Wireless Telephony


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  • Fixed Public Telephone Network Public Mobile Telephone Service
  • Wireless Telephony

    1. 1. Comparative Telecommunications Law Brooklyn/Loyola Summer Program UIBE - 2006 Prof. Karl Manheim 6: Wireless Telephony
    2. 2. Wireless Telephony - A Primer <ul><li>A form of 2-way radio communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each handset is a transmitter and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power, short-range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base stations (cell towers) must be closely spaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Private networks (PMRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., transportation companies; public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common carriers (subscribers) (CMRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to Public Switched Telephone Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which serves as the hub for most calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except those between subscribers on same network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Comparison of Wireless & Radio Official Glossary Half-duplex (1 channel) Duplex (2 channel) Mass Media Bureau Wireless Telecom Bureau Open & shared frequency Secure frequency End user licensed End user not licensed Not networked Connects to PSTN Point-to-multipoint Point-to-point Radio Communication Wireless Telephony
    4. 4. Evolution of Wireless Telephony <ul><li>Remote Patches </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular (AMPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Communications Service (PCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Wireless (3G) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Remote Patch (repeater) <ul><li>2-way radio connected to a phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47 CFR § 22.573 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widely used by ham (amateur) radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telephone side: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>private line connected to PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radio side: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>private radio service; limited to non-commercial traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single frequency use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>half-duplex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Cell Concept <ul><li>Frequency reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low power transmitters allow same frequency to be reused in small nearby areas </li></ul></ul>1973 Motorola Patent
    7. 7. Modern Cell Network <ul><li>Computerized cell network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base stations (mobile telephone switching office - MTSO) linked by land lines to form a network; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTSO intercon-nects with PSTN </li></ul></ul><ul><li> graphic </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cell Splitting <ul><li>Typical cell size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog: 1-50km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCS & GSM: < 10km </li></ul></ul>Macro, Micro, Pico cells
    9. 10. Wireless Terminology <ul><li>PMRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Mobile Radio Svc (not PSTN connected) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Mobile Radio Svc (common carrier) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular (1st Generation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog CMRS (800 Mhz band) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCS (2nd Generation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital CMRS (1900 Mhz band) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMT-2000 (3rd Generation - 3G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband wireless (Int’l Mobile Telecom 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Early cellular regulation <ul><li>Cellular treated as common carrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at first, extension of ILEC monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ duopoly” after MFJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 “facilities-based” cell carriers per market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 licenses per market (A band, B band) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Band reserved for non-wireline carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B Band reserved for wireline (i.e., ILECs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on resale prohibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage competition by “value-added” telcos </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Advanced Mobile Phone Svc (AMPS) <ul><li>Cellular (47 CFR § 22.900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analog band: 824.04 MHz - 893.7 MHz (70 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control channels (forward and reverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forward: paging channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reverse: registration (ESN, tel #) other control data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice channels (forward and reverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequency modulation (FM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMPS - 30KHz wide (compare FM stereo 150 KHz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAMPS - 10KHz wide (same as AM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>full duplex Graphic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequency division duplexing (FDD) Graphic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mobile & base on different frequencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>separated by a “guard band” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simultaneous 2-way </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Cellular Frequencies 800 MHz band
    13. 14. Cellnet v. FCC (6 th Cir. 1998) <ul><li>FCC requires facilities-based mobile carriers to lease network components to resellers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellnet challenges 1993 (5-yr) sunset provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctant to make its own capital investments as reseller if likely to be shut out in 5 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FCC rationale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCS development will be competitive w/ cellular so that regulation will become unnecessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive judgment based on market growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Court defers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To superior agency expertise (esp. wrt predictions) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Personal Com’n Service (PCS) <ul><li>Broadband PCS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 MHz in 6 blocks (A-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephony plus other services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data (paging, text) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internet (graphics, email) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband PCS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 MHz in 12.5-50 KHz blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paging & messaging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telemetry (remote monitoring of field equipment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Broadband PCS Frequencies 2 GHz band
    16. 17. Cellular & Digital Multiplexing <ul><li>FDM (frequency division multiplexing) [AMPS] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDD (frequency division duplexing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TDMA (time division multiple access) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSI (digital speech interpolation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDMA (code division multiple access) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analagous to packet switching over internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSM (Global System for Mobil Communication) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of TDMA used in Europe & Asia (also US) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Frequency Comparison
