IMS/MMD The IPv6 Factor APAN 21 IPv6 Workshop Tokyo January 22-25 th 2006 Yves Poppe Dir. IP Strategy Teleglobe IPv6 Forum Member NAv6TF SME
This presentation was given to the IMS/MMD conference in Dallas, Texas, November 8th 2005 The major point of interest for the Mobile Network Operators in the audience turned out to be the potential battery savings IPv6 could bring. My purpose today is to encourage the Research and Education community, active in IPv6, to undertake some exercises to simulate, test and quantify these energy savings. If these turn out to be significant, this could be a major catalyst to accelerate the commercial deployment of IPv6 Yves Poppe, Tokyo Jan 22nd 2006
North American Chapter of the IPv6 forum
NAv6TF Mobility Project
Carl Williams, Dave Green, John Loughney, Jim Bound, Timothy Rapp, Ozzie Diaz, Yves Poppe
This presentation draws largely on contributions and the hard to match expertise of John Loughney and Carl Williams. John, Carl, many thanks.
“ The latest round of GSMA-led tests focused on ensuring the compatibility of systems that handle IPv6, billing, performance management and inter-hub connectivity. They followed on from successful tests of IMS applications, such as voice instant messaging, video sharing and gaming, which were completed in February 2005. As part of the initiative, initially started in Europe, the GSMA brought together key players from the mobile network operator, GRX carriers and vendor communities. Those participating in the European trial, led by TeliaSonera, include mobile phone operators Vodafone, Orange, KPN and TeliaSonera itself. “ Any acceleration? Singapore, sept 28 th 2005 GSM Worldnews
Music to my IPv6 ears… Billing World & OSS Today October 2005 … .IPv6 has continued to garner attention. Part of the reason is IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), which has galvanized hardware manufacturers to decouple and open up systems so that key elements and components can be interfaced to others without drastic integration measures. For billing and OSS vendors, that means simplified interaction with network elements. Because the 3GPP’s TS 23.221 specification mandates that IMS make optimum use of IPv6, it is expected that IMS will be one of the drivers behind IPv6 acceptance.
“ Ericsson and Rogers Communications Inc. announced they will begin a trial of 3G/HSDPA wireless services and applications, as well as converged IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). ….. IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) is an IP-based service creation environment that will enable Rogers to efficiently introduce new multimedia voice, data, audio and video services (Quadruple Play) across its multiple networks (including mobile wireless, Cable and DSL and Fixed Wireless). IMS represents a very significant opportunity to bring the various Rogers networks into a single service environment that can be presented in an easy to use manner to Rogers' customers Ericsson press release, oct 13th 2005 As Rogers customer in Canada, I was happy to read:
Running out of IPv4 addresses? Yes, rather fast Real problem by 2008 Tony Hain Study sept 2005
Are we really in an impasse?
IPv4 addresses are effectively being rationed, even in North-America. Just try to get a small block of permanent addresses.
The shortage is hidden by the proliferation of NAT’s (Network Address Translaters) which allows for re-use of addresses.
Remember extension numbers behind a PBX?
Manually patched phone calls?.
Telephony in 1920 had permanent phone numbers and peer 2 peer communications
In 2005 IMS and Internet beg for permanent addresses and peer 2 peer communications
Madison 2435 please Our grandparents had permanent addresses!
The NAT’s grandfather Source : Mike Sandman Telephone History Pages Extension 7248 please At least the extension had a permanent address
In the 2005 IP Converging world: Nothing permanent anymore! As you have been inactive, I will give your address to some-one else The nasty evil NAT!
Real Time Apps & NATs
Even using servers , NATed addresses still cause problems.
NAT’s UDP inactivity timers cause trouble:
The mobile would need to send keep-alive packets to every used public UDP socket every 30 seconds: very bad for battery life.
Mobiles can easily use up all of the operators public IPv4-addresses due to the keep-alives so that the public UDP ports can’t be assigned to new mobiles.
