Summary of Kohlberg
At stage 1 children think of what is right as
that which authority says is right. Doing the
right thing is obeying authority and avoiding
At stage 2, children are no longer so
impressed by any single authority; they see
that there are different sides to any issue.
Since everything is relative, one is free to
pursue one's own interests, although it is
often useful to make deals and exchange
favors with others.
At stages 3 and 4, young people think as
members of the conventional society with its
values, norms, and expectations.
At stage 3, they emphasize being a good
person, which basically means having
helpful motives toward people close to one
At stage 4, the concern shifts toward
obeying laws to maintain society as a whole.
At stages 5 and 6 people are less concerned
with maintaining society for it own sake, and
more concerned with the principles and
values that make for a good society.
At stage 5 they emphasize basic rights and
the democratic processes that give everyone
At stage 6 they define the principles by
which agreement will be most just.
W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development.
Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136.
Criticisms - Cultural
How would Kohlberg's stages apply to the
great Eastern philosophies?
Or to moral development in many traditional
Criticisms - Gender
For males, advanced moral thought revolves
around rules, rights, and abstract principles.
The ideal is formal justice, in which all
parties evaluate one another's claims in an
For women, morality centers not on rights
and rules but on interpersonal relationships
and the ethics of compassion and care.
The ideal is not impersonal justice but more
affirmative ways of living. Women's morality
is more contextualized, tied to real, ongoing
relationships rather than abstract solutions
to hypothetical dilemmas.
Criticisms -- Conceptual
Some psychologists argue that stage
theories are simplistic and don’t adequately
capture how people learn and develop
Missing white woman
What does this refer to?
Brianna Denison, Leslie Mazzara
City of Reno Missing Persons
City of Reno – Missing Persons
“I am still confused as to why they chose to
lie and tried to make me a legend when the
real heroics of my fellow soldiers that day
were, in fact, legendary. People like Lori
Piestewa and First Sergeant Dowdy who
picked up fellow soldiers in harm's way. Or
people like Patrick Miller and Sergeant
Donald Walters who actually fought until the
very end. The bottom line is the American
people are capable of determining their own
ideals of heroes and they don't need to be
told elaborate tales.”
The Fault Lines concept was conceived by
Robert C. Maynard. It is based on the
notion that we as a nation are split along
the five Fault Lines of race, class, gender,
geography and generation. Maynard
believed that in order to bridge these Fault
Lines, journalists must not only admit they
exist but also learn to talk, report and write
across them. Acknowledging Fault Lines
compels us as journalists to seek out those
who present a range of views on an issue.
"This country cannot be the country we
want it to be, if its story is told by only one
group of citizens. Our goal is to give all
Americans front-door access to the truth."
Fault Lines Perspectives --
Yours, and Your Sources'
Race/Ethnicity: Your race or your ethnicity
influences your view of events.
Gender: Your gender or sexual orientation
affects your view of events.
Generation: When you grew up affects your
view of events.
Class: Financial circumstances influence
Geography: Where you're from can shape
how you see events.
'We don't have to resolve our differences,’
We can agree to disagree....
'The most important part is keeping our
eyes on the master metaphor of the Fault
Line. The society is split along five faults,
and we try in vain to paper them over, fill
them in or pretend they aren't there.
(These) underlying forces, like those in the
center of the earth, will thwart us until we
come to see our differences as deep but
completely natural things, as natural as
geographic fault lines.'
'It's no wonder that we're not accurately
reflecting our communities. We haven't had
a way of talking about it so we can get that
coverage into the newsroom.
The Fault Lines framework can take some
of the charge out of these difficult
conversations, reminding us that it is
natural to see things from our own point of
'Instead of saying, 'What do you mean you
don't see my point? People have learned
to say, 'I think we have a Fault Line here,'
which gives the other person a chance to
think about it without getting defensive.’
Old people are…
Men in college are…
Women in college are…