Wireless Telephony
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Wireless Telephony

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  • Fixed Public Telephone Network Public Mobile Telephone Service

Wireless Telephony Wireless Telephony Presentation Transcript

  • Comparative Telecommunications Law Brooklyn/Loyola Summer Program UIBE - 2006 Prof. Karl Manheim 6: Wireless Telephony
  • Wireless Telephony - A Primer
    • A form of 2-way radio communication
      • Each handset is a transmitter and receiver
      • Low-power, short-range
        • Base stations (cell towers) must be closely spaced
    • Private networks (PMRS)
      • E.g., transportation companies; public safety
    • Common carriers (subscribers) (CMRS)
      • Connected to Public Switched Telephone Network
        • Which serves as the hub for most calls
          • Except those between subscribers on same network
  • Comparison of Wireless & Radio Official Glossary Half-duplex (1 channel) Duplex (2 channel) Mass Media Bureau Wireless Telecom Bureau Open & shared frequency Secure frequency End user licensed End user not licensed Not networked Connects to PSTN Point-to-multipoint Point-to-point Radio Communication Wireless Telephony
  • Evolution of Wireless Telephony
    • Remote Patches
    • Mobile Telephones
    • Cellular (AMPS)
    • Personal Communications Service (PCS)
    • Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR)
    • Third Generation Wireless (3G)
    • Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3
  • Remote Patch (repeater)
    • 2-way radio connected to a phone
      • 47 CFR § 22.573
      • widely used by ham (amateur) radio
      • telephone side:
        • private line connected to PSTN
      • radio side:
        • private radio service; limited to non-commercial traffic
      • single frequency use
        • half-duplex
  • Cell Concept
    • Frequency reuse
      • low power transmitters allow same frequency to be reused in small nearby areas
    1973 Motorola Patent
  • Modern Cell Network
    • Computerized cell network
      • base stations (mobile telephone switching office - MTSO) linked by land lines to form a network;
      • MTSO intercon-nects with PSTN
    • graphic
  • Cell Splitting
    • Typical cell size
      • Analog: 1-50km
      • PCS & GSM: < 10km
    Macro, Micro, Pico cells
  •  
  • Wireless Terminology
    • PMRS
      • Private Mobile Radio Svc (not PSTN connected)
    • CMRS
      • Commercial Mobile Radio Svc (common carrier)
    • Cellular (1st Generation)
      • Analog CMRS (800 Mhz band)
    • PCS (2nd Generation)
      • Digital CMRS (1900 Mhz band)
    • IMT-2000 (3rd Generation - 3G)
      • Broadband wireless (Int’l Mobile Telecom 2000)
  • Early cellular regulation
    • Cellular treated as common carrier
      • at first, extension of ILEC monopoly
      • “ duopoly” after MFJ
        • 2 “facilities-based” cell carriers per market
    • 2 licenses per market (A band, B band)
      • A Band reserved for non-wireline carriers
      • B Band reserved for wireline (i.e., ILECs)
    • Restrictions on resale prohibited
      • Encourage competition by “value-added” telcos
  • Advanced Mobile Phone Svc (AMPS)
    • Cellular (47 CFR § 22.900)
      • analog band: 824.04 MHz - 893.7 MHz (70 MHz)
      • Control channels (forward and reverse)
        • forward: paging channel
        • reverse: registration (ESN, tel #) other control data
      • Voice channels (forward and reverse)
        • frequency modulation (FM)
        • AMPS - 30KHz wide (compare FM stereo 150 KHz)
        • NAMPS - 10KHz wide (same as AM)
        • full duplex Graphic
          • frequency division duplexing (FDD) Graphic
            • mobile & base on different frequencies
            • separated by a “guard band”
          • simultaneous 2-way
  • Cellular Frequencies 800 MHz band
  • Cellnet v. FCC (6 th Cir. 1998)
    • FCC requires facilities-based mobile carriers to lease network components to resellers
      • Cellnet challenges 1993 (5-yr) sunset provision
        • Reluctant to make its own capital investments as reseller if likely to be shut out in 5 years
    • FCC rationale:
      • PCS development will be competitive w/ cellular so that regulation will become unnecessary
        • Predictive judgment based on market growth
    • Court defers
      • To superior agency expertise (esp. wrt predictions)
  • Personal Com’n Service (PCS)
    • Broadband PCS
      • 120 MHz in 6 blocks (A-F)
      • Telephony plus other services
        • data (paging, text)
        • internet (graphics, email)
    • Narrowband PCS
      • 3 MHz in 12.5-50 KHz blocks
      • general uses
        • paging & messaging
        • telemetry (remote monitoring of field equipment)
        • other data
  • Broadband PCS Frequencies 2 GHz band
  • Cellular & Digital Multiplexing
    • FDM (frequency division multiplexing) [AMPS]
      • FDD (frequency division duplexing)
    • TDMA (time division multiple access)
      • DSI (digital speech interpolation)