Client, Private IPv4 address 1 Server, Public IPv4 address 3 Client, Private IPv4 address 2 UDP port = 6538 The UDP inactivity timer in NATs causes the public UDP port 6538 to be assigned to a different mobile, if the mobile does not send any data within a certain amount of time, about every 40 seconds … There should be NO NATs between the terminal and the server!
Even nastier NAT problems
Mobile networks tend to have spiralling numbers of short-lived connections.
Quick web browsing
Large, global operators have seen private IP addresses being re-assigned before NAT bindings time out.
Major security hole: the data session may still be active and if the NAT binding is still active, someone else might be getting your data.
To solve this, operators have shortened the NAT binding life-time, meaning NAT refreshes are needed more often.
Battery draining NAT’s!
What if IP, SIP and IPsec behind a NAT? Three levels of keep-alive!
Also, in a UMA and WLAN environment, IPsec is used to tunnel into the home network.
IMS with IPv6 Multi-country/Multi-operator SIP-connectivity network Client, Public IPv6 address 1 Client, Public IPv6 address 2 Public IP-routing domain (inter-operator connections) Media from B to A: Sent to Public IPv6 Addr 1
Current GPRS networks use private addresses almost exclusively.
Lots of users require port reservations which can use much of the operator’s public IPv4 address space.
Peer-to-peer connections can be expanded to inter-operator and inter-country whenever the operator wants to do so …
ADSL, cable, 3G, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max… provide the always-on
Some compelling IPv6 arguments for the MNO world
Permanent IP addresses seem a logical prerequisite for IP address based billing in an IP converging world.
Event, session, application, location based billing are essential to evolving MNO business models.
Access independence, session continuity, QoS
Not to mention battery life
UDP traffic requires keep-alives (every 45 seconds) – huge power drain! How much compared to IPv4??
And how to manage global roaming with private addresses?
Mobility finally scalable: goodbye Foreign Agent!
Mobile IPv6 in a GPRS environment SGSN IP Traffic with Another host SGSN GGSN GTP over IPv4 w/ V6 traffic type Internet WLAN Remote PLMN Mobile Node On Home Network GGSN enabled as a Home Agent
Mobile IPv6 in a GPRS environment SGSN IP Traffic with Another host SGSN GGSN GTP over IPv4 w/ V6 traffic type Internet WLAN Remote PLMN Mobile Node moves to new GPRS network GPRS Roaming (GTP) Means mobile still at home from IP Point-of-view
Mobile IPv6 in a GPRS environment SGSN IP Traffic with Another host SGSN GGSN Internet WLAN Remote PLMN Mobile IP registers with Mobile IP home agent Mobile Node roams to WLAN
Mobile IPv6 in a GPRS environment SGSN Traffic flows directly between MN and Correspondent Node (CN) SGSN GGSN Internet WLAN Remote PLMN CN Mobile Node (MN) roams to WLAN
Mobile IPv6 in a GPRS environment SGSN SGSN GGSN Internet WLAN Remote PLMN Mobile Node (MN) roams to WLAN NOTE: any node that wants to reach the MN can do so at any time via its home address CN
Time to start deploying IPv6?
GRX upgrade to dual-stack : mostly just a matter of IOS or JUNOS upgrade or often just activation of the IPv6 stack! Maybe some memory upgrade
PLMN packet network upgrade
Dual-stack access routers and MPLS core is an economical way to get into the act
UE’s : lack of dual stack devices is not an excuse anymore
Dual Stack Handsets are here… Nokia E61 (3G + wifi) Nokia 70 (3G + wifi) Nokia E60 (3G + wifi) Nokia N90 (3G) Nokia N91 (3G + wifi) Nokia N70 (3G) Nokia 9500 (wifi) Nokia 9300 Nokia 7700 Nokia 6680 (3G)
Or just better to sit and wait?
