What are the problems of
• Urbanization is the increase in the proportion
of the world’s population that live in cities
• Main problems of urbanization in developing
countries are housing, services, water supply,
sanitation and health, and employment,
• Bustee houses have mud floor, wattle or
wooden walls and tiled or corrugated iron
roofs, materials that are not the best for giving
protection against the heavy monsoon rains
What is a typical land use model?
• The gap between the relatively few rich and the
numerous poor is much greater.
• Most of the better-off areas are located near to
the city centre with increasingly poorer areas
found towards the city boundary.
• A large number of people, many of whom are
migrants from surrounding rural areas, are forced
to live as squatters in shanty settlements or, using
the UN term, ‘informal settlements’.
• CBD: Congestion and competition for space is even
• Industry: Large factories tend to develop along main
roads leading out of the city
• Inner zone (high-class): Many developing countries
were former European colonies
• Middle zone (medium-class residential): This zone
provides the ‘in-between’ housing, except that here it
is of much poorer quality
• Outer zone (low-class residential): This is the zone
where most of the recent arrivals from rural areas are
forced to live (favelas in Brazil and bustees in India)
What is life like in shanty settlements?
• Shanty settlement they grow up well away
from the CBD on land that previously had
been considered unsuitable for building.
• Types of shanty settlements
o Steep hillsides (Rio de Janeiro)
o Swampy flood plains of rivers (Nairobi in Kenya)
Why are self-help schemes
• The case of Sao Paulo, Brazil
• Initially, in the upgrading of living conditions,
and later, the introduction of shops and small-
Practical Action in Nairobi, Kenya
• It is a British charitable organization that
works with people in developing countries.
The self-sufficient is looked for.
What are employment structures?
• Employment is the various jobs or activities
that people do are called employment.
Different types of work
• There were three main groups: primary,
secondary and tertiary. Since the 1980’s a
fourth group has been added: quaternary.
How do employment structures vary
• We have the world divided into two economic
• North and East (Japan) are usually richer and
economically more developed.
• South often (except Oceania) poorer and
economically less developed.
What is farming?
• Farming, or agriculture, is the way that people
produce food by growing crops and raising
Inputs and outputs farming
• The things that a farm needs to make it work
are called inputs. What happen on the farm
are its processes and what it produces are
called outputs. A farmer may also feed back
some of the outputs, such as profits, into the
What are the UK’s main farming types?
• Hill sheep farms: wool.
• Cattle farms: cows for milk (dairy farming).
• Arable farms: cereal crops such as wheat,
vegetables as potatoes.
• Mixed farms.
• Market gardening: fruit, vegetables and
What are the main features of dairy
farming in the UK?
• The Cheshire Plain: Dairy cows need certain
conditions if they are to give high yields of
top-quality milk; these conditions are in this
plain: land flat, soils rich: good-quality grass,
rainfall along the year.
What are the main features of market
gardening in the Netherlands?
• Market gardening is the intensive cultivation
of high-value crops such as fruit, vegetables
What are the main features of rice
growing in India and Bangladesh?
• A five-month growing season with temperatures
• Annual rainfall over 2000 mm with most falling in
the growing season
• A dry spell, after the growing season, for
• Flat land, to allow the water to be kept on fields
• Rich alluvial soils to provide nutrients
How is commercial farming changing?
• Commercial farming is the growing of crops
and raising of animals in order to make a
profit, in regions such as Europe and North
How is subsistence farming changing?
• Subsistence farmers usually produce just
enough food for their own needs. It they have
a surplus, it can be sold to buy other goods
but more often farming families struggle for
How has farming affected the
• What about hedges in Britain? Arguments for
and against the clearing of hedges.
FOR: They provide a home for wildlife (birds,
insects) , well looked after hedges are
AGAINST: Cutting hedges costs the farmer time
and money, Hedges take up space which could
be used for farmland.
How can farming be made wildlife
• RSPB: The Royal Society for the Protection of
Birds is an organization that works for a
healthy environment rich in birds and wildlife
• In April 2000, RSPB took over this farm in
Cambridge shire with the aim of researching
how farming could be made more wildlife