UNIT 12:
URBANIZATION IN
URBAN AREAS
What are the problems of
urbanization?
• Urbanization is the increase in the proportion
of the world’s population that liv...
BUSTEES
• Bustee houses have mud floor, wattle or
wooden walls and tiled or corrugated iron
roofs, materials that are not ...
What is a typical land use model?
• The gap between the relatively few rich and the
numerous poor is much greater.
• Most ...
Functional zones
• CBD: Congestion and competition for space is even
greater
• Industry: Large factories tend to develop a...
What is life like in shanty settlements?
• Shanty settlement they grow up well away
from the CBD on land that previously h...
Why are self-help schemes
sustainable?
• The case of Sao Paulo, Brazil
• Initially, in the upgrading of living conditions,...
Practical Action in Nairobi, Kenya
• It is a British charitable organization that
works with people in developing countrie...
Unit 13: Employment
structures
What are employment structures?
• Employment is the various jobs or activities
that people do are called employment.
Different types of work
• There were three main groups: primary,
secondary and tertiary. Since the 1980’s a
fourth group h...
How do employment structures vary
between countries?
• We have the world divided into two economic
parts:
• North and East...
What is farming?
• Farming, or agriculture, is the way that people
produce food by growing crops and raising
animals.
Inputs and outputs farming
• The things that a farm needs to make it work
are called inputs. What happen on the farm
are i...
What are the UK’s main farming types?
• Hill sheep farms: wool.
• Cattle farms: cows for milk (dairy farming).
• Arable fa...
What are the main features of dairy
farming in the UK?
• The Cheshire Plain: Dairy cows need certain
conditions if they ar...
What are the main features of market
gardening in the Netherlands?
• Market gardening is the intensive cultivation
of high...
What are the main features of rice
growing in India and Bangladesh?
• A five-month growing season with temperatures
over 2...
How is commercial farming changing?
• Commercial farming is the growing of crops
and raising of animals in order to make a...
How is subsistence farming changing?
• Subsistence farmers usually produce just
enough food for their own needs. It they h...
How has farming affected the
environment?
• What about hedges in Britain? Arguments for
and against the clearing of hedges...
How can farming be made wildlife
sustainable?
• RSPB: The Royal Society for the Protection of
Birds is an organization tha...
Hope Farm
• In April 2000, RSPB took over this farm in
Cambridge shire with the aim of researching
how farming could be ma...
•BY: José Antonio
Donado
geography
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geography

  1. 1. UNIT 12: URBANIZATION IN URBAN AREAS
  2. 2. What are the problems of urbanization? • Urbanization is the increase in the proportion of the world’s population that live in cities • Main problems of urbanization in developing countries are housing, services, water supply, sanitation and health, and employment, crime, segregation…
  3. 3. BUSTEES • Bustee houses have mud floor, wattle or wooden walls and tiled or corrugated iron roofs, materials that are not the best for giving protection against the heavy monsoon rains (India).
  4. 4. What is a typical land use model? • The gap between the relatively few rich and the numerous poor is much greater. • Most of the better-off areas are located near to the city centre with increasingly poorer areas found towards the city boundary. • A large number of people, many of whom are migrants from surrounding rural areas, are forced to live as squatters in shanty settlements or, using the UN term, ‘informal settlements’.
  5. 5. Functional zones • CBD: Congestion and competition for space is even greater • Industry: Large factories tend to develop along main roads leading out of the city • Inner zone (high-class): Many developing countries were former European colonies • Middle zone (medium-class residential): This zone provides the ‘in-between’ housing, except that here it is of much poorer quality • Outer zone (low-class residential): This is the zone where most of the recent arrivals from rural areas are forced to live (favelas in Brazil and bustees in India)
  6. 6. What is life like in shanty settlements? • Shanty settlement they grow up well away from the CBD on land that previously had been considered unsuitable for building. • Types of shanty settlements o Steep hillsides (Rio de Janeiro) o Swampy flood plains of rivers (Nairobi in Kenya)
  7. 7. Why are self-help schemes sustainable? • The case of Sao Paulo, Brazil • Initially, in the upgrading of living conditions, and later, the introduction of shops and small- scale industries
  8. 8. Practical Action in Nairobi, Kenya • It is a British charitable organization that works with people in developing countries. The self-sufficient is looked for.
  9. 9. Unit 13: Employment structures
  10. 10. What are employment structures? • Employment is the various jobs or activities that people do are called employment.
  11. 11. Different types of work • There were three main groups: primary, secondary and tertiary. Since the 1980’s a fourth group has been added: quaternary.
  12. 12. How do employment structures vary between countries? • We have the world divided into two economic parts: • North and East (Japan) are usually richer and economically more developed. • South often (except Oceania) poorer and economically less developed.
  13. 13. What is farming? • Farming, or agriculture, is the way that people produce food by growing crops and raising animals.
  14. 14. Inputs and outputs farming • The things that a farm needs to make it work are called inputs. What happen on the farm are its processes and what it produces are called outputs. A farmer may also feed back some of the outputs, such as profits, into the system.
  15. 15. What are the UK’s main farming types? • Hill sheep farms: wool. • Cattle farms: cows for milk (dairy farming). • Arable farms: cereal crops such as wheat, vegetables as potatoes. • Mixed farms. • Market gardening: fruit, vegetables and flowers.
  16. 16. What are the main features of dairy farming in the UK? • The Cheshire Plain: Dairy cows need certain conditions if they are to give high yields of top-quality milk; these conditions are in this plain: land flat, soils rich: good-quality grass, rainfall along the year.
  17. 17. What are the main features of market gardening in the Netherlands? • Market gardening is the intensive cultivation of high-value crops such as fruit, vegetables and flowers.
  18. 18. What are the main features of rice growing in India and Bangladesh? • A five-month growing season with temperatures over 21ºC • Annual rainfall over 2000 mm with most falling in the growing season • A dry spell, after the growing season, for harvesting • Flat land, to allow the water to be kept on fields • Rich alluvial soils to provide nutrients
  19. 19. How is commercial farming changing? • Commercial farming is the growing of crops and raising of animals in order to make a profit, in regions such as Europe and North America.
  20. 20. How is subsistence farming changing? • Subsistence farmers usually produce just enough food for their own needs. It they have a surplus, it can be sold to buy other goods but more often farming families struggle for survival.
  21. 21. How has farming affected the environment? • What about hedges in Britain? Arguments for and against the clearing of hedges. FOR: They provide a home for wildlife (birds, insects) , well looked after hedges are attractive . AGAINST: Cutting hedges costs the farmer time and money, Hedges take up space which could be used for farmland.
  22. 22. How can farming be made wildlife sustainable? • RSPB: The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is an organization that works for a healthy environment rich in birds and wildlife
  23. 23. Hope Farm • In April 2000, RSPB took over this farm in Cambridge shire with the aim of researching how farming could be made more wildlife friendly.
  24. 24. •BY: José Antonio Donado

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