A procrastinator’s reasoning:
Early mover advantage in IMS with IPv4
IPv6 will take time to deploy and is expensive
I will migrate if and when the time comes
But at what risk and cost?
Miss out on new p2p applications and revenue sources
Be burdened with costly transitions, migrations, backward compatibility, billing systems, customer support and QoS issues
Risk of being pushed out of the race completely
Wholesale carrier for TDM and IP based voice, global roaming and data services IPv6 deployment is not that complicated nor that expensive
Home SOHO Enterprise Native (dual stack) and tunnel IPv6 service Carrier/ISPdual stack network Dual stack router MPLS core Teleglobe Globeinternet 6PE IPv6 World or network with MPLS core Los Angeles, San Jose, Ashburn, New-York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Madrid, Hong-Kong IPv4 World Approx 45 locations worldwide; 120+ gigabit of peering
San Jose Los Angeles Ashburn Montreal New York New Jersey Toronto Miami Amsterdam Paris Madrid London Frankfurt Oslo Dual-stack router Hong Kong Teleglobe's IPv6 Points of Presence Warsaw Kuala Lumpur Sept 2005
TeliaSonera, ..major mobile and fixed line service provider based in Sweden, to prepare for large-scale migration to next-generation IP version 6 (IPv6) in 2006… October 11th 2005 Thank you for your attention Lucent's IMS-based architecture and applications will complement Cingular's 3G network and enable Cingular to offer subscribers innovative, easy-to-use services that they can access anytime, anywhere, with almost any device. Lucent, October 18th 2005 Things continue to evolve as we prepare this presentation and as we speak….
Supplementary notes IPv4 Mobility vs IPv6 Mobility Transition to IPv6 in 3GPP and 3GPP2 IETF and IP Mobility
IPv4 Mobility vs IPv6 Mobility (1 of 3) 128 bit addresses 32 bit addresses addressing Stateless Address Autoconfig, DHCP manual config or Via agent discovery, DHCP or manual config Care-of-Address A globally routable Home Address (HoA)and a link local HoA One home address Home address IPv6 (RFC 3775) IPv4 (RFC3344) function
IPv4 Mobility vs IPv6 Mobility (2 of 3) IPv6 Router Discovery Agent Discovery through Foreign Agent Movement detection Anycast addressing. Returns a single reply to the MN Directed broadcast. Returns separate replies from all HA’s to the MN (Mobile Node) Dynamic Home Agent Address Discovery (DHAAD) CoA’s are ALL co-located. No Foreign Agents needed Foreign Agent CoA and co-located CoA CoA (Care of Address) IPv6 (RFC 3775) IPv4 (RFC 3344) function
IPv4 Mobility vs IPv6 Mobility (3 of 3) Tunnel routing and source routing with IPv6 routing headers Tunnel routing Data packet delivery to MN IPv6 neighbour discovery; decoupled from any given link layer. ARP Link layer neighbour address discovery MN itself decapsulates Foreign Agent decapsulates Decapsulation of data packets sent to MN’s CoA IPv6 (RFC 3775) IPv4 (RFC 3344) function
Support for IPv6 (for user traffic) was fully introduced in 3GPP Release 99. This is what is currently deployed.
IPv6 address allocation mechanism was updated in 2002 to allocate a globally unique (/64) prefix (instead of a single address) for every primary PDP context.
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) - multimedia service infrastructure introduced in Release 5 specifies IPv6 as the only IP version in the IMS to avoid IPv4-IPv6 transition and interworking problems.
Some work is on-going for support for early IMS implementations (a.k.a. – IPv4 IMS deployments).
