Rhetoric

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Arguments are made about all sorts of things. Those who are experts know all the techniques of rhetoric and how to use them to sell and persuade. This presentation defines all of the rhetorical elements.

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Rhetoric

  1. 1.  Rhetoric is defined as using the best means available to argue your point. It is the art of persuasion in various occasions for various audiences. It was first defined by Aristotle, an ancient Greek Philosopher and statesman.
  2. 2.  When you hear the word “Argument” you probably think of two or more people disagreeing about a topic. It is not necessarily a fight or disagreement.
  3. 3.  An argument may be defined as “A spoken, written, or visual text that expresses a point of view.”  “The use of evidence and reason to discover some version of the truth, as distinct from persuasion, the attempt to change some one else’s point of view.”  (Lunsford, Ruszkiewicz & Walters 1040)
  4. 4.  There are various arguments and various occasions for the arguments. › Inform › Convince › Persuade › Explore › Make decisions › Academic
  5. 5.  Arguments to inform may be anything from street signs to newspaper headlines.  The purpose is to tell members of a particular audience something that they do not already know.
  6. 6.  Reports, whitepapers and academic articles are used most often to convince an audience.  Facts and statistics are commonly used in these arguments.
  7. 7.  Persuasive arguments are used to promote action from the audience. This argument is used in advertising, political campaigns and supporting a policy.
  8. 8.  Arguments that EXPLORE are often reflections on one’s life and important concepts, but they can also be aimed at addressing societal issues and problems.
  9. 9.  Where there is an argument, there is an occasion and an audience.  Arguments often use the concept of time: past, present and future, and they often overlap. Use of this strategy makes a convincing case.
  10. 10.  Aristotle identified three key ways to effect an audience: › Logos › Pathos › Ethos
  11. 11.  People often respond strongly to Pathos, or emotional appeal. Emotions like, pity, anger, love, empathy, fear or jealousy often become evoked with arguments based on pathos.  These arguments paint a picture in the reader’s mind causing them to act upon what is being presented.
  12. 12. (ASPCA.org) (D2L.org)
  13. 13.  Ethos is the appeal to the presentation of one’s self. The person wants to appear credible, trustworthy and accepted.  Ethos uses the idea of shared values with your audience, respect for the audience and your opponents, and that you are a fair person.  The main goal is CREDIBILITY.
  14. 14. (http://www.ethosrealtygroup.com)
  15. 15. (http://elseykuykendall.wordpress. com/)  The use of a common belief is evident in this ad to conserve Denver’s water. Ethos is used to appeal to the people about a social issue in Denver.
  16. 16.  Logos is the appeal to logic. These arguments are basically factual and make sense to the audience. Statistics, facts and credible testimony are commonly used to argue to a person’s mind.  Aristotle divided Logos into two types of appeal: facts /data & appeal to reason or common sense.
  17. 17.  The cartoon appeals to the idea that ethanol will be our “Superman” allowing us to be less dependent on foreign oil. This would appeal to a variety of people and uses logos to accomplish the desired effect. (http://zachbeedle.blogspot.com/2007/10/ethanol- cartoon.html)
  18. 18.  Logical fallacies are arguments that are not totally logical. They are effective and they are used by skilled rhetoricians.  Let’s look at these along with some examples.
  19. 19.  While the appeals function as your foundation, logical fallacies are the icing that holds your cake together. Logical fallacies sway your audience in many ways and should be used in your campaign!
  20. 20.  The most familiar fallacy is BANDWAGON. This is effective because it uses one’s desire to be a part of the group and may use guilt to achieve the end goal. (http://soccer116.blogspot.com/)
  21. 21.  Ad Hominem is Latin for “against the man”. By today’s standards, the term mudslinging comes to mind. It works like this:  1-Attack the opponent  2-Use the attack as evidence against the person’s claim  Example of the strategy:  Nick tells every one that Sophie has Cooties.  Having Cooties makes Sophie a poor representative of her class.  Having Cooties has no effect on why Sophie cannot be class president!
  22. 22. (http://jazzroc.wordpress.com/tag/jet-stream/)
