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Wireless Communication: Frontiers for the Last Mile

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  • 1. Wireless Communication: Frontiers for the Last Mile Prof. Theodore S. Rappaport William and Bettye Nowlin Chair of Engineering Wireless Networking and Communications Group The University of Texas at Austin [email_address] ♦ The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX February 27, 2004
      • C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 2. The Wireless Revolution
      • C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Today’s Subscriber Base
      • C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 4. From 2G to 3G
      • C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
    2.5G 2G 3G GPRS IS-95B IS-95 GSM IS-136 & PDC EDGE HSCSD 3GPP W-CDMA TD-SCDMA EDGE 3GPP2 CDMA2000-3XRTT CDMA2000-1XEV, DV, DO CDMA2000-1XRTT
  • 5. Cellular, 50 MHz, 1983 PCS, 150 MHz, 1995 UNII, 300 MHz, 1997 LMDS, 1300 MHz, 1998 60 GHz Unlicensed, 5000 MHz, 1998
    • A voice channel occupies ~ 10 kHz of spectrum.
    • A TV channel occupies ~ 5 MHz of spectrum.
    Recent U.S. Spectrum Allocations C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 6. Investor´s Perspective Oct 2001 C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 7. Problems
    • Broadband fiber offers enormous capacity to feed “last” mile
    • Telco’s must compete with Cable triple play
      • Phone Service
      • Internet
      • On-Demand Video
    • Carriers need an immediate infrastructure for broadband video delivery / cable-like world
    • Wireless offers rapid deployment with extreme bandwidths and little plant
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 8. Solution
    • Broadband wireless supported by:
      • Integrated Antennas
      • MIMO Technology
      • Novel and flexible architecture
      • WiMax (802.16), Mesh (802.20)
    • Carriers can deploy in neighborhoods with just one truck-roll per large neighborhood
    • Delivers last-mile huge bandwidths that will be “pulled’ by new consumer electronics, UWB home networks
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 9. Why Hasn’t Last Mile Broadband Wireless Happened?
    • Telco’s and Cableco’s invested in wiring
    • MMDS Wireless
      • Too narrowband
      • No clear spectrum policy or owner (however, Nextel bought Worldcom footprint)
      • Nationwide broadband wireless last-mile emerging as a strategy (Nextel, Sprint, ??)
    • LMDS Wireless
      • 28 / 38 GHz too expensive to date but technology is maturing
      • 5.8 to 12 GHz is the next frequency revolution (WiFi, Northpoint Wireless Cable)
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Today’s Local Loop C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 11. Weather Effects at Millimeter Wave Attenuation due to hail: 25.7 dB . Hail size: 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter.
      • From: H. Xu, T. S. Rappaport, R. J. Boyle, and J. H. Schaffner, “Measurements and Models for 38-GHz Point-to-Multipoint Radiowave Propagation”, IEEE Journal on Sel. Areas in Communications , March 2000, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 310-321
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 12. Last-Mile Wireless Will Happen!
    • Reduce truck rolls – high data rate last-mile ports sold in Walmart (or Dell) for home installation
    • Communications / Computing / Entertainment will pull bandwidth into every home and office on “portable” flexible devices.
      • “ On-the-pole” provisioning supports neighborhood growth
    • Already cable companies eyeing “Wireless Roadrunner”, Hot spots are harbingers
    • Why do I need to put my TV and stereo near a cable jack?
    • Why does the cable guy have to come into my house?
