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WPF Concepts
 

WPF Concepts

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    WPF Concepts WPF Concepts Presentation Transcript

    • XAML Concepts Dependency Properties, XAML Trees, Routing
      • Doncho Minkov
      • Telerik School Academy
      • schoolacademy.telerik.com
      • Technical Trainer
      • http://www.minkov.it
    • Table of Contents
      • Dependency Objects
      • Dependency Properties
      • Attached Properties
      • Trees in XAML
        • Trees in WPF
        • Trees in Silverlight
        • VisualTreeHelper
        • LogicalTreeHelper
    • Table of Contents (2)
      • Routing
        • Bubbling
        • Tunneling
      • Commanding in XAML
        • Built-in commands
        • ICommand
        • The Relay Command
    • Dependency Object
    • Dependency Object
      • The DependencyObject
        • Represents an object that participates in the dependency property system
        • Enables WPF / SL property system services
      • The property system's functions:
        • Compute the values of properties
        • Provide system notification about values that have changed
      • DependencyObject as a base class enables objects to use Dependency Properties
    • Dependency Object (2)
      • DependencyObject has the following
        • Get , Set , and Clear methods for values of any dependency properties
        • Metadata, coerce value support, property changed notification
        • Override callbacks for dependency properties or attached properties
      • DependencyObject class facilitates the per-owner property metadata for a dependency property
    • Dependency Properties Dependencies
    • Dependency Properties
      • Silverlight and WPF provide a set of services that can be used to extend the functionality of a CLR property
        • Collectively, these services are typically referred to as the Silverlight / WPF property system
      • Dependency Property is
        • A property that is backed by the SL/WPF property system
    • Dependency Properties (2)
      • Dependency properties are typically exposed as CLR properties
        • At a basic level, you could interact with these properties directly
        • May never find out they are dependency properties
      • Better to know if a property is Dependency or CLR
        • Can use the advantages of the dependency properties
    • Dependency Properties (3)
      • The purpose of dependency properties is to provide a way to compute the value of a property based on the value of other inputs
        • Can be implemented to provide callbacks to propagate changes to other properties
    • Dependency Properties Live Demo
    • Attached Properties How to set properties from another place
    • Attached Properties
      • An attached property is intended to be used as a type of global property that is settable on any object
      • In WPF and Silverlight attached properties are defined as dependency properties
        • They don't have the wrapper property
      • Examples of Attached Properties
        • Grid.Row, Grid.Column, Grid.RowSpan
        • Canvas.Top, Canvas.Left, Canvas.Bottom
        • etc.
    • Attached Properties Live Demo
    • Custom Dependency Properties How to make our own Dependency Properties?
    • Custom Dependency Properties
      • The first thing to do is to register the Dependency Property
        • Need registration due to the Property System
        • In most of the cases we need a dependency property on a UserControl
      • public static readonly
      • DependencyProperty ScrollValueProperty =
      • DependencyProperty.Register(
      • "ScrollValue",
      • typeof(double),
      • typeof(UserControl),
      • null);
      Dependency Property's instance is always readonly The name of the Dependency Property Registration to the Property System
    • Dependency Property Registration
      • Two Register Methods:
        • Register(String, Type, Type)
          • Registers a dependency property with the specified property name, property type, and owner type
        • Register(String, Type, Type, PropertyMetadata)
          • Add Property metadata
          • Default value or Callback for Property changes
    • Dependency Property Wrapper
      • After the registration of the Dependency Property it needs wrapper
        • Used to make it look like plain old CLR Property
      • DependencyObject has two methods used for the wrapping of dependency properties
        • SetValue(DependenyProperty, value)
        • GetValue(DependenyProperty)
      • public double ScrollValue
      • {
      • get { return (double)GetValue(ScrollValueProperty); }
      • set { SetValue(ScrollValueProperty , value); }
      • }
    • Custom Attached Properties How to make attached properties?
