Published on


Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. RIVERS
  2. 2. What are the main features of a river basin? The source, the tributaries, the confluence, the watershed and the mouth.
  3. 3. How do rivers shape the land? Erosion is the process by which the surface of the Earth gets worn down. Erosion can be caused by natural elements such as wind and glacial ice.
  4. 4. How do meanders lakes form? • A meander, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse or river. A meander is formed when the moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley and the inner part of the river has less energy and deposits what it is carrying. River Cauto Cuba
  5. 5. What happens to a river as it approaches its mouth? • A river changes shape as it flows from its source (where a river starts) to its mouth (where a river flows into a sea or lake). The shape of both the long profile (a slice through the river from source to mouth) and the cross profile (a slice across the river) changes.
  6. 6. What is the hydrological cycle? • Water cycle, is the continuous transfer of water from the oceans into the atmosphere, the onto the land and finally back into the oceans, with processes (evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation and surface run-off).
  7. 7. What is the relationship between precipitation and run-off? • The flood hydrograph it is the relationship between precipitation and the level of a river.
  8. 8. River flooding • CAUSES: • Physical: 1. Type and amount of precipitation. 2. Type of soil and underlying rock • Human: 1. Land use of the river basin. 2. Human activity. • RESULTS: • When rivers flood they can put lives in danger, damage property and disrupt people’s normal way of life.
  9. 9. COASTS
  10. 10. How do waves wear away the land? Waves are formed by submarine earth movements and by the wind blowing over the sea.
  11. 11. How does the sea transport material? Waves rarely approach a beach at right-angles. They usually approach at an angle that depends upon the direction of the wind.
  12. 12. How do landforms result from deposition by the sea? Deposition occurs in sheltered areas where the build-up of sand and shingle is greater than its removal.
  13. 13. What are the causes, effects and human responses to cliff erosion? • Causes to cliff erosion. • • If resistant rock, waves erode at their base causing them to become unstable and to collapse. If less resistant rock, rain can wash loose material down to the cliff base. It can be rapidly removed by waves.
  14. 14. Effects to cliff erosion • Villages, farms and campsites situated in places that a few years ago were considered safe, have been abandoned and lost.
  15. 15. Human responses • The natural rate of cliff erosion can be accelerated by human activity. There are arguments for and against trying to protect cliffs from erosion.
  16. 16. Coastal flooding in Britain • A storm surge is when the level of the sea rises rapidly to a height well above that which was predicted.
  17. 17. GLACIATION
  18. 18. How does ice shape the land? Glaciers form when there is an interruption in the hydrological cycle: the climate becomes cold enough for precipitation to fall as snow, and water is held in storage in the system.
  19. 19. What landforms result from glacial erosion? They result from differences in the rate of erosion between glaciers in the main and in a tributary valley.
  20. 20. What landforms result from glacial deposition? •Erratics They are rocks and boulders picked up and transported many kms. by the glacier, and deposited in an area of different rock.
  21. 21. •Terminal moraine It marks the furthest or maximum point that a glacier reached.
  22. 22. •Ribbon lake
  23. 23. Rocks and landscapes
  24. 24. What are the main types of rock? -Igneous rocks (from volcanic activity): Granite, basalt.
  25. 25. -Sedimentary rocks (either of small particles of other rocks that have been eroded and transported or of the remains of plants and animals): limestone, chalk, coal, sandstone.
  26. 26. -Metamorphic rocks (altered by extremes of heat and/or pressure): marble and slate.
  27. 27. What is weathering? Weathering includes the breaking up (disintegration) and decay (decomposition) of rocks in places where they formed.
  28. 28. How do differences in rock type affect landforms? • The rocks resistance The harder the rock, the more resistant it is likely to be to erosion. Hills and mountains tend to form in areas of harder rock while valleys are found on softer rock.
  29. 29. • Permeability Impermeable rock has numerous surface rivers and may be badly drained, in contrast to permeable rock which has few surface rivers; groundwater instead.
  30. 30. What do chalk areas look like? • Chalk, which is a soft limestone, occurs in south-east England. It is permeable and so, as it is relatively resistant to erosion, it can form.