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 13. Current Status / Future Directions C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved Excellent >10 Mbps Expensive – Dig up street Fiber to the Home Good / Excellent 1.2 – 5 Mbps $80 / month Cable Fair 1 Mbps $50 / month DSL Excellent >10 Mbps Inexpensive – Climb a pole MIMO Last Mile Poor 10 – 64 kbps $50 / month Cellular / PCS Poor 56 kbps $40 / month POTS Streaming Video Date Rate per User Cost per Subscriber
  • 14. Wireless Modem Fundamentals C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 15. C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 16. C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 17. Moore’s Law C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Transistor Count Transistors = 7.4M Transistors = 75M Intel Pentium II - 1995 32bit up Xilinx/UMC Group - 1999 Virtex - 1000 100M 10M 1M 100K 10K 1K 100 10 0 RCA - 1962 First MOSFET Transistor = 1 Intel - 1972 First 8bit up 8080 Transistors = 4,500 Transistors = 450,000 HP-1981 32bit up
  • 18. The Future of DSP and RF Hardware
    • Trends
      • Increasing levels of System integration
      • Pervasive DSP enabling anywhere anytime connectivity
      • Increasingly complex systems
      • Decreasing market windows
      • RF system on a chip becoming viable
    • Designs
      • Device technology supporting highly parallel DSP engines
      • Design methodologies
        • Abstraction that permits working in the language of the problem
        • Enables effective integration of re-usable components (cores)
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 19. IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN’s
    • 11 Mbps incumbent
    • 54 Mbps now
    • Roaming 802.11g
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 20. IEEE 802.11 Evolution
      • From: B. Li, N. Kanat, H. Lee, D. Menchaca, and T. S. Rappaport, “Overview of Wireless Networks and Security Issues for WiFi Networks”, Radio Club of America, Submitted for publication in August 2003
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved FHSS IEEE 802.11 2.4 GHz DSSS 2 Mbps 4GFSK 1 Mbps 2GFSK 2 Mbps DQPSK 1 Mbps DBPSK IEEE 802.11b Extension 11 Mbps DQPSK-CCK QPSK-PBCC 5.5 Mbps DQPSK-CCK BPSK-PBCC IEEE 802.11a Extension 5 GHz OFDM IEEE 802.11g Extension 2.4 GHz 12 Mbps QPSK 24 Mbps 16-QAM 36 Mbps 16-QAM 48 Mbps 16-QAM 54 Mbps 64-QAM 6 Mbps BPSK IEEE WLAN Standards
  • 21. 2.4 GHz Channelization for WLAN’s C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved 2 through 80 1 through 13 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz ETSI Remainder of Europe 47 through 73 10 and 11 2.445 to 2.475 GHz Spain 48 through 82 10 through 13 2.4465 to 2.4835 GHz France 2 through 95 1 through 14 2.4 to 2.497 GHz MKK Japan 2 through 80 1 through 11 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz IC Canada 2 through 80 1 through 11 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz FCC United States FHSS Channels Available DSSS Channels Available Frequency Range Available Regulatory Agency Country
  • 22. Personal Area Networks – Bluetooth / UWB C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved LAN Access point Headset Mobile phone Mouse Printer Laptop Laptop
  • 23. UWB – Broadband in the Home
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 24. UWB Regulations - FCC
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 25. Personal Area Networks IEEE 802.15
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 26. IEEE 802.15.3 UWB
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 27. UWB will Revolutionize Consumer Electronics
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 28. One UWB Standard Proposal
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 29. Another UWB Standard Proposal
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 30. How the 2 UWB Standards Operate
      • From: K. Mandke, H. Nam, L. Yerramneni, C. Zuniga, and T. S. Rappaport, “The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks”, High Frequency Electronics , September 2003, pp. 22-32
      • GHz
      • GHz
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 31. Internet Protocol Zoo UDP TCP video tool MUA/ MTA news reader browser H.261 MIME HTML RTP DNS SMTP NNTP ftp http manager ASN.1 SNMP user space library kernel driver board application transport subnet datalink IPv4, IPv6 network C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 32. How to Place and Measure Access Points? C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 33. Making Wireless Work C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 34. C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 35. The Last 100 Meters of Wireless Access C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved Houses Moderately Wooded Yards Trees Base Station Street Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees
