Graduates: An At-Risk Group?


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Presentation made at the Futures 24 conference in Collingwood, Ontario

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Graduates: An At-Risk Group?

  1. 1. Donnalee BellSenior Consultant
  2. 2. Session OutlineWhat’s the concern for today’s graduates? A look atwhat the research saysHighlight some of the initiatives working to get gradsworkingLook at the recommendations from the ResearchExamine and consult with you on the need for aSchool-to-Work Action Group in Canada
  3. 3. Poorly Integrated New Entrants (PINEs)Who are They? According to OECD (2010): Youth with qualifications (diplomas or degrees) Stuck in temporary work, unemployment or inactivity even in times of economic growth
  4. 4. PINEs: Why are They a Concern? Global PINE growth in Europe and US Represent 450,000 Canadian Youth Particularly vulnerable during and since the 2008 Recession In Canada, we are not connecting with a vital talent pool in a time of skill shortage Educated but not Employable - This is the labour market paradox for Gen Y!
  5. 5. How Bad is it in Canada?Not Bad (pre-recession) In “Off to a Good Start,” (2010) the OECD painted a rosy picture for Canadian youth Smooth transitions (75% of youth find permanent and full-time work) Youth move from low-wage to higher wage jobs quickly Long-term unemployment low Canadian youth graduate with significant work experience
  6. 6. How Bad is it in Canada?Bad (pre and post-recession) Under-employment number 2nd highest in OECD since 2005 More and more youth are in precarious employment (temporary contracts, part-time) Persistently high unemployment (in general and in the summer months) impacting ability to gain workplace skills Glut of university generalists that don’t directly connect with the labour market
  7. 7. What are the Barriers for Graduates? An Hourglass Labour Market High Sensitivity of Youth to Labour Market Fluctuations Lack of Career Education and Services and Safety Nets The Education-Labour Market Disconnect
  8. 8. The Hourglass Labour Market • Growth of knowledge worker jobs and entry level jobs • Career progression has fundamentally changed • Glut of PSE graduate raises the credential level of both poles • Youth getting stuck in service sector jobs they work in during school • Need for career management skills to maneuver in this labour marketChart 1: Ontario Job Distribution by Skill Categories, Ontario 1991-2006 (Zizys, 2011, 27)
  9. 9. Sensitivity to Labour Market FluctuationsLast in and first out phenomenonDisproportionate numbers of youth hit because theyare working in sectors hardest hit by recessions ( and retail)PINEs may fall through the service cracks
  10. 10. Lack of Career Education/Service and Safety Nets Lack of consistency Vulnerability to government funding priorities Youth specific service is dwindling (e.g. Ontario) Research confirms the need for high-quality career guidance = 1. highly qualified professionals; 2. timely and accessible local LMI
  11. 11. The Education-Labour Market DisconnectToo many youth with the same qualificationOver-qualification of the entry levelPSE institutions that are not making the link to thelabour marketEmployers not investing in the training of youth ortheir youth hires
  12. 12. PINEs: What Works?Early Integration StrategiesPost-graduation StrategiesDemand-side StrategiesStrategies for Diverse Groups
  13. 13. Early Integration StrategiesCareer service delivery in advance of graduationthat includes: Work experience, Career management skills training, Clear information on pathways to the labour market Career planning that helps youth be intentional with their careersCanada’s approach in this area is fragmented
  14. 14. University of Regina (UR) Guarantee Program (Saskatchewan) Guarantees a free year of The program consists of: tuition to students in the Transitional support services program who do not Regular academic advising secure career related Exam preparation employment within 6- Time management workshops months of graduating. Career development seminars Co-op programs Mock interview exercises Networking events
  15. 15. The Guidance Act (Denmark)Goals to increase secondary school graduation rate to 95% andhave 50% complete a higher credentialAll ages policy starting in Grade 8All labour market pathways are identified and supportedServices include: eGuidance Specific Youth Guidance Centres focused on all education and work transitions pointsWide stakeholder involvement through national dialogue forumsGuidance counsellor training requirementsCentre of Guidance Research has been established to build anevidence-basePolicy backed by appropriate funding resources
  16. 16. Post-Graduation StrategiesIncludes: graduate guarantee programs subsidies and supports for entrepreneurs graduate databases graduate access to income support work experiences (internships)
  17. 17. Work Factory (Sweden)A local community-based program to help secondaryschool graduates on income support find work or enterfurther trainingParticipants take part in a 3 month intensive training tobuild employability skills, increase self-esteem, health andfitness60% of participants find work and are able to supportthemselves, 13% enrol in university or college, 6% receivevocational trainingProgram has saved municipality 14 million SEK (approx. 2million CAD)
  18. 18. Demand-Side StrategiesIncludes: Wage subsidies and subsidies to accommodate apprentices Employer partnerships with education Outreach to employers to participate in early and post-graduation programs
  19. 19. Partnership Brokers (Australia) Inclusion of key stakeholder groups including employers who plan locally to address youth unemployment by providing a series of needed interventions to high school students including: career planning, work experience, pathways to employment, pre-employment training, and building school/teacher capacity
  20. 20. Diversity StrategiesPolicies and programs aimed at PINEsneed to look at the full PINEs populationas well as specifically at diverse groups
  21. 21. The Aboriginal Youth Work Exchange Program (Ontario) Program to support diversity recruitment issues within the organization Recognition that programs need to include the young person’s community in the process
  22. 22. Moving Forward… “A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A greathockey player plays where the puck is going to be.” Wayne Gretzky
  23. 23. RecommendationsNational School-to-Work PolicyResearchService Delivery ReformFocus on Clear and AlternativePathways to the Labour Market
  24. 24. Your thoughts…In terms of school-to-work policy/strategy, what’salready working?What are the main issues that need to be addressed?
  25. 25. Action Group ConsultationRead the School-to-Work Action Group purposestatement.In your opinion, would an action group be a goodvehicle to address these issues?What needs to happen to create this group and tomake it strong?
  26. 26. Literature Review andResearch Report onPINEs is available