    • Custom Attached Properties
      • The registration of attached properties is a little different
      • private static void OnPropertyChanged(…) { … }
      • public static Thickness GetMargin(DependencyObject obj)
      • {
      • return (Thickness)obj.GetValue(MarginProperty);
      • }
      • public static void SetMargin(DependencyObject obj, Thickness val)
      • {
      • obj.SetValue(MarginProperty, val);
      • }
      • public static readonly DependencyProperty MarginProperty =
      • DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("Margin",
      • typeof(Thickness), typeof(ContentMargin),
      • new FrameworkPropertyMetadata(default(Thickness),
      • new PropertyChangedCallback(OnPropertyChanged)));
    • Custom Dependency and Attached Properties Live Demo
    • Trees in WPF Visual and Logical
    • Trees in WPF and Silverlight
      • WPF and Silverlight use a hierarchical system that organizes the elements and components
        • Developers can manipulate the nodes directly
          • Affect the rendering or behavior of an application
      • Two such trees exist in WPF
        • Logical tree and Visual tree
      • One kind of tree in Silverlight
        • Visual Tree
    • Trees in WPF and Silverlight
      • Elements of a XAML are hierarchically related
        • This relation is called the LogicalTree
      • The template of one element consists of multiple visual elements
        • This tree is called the VisualTree
      • WPF differs between those two trees
        • Some problems are solved only by the logical elements
        • For others you want all elements
    • Trees in WPF Visual and Logical
    • The Trees in WPF
      • WPF supports two kinds of Trees for rendering
        • Logical Tree
          • Describes the structure of control elements
        • Visual Tree
          • Describes the structure of Visual elements
        • Sometimes both trees are used the same way
    • Object Tree
      • The Object Tree
      Window Border AdornedDecoration AdornedLayer ContentPresenter StackPanel Label Border ContentPresenter TextBlock Button Border ContentPresenter TextBlock
    • Logical Tree
      • The Logical Tree
      Window Border AdornedDecoration AdornedLayer ContentPresenter StackPanel Label Border ContentPresenter TextBlock Button Border ContentPresenter TextBlock
    • Visual Tree
      • The Visual Tree
      Window Border AdornedDecoration AdornedLayer ContentPresenter StackPanel Label Border ContentPresenter TextBlock Button Border ContentPresenter TextBlock
    • Why Two Kinds of Trees?
      • A WPF control consists of multiple, more primitive controls
        • A button consists of
          • A border, a rectangle and a content presenter.
          • These controls are visual children of the button
      • When WPF renders the button
        • The element itself has no appearance
        • It iterates through the visual tree and renders the visual children of it
    • Why Two Kinds of Trees? (2)
      • Sometimes you are not interested in the borders and rectangles of a controls' template
        • You want a more robust tree that only contains the "real" controls
          • Not all the template parts
          • And that is the eligibility for the logical tree
    • The Logical Tree
      • The logical tree describes the relations between elements of the user interface
      • The logical tree is responsible for:
        • Inherit DependencyProperty values
        • Resolving DynamicResources references
        • Looking up element names for bindings
        • Forwarding RoutedEvents
    • The Visual Tree
      • Contains all logical elements
        • Including all visual elements of the template of each element
      • The visual tree is responsible for:
        • Rendering visual elements
        • Propagate element opacity
        • Propagate Layout- and RenderTransforms
        • Propagate the IsEnabled property
        • Do Hit-Testing
        • RelativeSource (FindAncestor)
    • Traversing Through Trees in WPF VisualTreeHelper and Logical Tree Helper
    • LogicalTreeHelper and VisualTreeHelper
      • Help a lot when traversing the WPF Trees
      • Key Functionality:
        • GetParrent(Dependency Object)
          • Gets the logical parent of the current element
        • GetChildren(Dependency Object)
        • GetOpacity(Dependency Object)
          • Etc…
    • Traversing Through Trees in WPF Live Demo
    • Visual Tree in Silverlight Just the Visual
    • The Visual Tree in Silverlight
      • The same as in WPF
        • Works exactly as in WPF
        • May be used to find the first ancestor of concrete type
          • i.e. the first Grid or StackPanel
      • public static T FindUpVisualTree<T>
      • (DependencyObject initial) where T : DependencyObject
      • {
      • DependencyObject current = initial;
      • while (current != null &&
      • current.GetType() != typeof(T))
      • { current = VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(current); }
      • return current as T;
      • }
    • Visual Tree in Silverlight Live Demo
    • Routed Events in WPF/Silverlight Bubbling and Tunneling
    • Routed Events
      • What is a routed event?
        • A type of event that can invoke handlers on multiple listeners in an element tree
          • Rather than just on the object that raised it
      • The event route can travel in one of two directions
        • Depending on the event definition
        • Generally the route travels from the source element and then &quot;bubbles&quot; upward through the element tree
    • Types of Routed Events
      • Three types of routed events in WPF and SL
        • Bubbling
          • Event handlers on the event source are invoked
          • Then routes to successive parent elements until reaching the element tree root
          • Most routed events use bubbling routing strategy
        • Direct
          • Only the source element itself is given the opportunity to invoke handlers in response
    • Types of Routed Events (2)
      • Three types of routed events in WPF and SL
        • Tunneling
          • Event handlers at the tree root are invoked first
          • Then travels down the object tree to the node that is the source of the event
            • The element that raised the routed event
          • Not supported in Silverlight
        • Available as Preview events
          • PreviewClick
    • Routed Events Example Tunneling Window Grid StackPanel TextBlock PreviewMouseLeftButtonDown Event is raised
    • Routed Events Example Window Grid StackPanel TextBlock Bubbling MouseLeftButtonDown Event is raised
    • Routed Events in WPF/Silverlight Live Demo
    • Commands in .NET
    • WPF Commands
      • Commanding is an input mechanism in WPF
        • Provides input handling at a more semantic level than device input
        • Examples of commands are the Copy , Cut , and Paste operations
    • WPF Commands (2)
      • Commands have several purposes
        • Separate the semantics and the objects that invoke a command from the logic that executes the command
          • Allows for multiple and disparate sources to invoke the same command logic
          • Allows the command logic to be customized for different targets
    • WPF Commands
      • Commands can be used to indicate whether an action is available
        • Example: when trying to cut something, the user should first select something
        • To indicate whether an action is possible
          • Implement the CanExecute method
        • A button can subscribe to the CanExecuteChanged event
          • Disabled if CanExecute returns false
          • Enabled if CanExecute returns true.