Messy Easy Transition to IPv6 in 3GPP networks
Analyzed in the v6ops Working Group (IETF)
Transition Scenarios for 3GPP Networks - RFC 3574
3GPP Analysis - draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-11.txt (in RFC Editor’s Queue)
GPRS transition scenarios:
Dual Stack terminal connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes
IPv6 terminal connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network
IPv4 terminal connecting to an IPv4 node through an IPv6 network
IPv6 terminal connecting to an IPv4 node
IPv4 terminal connecting to an IPv6 node
IMS transition scenarios:
Terminal connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS
Two IPv6 IMS operators connected via an IPv4 network
A look at RFC 4215 Analysis on IPv6 in 3GPP networks (october 2005, J.Wiljakka)
As IMS is exclusively IPv6, 2 scenarios possible
Two IPv6 IMS islands connected via IPv4 network; UE’s are IPv6: tunneling solution –easy
IPv6 UE connecting through IMS to a « legacy » IPv4 only node or vice versa : A new solution for IPv4-IPv6 interworking in SIP networks is needed.
The problem is that control (signalling) and user (data) traffic are separated in SIP calls and thus the IMS. The transition of IMS traffic has to be handled at two levels:
SIP and SDP (Mm-interface)
User data traffic (Mb-interface)
Necessitates an interworking unit containing a dual stack SIP server and a transition gateway for the media traffic. Has major drawbacks however: rewriting of the SDP prevents securing the SDP payload between the two endpoints and breaks down of end-to end negotiations of SIP extensions required for each session.
WLAN-3GPP Service Scenarios
3GPP defined service scenarios [TS 22.934]
Scenario 1 - Common Billing and Customer Care
Single customer relationship Customer receives one bill from the usage of both cellular & WLAN services
Scenario 2 - 3GPP system based Access Control and Charging
Authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) are provided by the 3GPP system , for WLAN access
Scenario 3 - Access to 3GPP system PS based services
The same services provided by GPRS c an be accessed by WLAN
Scenario 4 - Service Continuity
Services supported in scenario 3 survive an inter-system handover between WLAN and 3GPP. The change of access may be noticeable to the user .
Scenario 5 - Seamless Services
Seamless service continuity between the access technologies .
Scenario 6 - Access to 3GPP CS Services
CS core network services supported over WLAN
3GPP2 IS-835C specifies Simple IPv6
/64 addresses through PPP.
no duplicate address detection.
3GPP2 IS-835D specifies Mobile IPv6
Open issues on MIPv6 and firewall traversal
3GPP2 and 3GPP are co-operating on IMS
3GPP2 IMS supports both IPv4 and IPv6
Transition Scenarios for 3GPP2
Slightly more complicated - many scenarios for network transition.
Simple IPv4 -> Simple IPv6
Mobile IPv4 -> Simple IPv6
Mobile IPv4 -> Mobile IPv6
Various choices for upgrading to IPv6
Upgrade mobile terminals and PDSNs (Packed Domain Service Node) and services to dual-stack, operator core network is IPv4.
Upgrade only mobile terminals and some services to dual-stack. Employ transition mechanism on mobile.
Use of IPv6 transition mechanisms with MIPv6 is an open issue.
Mobile IPv6 traversal of IPv4 and IPv6 CDMA 2000 networks MIPv6 makes mobile users appear as static elements since their IP address does not change and their connections remain. #1 #2 3G IPv6 HA Mobile Node A B C A B C IPv6 Service IPv6 Tunnel CN To enable seamless Mobility across IPv4 and IPv6 networks 3G IPv4 3G IPv4 PDSN A B C Trans Trans
The IETF and IP Mobility
IETF is primary source of std work on IP mobility
IETF is divided into 7 study areas:
Operations and management area
IP mobility topics identified in each area
IETF : 20 Areas for Further Study
Some good reading
IPv6 in Mobile wireless networks (Cisco) http:// www . cisco . com /en/US/ netsol /ns341/ns396/ns177/ns443/ networking _solutions_ white _paper0900aecd8024fa13. shtml
MPLS for mobile operators (Cisco) http:// www . cisco . com /en/US/ netsol /ns341/ns396/ns177/ns443/ networking _solutions_solution_ category . html