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Wireless vs. mobile Contents

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  • 1. Wireless vs. mobile Contents WLAN vs. 2G/3G • Performance, roaming, mobility, security... Services in WLAN vs. 2G/3G • Web browsing, VoIP, email, messaging • Location based services Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) • Basic idea and UMA architecture S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 1
  • 2. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Bit rates IEEE 802.11 WLAN GPRS 802.11b: 170 kbit/s theoretically 11 Mbit/s (in practice (in practice much less) 6 … 8 Mbit/s max.) 802.11a/g: 3G (WCDMA) 54 Mbit/s (in practice 30 … 40 Mbit/s max. Up to 2 Mbit/s over short distances) (in indoor networks) S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 2
  • 3. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Coverage IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G Hundreds of meters (at Macro/micro/picocell best) around each AP networks cover all kinds of environments => (indoor, urban, rural) Full outdoor coverage => is difficult to achieve. Full coverage even in WLANs are optimised remote areas. for indoor usage. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 3
  • 4. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Frequency bands IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G The 2.4 GHz ISM band Frequency bands are (free for all) causes reserved for 2G/3G problems. networks. Interference from other Interference is usually WLAN networks, not a problem (good Bluetooth equipment, network planning). microwave ovens, etc. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 4
  • 5. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Spectrum efficiency IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G The CSMA/CA access Spectrum efficiency is method is not very better than for WLAN. spectrum efficient. Various advanced Spectrum efficiency is methods for increasing given as spectrum efficiency. bits/Hz/area S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 5
  • 6. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Roaming IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G WLANs do not support International roaming roaming in a strict agreements between sense. operators However, WLANs => support portability. 2G/3G networks support roaming on a wide scale. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 6
  • 7. Wireless vs. mobile Roaming vs. portability Roaming means that it is possible to use a terminal when moving from one network to another. Additional features (mobility, security) that involve cooperation between network operators or service providers are usually supported, due to roaming agreements between these operators or service providers. Portability means that it is possible to use a terminal anywhere in a certain network (e.g. WLAN). However, when moving to another network, mobility or security features are not automatically maintained. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 7
  • 8. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Mobility IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G Terminal mobility is Terminal mobility is not supported (except supported (using when moving within techniques such as the WLAN). location updating, paging, and handover). Personal mobility requires e.g. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and specialised network resources (SIP proxy, location server) S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 8
  • 9. Wireless vs. mobile Terminal vs. personal mobility Terminal mobility means the ability of the network to locate a mobile terminal, route incoming or outgoing calls (or packet sessions) regardless of the point of attachment to the network, and maintain connections while the terminal moves around in the network. Personal mobility means that a person can be reached via any one of several terminals (that can be located at different places) using a single address (e.g. SIP address). This concept has not been widely used yet. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 9
  • 10. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Security IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G No security as default. Always supported: WEP (if used) offers User authentication poor security. Encryption over the radio interface WPA (if used) provides better security due to Key management. the support of key 3G provides additional management. security features. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 10
  • 11. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Network planning IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G Usually no network Network planning is planning (due to the rather complicated inexpensive network (since equipment is parts). expensive and should not be underused). This (+ usage of ISM band) may result in As a benefit => good poor WLAN network coverage and spectrum performance. utilisation. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 11
  • 12. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Cost of equipment IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G Network infrastructure Network infrastructure is inexpensive (existing is expensive. LAN + additional APs) 2G/3G terminals are if no advanced network not dramatically more concepts are used. expensive than WLAN End user equipment is cards. also inexpensive. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 12