  23. 23.  Straw Man is a tactic used in politics and is quite sneaky. The person makes a claim about an issue that does not even exist. There are allegations made against an entire group of people based on this imaginary issue. McCarthyism is a perfect example of Straw Man rhetoric.  McCarthy fueled paranoia in America by generating the idea that the enemy was living among us and that enemy was Communism. He turned neighbor against neighbor by using their personal fears to point to Communists when the threat or issue never even existed. http://www.amistadresource.org/plantation_to_ghetto/mccarthyism.html
  24. 24.  This fallacy is, at its root, an illogical argument. The format is this:  Claim  Reason for the claim  Warrant  Example:  Claim: Student tells the teacher, “You can’t give me a C for this assignment.”  Reason: “I am an A student.”  Warrant: An A student is some one who can’t receive a C.
  25. 25.  The ad on the right is a good example of Begging the Question. It claims that if the shadow touches the children, they will become Nazis. Therefore, you should buy war bonds to protect the children. (http://artofmanliness.com/2011/05/26/classical-rhetoric-101-logical-fallacies/)
  26. 26.  Slippery Slope arguments purport that if we take a step in a certain direction, a series of unrelated events will occur, dragging us down to a drastic change in our society’s norms.  Example:  We can’t allow marriage between same sex partners. If we do, then what is next? Marriage between people and Artificial Intelligences?  People and animals?  Where will it end?
  27. 27.  The ad on the right makes the argument that if abortion is legalized, then we will begin killing children who have been born. This is a good example of Slippery Slope. (http://www.oklahomatopblogs.com/Abolitionist%20Society%20 of%20Oklahoma/)
  28. 28.  Hasty Generalization makes an assumption on an entire group based on the stereotype of a few. For example, all librarians are old women who wear glasses and wear their graying hair in a tight bun. (http://marketingchristianbooks.wordpress.com/tag/librarian/)
  29. 29.  This argument makes the supposition that an event is the cause of something else when, in fact, it has nothing to do with what happened.  The form: A occurs before B, therefore, B is the cause of A.  In practice: I lost the race. My boyfriend gave me a rabbit’s foot, some lucky dice, a four leaf clover and a horseshoe. Ergo, because he gave me these things, I lost the race.
  30. 30.  A red herring is an issue or topic that is brought up to divert attention from a real issue that is being addressed. The speaker will do this to get attention onto him and away from the opponent. This is done by introducing Topic B as relevant to Topic A, when it really is not relevant. Then Topic B takes the place of the original topic  "Argument" for a tax cut: "You know, I've begun to think that there is some merit in the Republican's tax cut plan. I suggest that you come up with something like it, because If we Democrats are going to survive as a party, we have got to show that we are as tough-minded as the Republicans, since that is what the public wants.“  (http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/red- herring.html)
  31. 31. "Abolish Human Abortion." Web log post. Www.oklahomatopblogs.com. Abolitionist Society of Oklahoma, 14 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. "ASPCA | Application Error." ASPCA | Application Error. ASPCA, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://www.aspca.org>. "Ethos Realty Group | Flat Fee Real Estate | Empowering Sellers with Flat Fee MLS Real Estate Listings | MLS Flat Rate Listing." Ethos Realty Group | Flat Fee Real Estate | Empowering Sellers with Flat Fee MLS Real Estate Listings | MLS Flat Rate Listing. Ethos Realty Group, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ethosrealtygroup.com>. "Ethos Realty Group | Flat Fee Real Estate | Empowering Sellers with Flat Fee MLS Real Estate Listings | MLS Flat Rate Listing." Ethos Realty Group | Flat Fee Real Estate | Empowering Sellers with Flat Fee MLS Real Estate Listings | MLS Flat Rate Listing. Ethos Realty Group, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ethosrealtygroup.com>. "Fallacy: Red Herring." Holocaust Educational Resource. 1991. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/red-herring.html>. "Librarian « Marketing Christian Books." Marketing Christian Books. Blog at Wordpress.org, Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://marketingchristianbooks.wordpress.com/tag/librarian>. Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything's an argument: with readings. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/st. Martins, 2010. Print. "McCarthyism." Amistad Digital Resource. Columbia University, 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2011. <http://www.amistadresource.org/plantation_to_ghetto/mccarthyism.html>.

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