    • CDMA (code division multiple access)
      • Analagous to packet switching over internet
    • GSM (Global System for Mobil Communication)
      • Form of TDMA used in Europe & Asia (also US)
  • Frequency Comparison
  • TCA § 101 (Interconnection)
    • 47 USC § 251 - Interconnection
      • (a) GENERAL DUTY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS-
        • Each telecommunications carrier has the duty--
          • (1) to interconnect directly or indirectly with the facilities and equipment of other telecommunications carriers; and
          • (2) not to install network features, functions, or capabilities that do not comply with the guidelines and standards established pursuant to section 255 or 256.
    • What are the LEC – CMRS interconnection obligations?
      • Are they even covered by § 251
      • Yes; CMRS providers are “telecom carriers”
  • CMRS - LEC Interconnection
    • Mutual exchange of traffic
      • Calls originating on mobile (wireless) unit
        • unless calling another mobile unit, MTSO must interconnect with PSTN
      • Calls originating on wireline (LEC)
        • if calling a mobile unit, LEC must intercon w. MTSO
    • Compare Europe
      • FPTN & PMTS interconnection obligations
        • Fixed Public Telephone Network (comp. PSTN)
        • Public Mobile Telephone Service (comp. CMRS/MTSO)
  • Other LEC - CMRS obligations
    • LEC Obligations - § 251(b)
      • Number portability - sub §2
      • Dialing parity - sub §3
      • Reciprocal compensation - sub §5
    • Additional ILEC Obligations - § 251(c)
      • Interconnection (to enable competition) - sub §2
    • CMRS/MTSO Obligations
      • None under 251(b) or (c)
        • not LECs (see §§ 3(26) & 3(44)) unless FCC so declares
      • What should FCC do?
  • Deploying Wireless in US
    • Report & Order and FNPRM (2000)
      • How FCC acts
    • In re Extending Wireless to Tribal Lands
      • Low penetration rates in low-income areas
        • Also impedes access to advanced services
        • Wireless buildout lower than wireline (comp. 3d world)
      • Bidding credits for targeted deployment
      • Universal Service funding (wireline & wireless)
  • Cellular Regulation in the EU
    • Council Directive 87/372/EEC
      • Recommendation by CEPT; allotment by ITU
      • Specifying common (pan-EU) frequency band
        • 900 MHz (905-914, 950-959) (890-915, 935-960)
        • Common standards - GSM
      • Implemented by member states
    • Council Resolution 90/C 329/09
      • Urging coordination on network facilities
      • And facilitating roaming agreements
        • Interoperabilty via national licensing = high roaming rates
  • Cellular and EU Open Networks
    • Council/Parliament Directive 97/33/EC
      • Interconnection requirements
        • Interoperability, non-discrimination, privacy
        • Compare interconnection in US - cell/PSTN
      • Right of access
        • Negotiated terms, rates (both FPTN & PMTS)
        • Unbundled access if telco has >25% market share
          • Principles of transparency & cost orientation (unbundled)
        • Limited exceptions; not for anti-competitive purpose
      • Universal Service
        • Subsidy obligations of telcos for public telecom svcs
  • Third Generation Wireless (G3)
    • Features
      • Bandwidth on demand
        • Asymmetric rates up to 2 Mbits/sec
      • Multi-use wireless
        • Data, multimedia
        • NTIA 3G web site
    • Frequency allotment in US
      • Current (approx 210 MHz in various bands)
      • New (likely in 2500-2690 MHz band)
        • Public Notice NOI
  • NPRMs on 3G (2001, 2002)
    • Band Clearing (reallocation & relocation)
      • Lower 700 Mhz (TV channels 52-59)
      • 1710-1755 MHz band relinquished by fed gov’t
      • 2110-2155 MHz previously for fixed microwave
      • These bands have good characteristics for 3G
        • See ITU report and coordination request
    • Creating a new Band Plan
      • Flexible uses to facilitate growth & innovation
        • Licensees (not FCC) will mediate interferences
      • Development of Secondary Markets (R&O 2003)
  • Deploying 3G in Europe
    • Decision 128/1999/EC (Parliament & Council)
      • Member states to authorize UMTS by 1/1/2000
      • And deploy UMTS by 1/1/2002 (coord. by CEPT)
      • Interoperability/interconnection (roaming)
    • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom’n System)
      • Mobile multimedia capabilities
      • IP-based services (bandwidth on demand)
      • Full convergence with FPTN
  • Comparing 3G in US, Europe, Asia
    • US (as of 2001)
      • Advanced CMRS up to 144 Kbs (typically 25-60)
        • EDGE, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
      • Band clearing required for further deployment
    • Japan
      • WCDMA (wideband CDMA) up to 384 Kbs
    • Europe
      • GPRS
      • UMTS
  • Coverage
    • Tues (6/6), Broadband & VoIP: 336-374
    • Weds (6/7), Internet : 375-410
    • Thurs (6/8), Visits
    • Fri (6/9), Catchup & Review
    • Sat (6/10), Final