Immunity

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Immunity

  1. 1. I looked, and there was a pale green horse. Its rider was named Death, and Hades accompanied him. They were given authority over a quarter of the earth, to kill with sword, famine, and plague… -- Revelation 6
  2. 2. Genghis Kahn 1162 – 1227 Claim to fame???
  3. 6. Immunity <ul><li>How do you defend yourself from disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surficial barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innate responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions to ponder… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be “sick”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What steps are involved in removing infection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can my body tell what is ‘me’ and what is not? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul>Barriers Against Infectious Agents
  5. 8. <ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul>Barriers Against Infectious Agents
  6. 9. Barriers Against Infectious Agents <ul><li>Intact skin </li></ul>
  7. 10. Barriers Against Infectious Agents <ul><li>Intact skin and mucous membranes </li></ul>
  8. 11. Barriers Against Infectious Agents <ul><li>Intact skin and mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Normal bacterial flora </li></ul>
  9. 12. Innate/Nonspecific Responses <ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul>
  10. 13. Innate/Nonspecific Responses <ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase rate of response in host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease rate of growth in bug </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Innate/Nonspecific Responses <ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells </li></ul>
  12. 15. Innate/Nonspecific Responses <ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells </li></ul>
  13. 16. Complement System <ul><li>Plasma proteins that take part in both specific and nonspecific response </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of one triggers cascade of reactions that activate others </li></ul>
  14. 17. Complement Attack Complexes antibody activated complement bacterial pathogen lipid bilayer of pathogen Activation Cascade Reactions Formation of Attack Complexes Lysis of Target
  15. 18. Innate/Nonspecific Responses <ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Compliment system </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul>
  16. 19. Inflammation <ul><li>Mast cells release histamine </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries dilate and leak so that... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement proteins attack bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White cells attack invaders and clean up </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Features of Adaptive Immune Responses <ul><li>Self/nonself recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Stimulated B or T cells produce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory cells - set aside for future use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effector cells – plasma cell that engages the current threat </li></ul></ul>Clone of memory cells Clone of plasma cells
  19. 22. Antibody Structure <ul><li>Consists of four polypeptide chains </li></ul><ul><li>Certain parts of each chain are variable; impart antigen specificity </li></ul>antigen binding site constant region variable region
  20. 24. Adaptive Immunity 1 – The Humoral Response
  21. 26. LE 43-19 Viral neutralization (blocks binding to host and opsonization increases phagocytosis) Agglutination of antigen-bearing particles, such as microbes Precipitation of soluble antigens Activation of complement system and pore formation Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivates antigens by Bacteria Soluble antigens MAC Complement proteins Foreign cell Pore Virus Bacterium Enhances Phagocytosis Macrophage Cell lysis Leads to
  22. 28. Adaptive Immunity 2 – Cell Mediated Immunity

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