    • The Four Main Concepts in WPF Commanding
      • The routed command model in WPF consists of four main concepts
        • Command
          • The action to be executed
        • CommandSource
          • The object that invokes the command
        • CommandTarget
          • The object that the command is executed on
        • CommandBinding
          • The object that maps command logic to command
    • Four Main Concepts in WPF Commanding Example
      • <Menu>
      • <MenuItem Command=&quot;Copy&quot;
      • CommandTarget=&quot;{Binding ElementName=textBoxText}&quot; />
      • <MenuItem Command=&quot;Paste&quot;
      • CommandTarget=&quot;{Binding ElementName=mainTextBox}&quot; />
      • </Menu>
      • <TextBox Name=&quot;mainTextBox&quot;/>
      • <TextBox Name=&quot;textBoxText&quot;>
      • Some Text in a Text Box
      • </TextBox>
    • Commands in .NET Live Demo
    • The ICommand Interface How to implement our own Commands
    • ICommand Interface
      • The ICommand interface
      • public bool CanExecute(object parameter);
      • public event EventHandler CanExecuteChanged;
      • public void Execute(object parameter);
      Determines whether the command can be executed When changes of the CanExecute state occur Called to invoke the command
    • Implementation Command Example
      • Lets implement a Command to show the selected text in a TextBox
      • class MessagePopCommand : ICommand
      • {
      • public bool CanExecute(object parameter)
      • {
      • if (parameter == null)
      • {
      • return false;
      • }
      • return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(parameter.ToString());
      • }
      • public event EventHandler CanExecuteChanged;
      • public void Execute(object parameter)
      • {
      • MessageBox.Show(parameter.ToString());
      • }
      • }
    • Implementing Command Example
      • We need to make an instance of the Command in the code behind
      • The XAML file:
      • <TextBox Name=&quot;TextBoxToShow&quot;>text</TextBox>
      • <Button Content=&quot;Click Me!&quot;
      • CommandParameter=&quot;{Binding ElementName=TextBoxToShow,
      • Path=Text}&quot;
      • Command=&quot;{Binding MessageCommand}&quot;/>
      • In the Code Behind file:
      private ICommand messageCommand; public ICommand MessageCommand { get { return this.messageCommand; } }
    • How Does it Work?
      • When binding the command of the button to a specific command instance, the CanExecute method is invoked
        • If it returns false the button is disabled
        • If true is returned the button is enabled
      • A known problem
        • The order of the Command and CommandParameter properties matters!
          • The XAML parser works from left to right
          • The paramerters must be known before binding
    • The ICommand Interface Live Implementation
    • Better Commanding Even better than Custom Commands
    • Better Commanding
      • Most of the times it is not necessary to implement ICommand class for every distinct command
        • Since in most of the cases the ConcreteCommand has the same interface
      • Can we implement a command and give different behavior then instantiating?
        • Of course – use the so called RelayCommand
    • The RelayCommand
      • What is a relay command
        • A command which is given an behavior during instantiating
        • Both CanExecute and Execute methods
      • ICommand someCommand;
      • public MyWindow()
      • {
      • this.someCommand =
      • new RelayCommand(ExecuteMethod,CanExecuteMethod); }
      • public void ExecuteMethod(object parameter) {…}
      • public bool CanExecuteMethod(object parameter) {…}
    • Better Commanding Live Demo
    • What's the Point of Commands?! Why the hell we need Commands?
    • The Point of Commands
      • The answer is simple:
        • The Commands can execute without the knowledge of who wants to execute them
      • Commands are:
        • Easily implemented
        • Easily extended
        • Easily replaceable
        • A way to change an object without knowledge of who wants to change it
        • Fundamental part of the MVVM pattern
    • XAML Concepts
    • Exercises
      • Extend the VideoPlayer Control from the example:
        • Add a slider that slides with the video length
        • Add a slider that changes the volume
        • Add buttons for Play, Pause, Stop
        • Add key events for volume UP/DOWN
        • Add key events to jump 5 seconds forward/backward in the video