    18. 19. TCA § 101 (Interconnection) <ul><li>47 USC § 251 - Interconnection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) GENERAL DUTY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each telecommunications carrier has the duty-- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) to interconnect directly or indirectly with the facilities and equipment of other telecommunications carriers; and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) not to install network features, functions, or capabilities that do not comply with the guidelines and standards established pursuant to section 255 or 256. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the LEC – CMRS interconnection obligations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they even covered by § 251 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes; CMRS providers are “telecom carriers” </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. CMRS - LEC Interconnection <ul><li>Mutual exchange of traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls originating on mobile (wireless) unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unless calling another mobile unit, MTSO must interconnect with PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls originating on wireline (LEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if calling a mobile unit, LEC must intercon w. MTSO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FPTN & PMTS interconnection obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Public Telephone Network (comp. PSTN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Mobile Telephone Service (comp. CMRS/MTSO) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Other LEC - CMRS obligations <ul><li>LEC Obligations - § 251(b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number portability - sub §2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialing parity - sub §3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal compensation - sub §5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional ILEC Obligations - § 251(c) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection (to enable competition) - sub §2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMRS/MTSO Obligations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None under 251(b) or (c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not LECs (see §§ 3(26) & 3(44)) unless FCC so declares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What should FCC do? </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Deploying Wireless in US <ul><li>Report & Order and FNPRM (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How FCC acts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In re Extending Wireless to Tribal Lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low penetration rates in low-income areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also impedes access to advanced services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless buildout lower than wireline (comp. 3d world) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bidding credits for targeted deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service funding (wireline & wireless) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Cellular Regulation in the EU <ul><li>Council Directive 87/372/EEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation by CEPT; allotment by ITU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying common (pan-EU) frequency band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>900 MHz (905-914, 950-959) (890-915, 935-960) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common standards - GSM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented by member states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Council Resolution 90/C 329/09 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urging coordination on network facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And facilitating roaming agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperabilty via national licensing = high roaming rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Cellular and EU Open Networks <ul><li>Council/Parliament Directive 97/33/EC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability, non-discrimination, privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare interconnection in US - cell/PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated terms, rates (both FPTN & PMTS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unbundled access if telco has >25% market share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of transparency & cost orientation (unbundled) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited exceptions; not for anti-competitive purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidy obligations of telcos for public telecom svcs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Third Generation Wireless (G3) <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth on demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric rates up to 2 Mbits/sec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-use wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data, multimedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NTIA 3G web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency allotment in US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current (approx 210 MHz in various bands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New (likely in 2500-2690 MHz band) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Notice NOI </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. NPRMs on 3G (2001, 2002) <ul><li>Band Clearing (reallocation & relocation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower 700 Mhz (TV channels 52-59) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1710-1755 MHz band relinquished by fed gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2110-2155 MHz previously for fixed microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These bands have good characteristics for 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See ITU report and coordination request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating a new Band Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible uses to facilitate growth & innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licensees (not FCC) will mediate interferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Secondary Markets (R&O 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Deploying 3G in Europe <ul><li>Decision 128/1999/EC (Parliament & Council) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member states to authorize UMTS by 1/1/2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And deploy UMTS by 1/1/2002 (coord. by CEPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability/interconnection (roaming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom’n System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-based services (bandwidth on demand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full convergence with FPTN </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Comparing 3G in US, Europe, Asia <ul><li>US (as of 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced CMRS up to 144 Kbs (typically 25-60) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band clearing required for further deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCDMA (wideband CDMA) up to 384 Kbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Coverage <ul><li>Tues (6/6), Broadband & VoIP: 336-374 </li></ul><ul><li>Weds (6/7), Internet : 375-410 </li></ul><ul><li>Thurs (6/8), Visits </li></ul><ul><li>Fri (6/9), Catchup & Review </li></ul><ul><li>Sat (6/10), Final </li></ul>