  • 13. Wireless vs. mobile WLAN vs. 2G/3G: Charging IEEE 802.11 WLAN 2G/3G Charging solutions are Charging is part of the difficult to implement system infrastructure. (specialised network Without charging, the elements required). expensive 2G/3G WLAN users are used network infrastructure to having “free” access would not be in many places. economically viable. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 13
  • 14. Wireless vs. mobile Services: Web browsing Web browsing applications are of client - server type. 802.11 WLAN and 2G/3G networks are equally well suited for such applications (disregarding differences in bitrates, coverage, etc.). 1 http request Web html page download server Terminal = Client 2 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 14
  • 15. Wireless vs. mobile Services: VoIP If reachability is an important issue, a client - client type of communication system requires some IP layer or application layer mobility solution => new network elements are required both in 2G/3G and in WLAN. Terminal IP network(s) Terminal = Client = Client S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 15
  • 16. Wireless vs. mobile Services: E-mail (1) E-mail is a store-and-forward service. Messages are sent to a server (using e.g. the SMTP protocol), from which the recepient of the message can fetch it any time (using e.g. the POP or IMAP protocol). 2 1 E-mail server 3 Sender Recepient S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 16
  • 17. Wireless vs. mobile Services: E-mail (2) WLAN and 2G/3G networks are equally well suited for this kind of task, since both transactions are of the client - server type (in other words a mobility solution is not required). 2 1 E-mail server 3 Sender Recepient S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 17
  • 18. Wireless vs. mobile Services: E-mail (3) However, if the recepient wishes to be notified about incoming messages, this requires IP layer mobility (inherent in 2G/3G but not in WLAN). Notification 2 1 E-mail 3 server Sender Recepient 4 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 18
  • 19. Wireless vs. mobile Services: Messaging (1) Messaging (short messages, multimedia messaging) is a typical 2G/3G service, also of store-and-forward type (messages are stored in a message server). Notification 2 1 Message 3 server Sender Recepient 4 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 19
  • 20. Wireless vs. mobile Services: Messaging (2) In this case, notification is essential. Again, 2G/3G systems have notification inbuilt into the system, whereas WLAN networks require some IP layer mobility solution. Notification 2 1 Message 3 server Sender Recepient 4 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 20
  • 21. Wireless vs. mobile Location based services (1) Location based services require knowledge about the location of the terminal. A typical service scenario is shown below: 1 User sends enquiry to server (containing relevant data) 1 2 3 Location 4 Server server 5 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 21
  • 22. Wireless vs. mobile Location based services (2) 2 The server needs location information to customise the service and contacts location server 3 Location server determines location and 4 returns the location information to the server 1 2 3 Location 4 Server server 5 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 22
  • 23. Wireless vs. mobile Location based services (3) Nearest restaurants: 5 User obtains customised Old goose information (e.g. nearest Green horse Castle inn restaurants) 1 2 3 Location 4 Server server 5 S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 23
  • 24. Wireless vs. mobile Location based services (4) Location based services require specialized network elements (location server, positioning equipment) usually available in 2G/3G but not in WLAN networks. Location Server server S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 24
  • 25. Wireless vs. mobile Location based services (5) If the wireless station in the WLAN is equipped with a GPS receiver and supporting software, location based services may still be possible (?) 1 Wireless station sends location information with service request 2 GPS Service request 1 2 Server 3 Response from server S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 25
  • 26. Wireless vs. mobile Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) technology provides access to GSM and GPRS mobile services over wireless networks based on unlicensed spectrum technologies, e.g. Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11 networks. By deploying UMA technology, service providers can enable subscribers to roam and perform seamless handovers between cellular networks and public and private unlicensed wireless networks, and to use for instance SIM/AuC authentication also in the wireless networks, using dual-mode handsets. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 26
  • 27. Wireless vs. mobile UMA architecture Base BSC station Radio access network Core mobile network Access IP access UNC point network Unlicensed mobile access UMA network network (UMAN) controller S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 27
  • 28. Wireless vs. mobile UMA standardization In order to promote the widespread adoption of UMA technology, a number of companies within the cellular & wireless industry have jointly developed a set of open specifications. See: www.umatechnology.org See: www.umatechnology.org What is needed to implement UMA infrastructure? 1. UMA-capable terminals 2. UMA network controller 3. Protocols that offer secure transport of GSM/GPRS signalling and user plane traffic over IP. S-72.3240 Wireless Personal, Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks 28

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