaw." I use my bike for touring. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I mainly use my bike for short trips around town. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. My bike is pretty much stock. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I like to spend time at my motorcycle dealership. All things considered, I think Japanese bikes are the best. Women should only be passengers on motorcycles. My bike is really quick. Hot 4-cylinder bikes sound fantastic.
  16. 16. 15 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 1 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 2 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 2 Figure 1 Tour Gliders Figure 2 Dream Riders
  17. 17. 16 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 3 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 3 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 4 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 4 Figure 3 Hard Core Figure 4 Hog Heaven
  18. 18. 17 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 5 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 At-One-Ness Hard Core In the Saddle Trick Bike Mods Harley Zeal Ride Fast & HardPassenger Preference In the Dirt Wear Leathers Solitary Rider Time Poor Rider Motorcycle Lifestyles, Segment 6 -0.5 0 0.5 Life is a Strain Full & Active Life Traditionally Religious Party Animal On the Edge Easily Upset ImpulsiveMechanically Inclined Conservative Eat, Drink, Merry Careful & Delib. Unafraid of Death Modern Husband Personal Lifestyles, Segment 6 Figure 5 Zen Riders Figure 6 Live to Ride
  19. 19. 18 REFERENCES Kahle, Lunn R. (1983), Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America, New York: Praeger. Veroff, Joseph, Elizabeth Douvan, and Richard A. Kulka (1981), The Inner American, New York: Basic Books. Newspaper Advertising Bureau (1973), Psychographics, New York: Newspaper Advertising Bureau.

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