  31. 31. Why does Carboniferous limestone create its own scenery? • It is a rock consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, which comes from the remains of sea shells and coral. Types of limestone are Carboniferous limestone, Jurassic limestone and Chalk.
  32. 32. • Resurgence… The river flow over the impermeable rock until it reaches the surface. The place where it reappears is called resurgence.
  33. 33. What are the effects of quarrying in National Parks? • Quarrying… It is when rocks are taken straight from the Earth’s surface –unlike mining where workers have to operate underground.
  34. 34. Plate tectonics
  35. 35. Earthquakes They occur in long narrow belts. The largest one goes around the entire Pacific Ocean. The second one runs through the middle of the Atlantic Ocean for its entire length. The third one is across the continents of Europe and Asia from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
  36. 36. Volcanoes • They form where the liquid rock, or lava, escapes onto the Earth’s surface. Lava can escape by either a gentle or a violent movement. This gives two types of volcano.
  37. 37. Tsunami • Tsunami is the movement of the crust can create huge sea waves, known as tsunamis.
  38. 38. Ring of Fire • The largest belt goes around the entire Pacific Ocean, the so-called ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’. The second one runs through the middle of the Atlantic Ocean for its entire length. Three other notable locations are in southern Europe, the centre of the Pacific Ocean, and eastern Africa.
  39. 39. How can the effects of a tsunami be reduced? a) Predict where and when the event might happen. b) Prepare local people and emergency services for the disaster should it occur.
  40. 40. Pangea • Pangea was the only continent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic grouping most of the land surface of the planet. It was formed by the movement of tectonic plates.
  41. 41. Britain´s weather and climate
  42. 42. What factors affect temperature? • Latitude, distance from the sea, prevailing winds and height above sea-level or altitude.
  43. 43. What are the main types of rainfall? Britain receives three types of rainfall: Relief rainfall, frontal rainfall, and convectional rainfall. July is often the wettest month in places in the east.
  44. 44. Britain´s climate • Britain’s average climate is cool summers, mild winters and rain spread evenly throughout the year, so equable or temperate is its definition.
  45. 45. What's weather like in a depression? • Depressions are areas of low pressure which usually bring rain, cloud and wind. • They develop to the west of the Isles overt the Atlantic Ocean, because a mass of warm, moist tropical air from the south meets a mass of colder, drier polar air from the north.
  46. 46. What is the weather like in an anticyclone? • Anticyclones are areas of high pressure. They tend to remain stationary for several days, giving very dry, bright and settled weather.
  47. 47. What are the world's main climates?
  48. 48. British climate • Seasonal climate with cool summers, mild winters and rain throughout the year. • Wet, and receiving rainfall throughout the year, due to prevailing south-westerly winds bring in moist air from the Atlantic Ocean.
  49. 49. Mediterranean climate • Summers are hot and dry. Winters are warm and wet. • If drought conditions in summers, are due to the prevailing winds blowing from the dry land, winters can be very wet.
  50. 50. Cold climate • Winters are long and cold. Short cool summers. Small amounts of rainfall. Places north of the Arctic Circle have a period when the sun never rises above the horizon.
  51. 51. Equatorial climate • Hot, wet and humid throughout the year. There are no seasons and the weather is the same almost every day. • Rainfall in equatorial climate exceed 2000 mm a year.
  52. 52. Hot desert climate • Very hot summers and cooler winters. Dry throughout the year. Hot desert climates are typically found under the subtropical ridge where there is largely unbroken sunshine for the whole year due to the stable descending air and high pressure.
  53. 53. Tropical continental climate • Also called savanna. A seasonal climate with a very warm, dry season and a hot, wet season. Temperatures high through the year, with small annual range • During the dry season the prevailing trade winds blow from the east.
  54. 54. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT • The Earth is surrounded by a layer of gases, including carbon dioxide. This keeps the Earth warm by preventing the escape of heat that would normally be lost from the atmosphere. The gases act rather like the glass in a greenhouse. They let heat in but prevent most of it from getting out.
  55. 55. • The burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas produces large amounts of carbon dioxide. As the amount of this gas increases, the Earth becomes warmer.
  56. 56. •By: •José Antonio Donado