  • 36. Path loss into a home from the street 5.8 GHz C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved 40.2 45.0 31.3 51.4 33.4 52.6 32.4 51.3 33.7 54.4 31.8 53.6 32.0 29.6 33.0 48.5 31.3 50.7 25.9 51.0 27.3 57.9 32.1 56.5 32.0 Outdoor 1.5m Rx Ant. Path Loss (Shoulder high) Indoor Path Loss Outdoor 5.5m Rx Ant. Path Loss (Top of house) Key all values in dB w.r.t.1m FS T x 41.6 39.6 40.1 42.5 51.2 51.9 57.7 45.8 43.7 46.7 44.4 40.6 46.6 51.7 51.2 Kitchen Deck First Floor Second Floor Garage Tree Tree Front Bedroom Rear Bed. 1 Master Bedroom Rear Bed. 2 Family Room Living Room Dining Room Office
  • 37. Knowledge leads to deployment tools C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 38. SitePlanner® Environment with Channel Measurements and Throughput Prediction C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 39. Shopping mall store walls Leaky Feeder Antenna System Required < 2 minutes on a Pentium II 300 MHz PC
  • 40. Data Appliances and Applications
    • Cellular, PCS, WAP
    • Wireless Office Service
    • Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11)
    • Wireless PDAs (Compaq IPAQ, Handspring)
    • Wireless VoIP
    • Wireless Video
    • Bluetooth
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 41. Observations – where we are today
    • 3G Wireless will compete with WLAN
    • Tetherless networks are coming to homes and offices
    • Fixed wireless access may replace fiber
    • The web is here to stay
    • Cellular started “outside in”
    • WLAN is moving “inside out”
    • Fixed wireless access is the ultimate last mile solution
    • The web, computing, and wireless are merging!!!
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 42. Space – The Final Frontier C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 43. Diversity gives Capacity – MIMO! C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 44. HUGE Capacity Increases are coming! C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 45. Global Market Opportunity for Texas
    • Today, less than 30% of US has broadband internet access to their homes
    • Today, less than 500 million of the 6 billion people in the world have internet access
    • Telecom Corridor (Dallas), The Semiconductor and Software Industries (Austin), the Computing Industry (Houston, Austin), and Security Industry (San Antonio) have greatest growth opportunities to “network the world.”
    • This will be done “wirelessly” across the globe, as wireless eclipses wired deployments, especially in developing nations and rural locations.
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 46. Our Mission for the Texas Wireless Networking and Communications Center
    • To be a premier creator of research and innovation for the communications, software, and semiconductor industries in the state of Texas, while fostering economic development, and excellence in education and research that will make Texas the preeminent wireless industrial leader in the US.
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 47. The Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) formed at UT in September 2002
    • $1 MM investment provided by Texas companies (Motorola, SBC, & Texas Instruments) and UT to launch WNCG in Sept. 2002
    • 12 Electrical and Computer Engineering faculty formed new center (WNCG)
    • 7000 sq. ft. premier laboratories and start-up facility built for center ops on UT Austin campus. Will be complete in March 2004.
    • Over $2.3 million in external funds received for wireless R&D in just first year of operation! This can be scaled for state benefit.
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 48. Industrial Affiliate Sponsors of WNCG Each company or organization has invested $150K for a 3-year commitment. $1,050,000 committed in the first year alone. Several more companies will soon join. C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 49. Basic R&D and Corporate Sponsors of WNCG $2,350,000.00 in R&D committed in just the first year of operation. C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 50. WNCG’s Early Success Can Scale for Enormous Texas Benefit
    • Create a state-wide research center focused on building Texas leadership in wireless for technology transfer and job creation involving key researchers, business leaders, and investors
    • Develop wireless educational programs and technology for use by community colleges and high schools in Texas
    • Enormous intellectual resource for Texas high-tech entrepreneurs to promote company relocations and capital investment in Texas.
    • WNCG faculty will interact and bond with other key communication engineering faculty throughout Texas
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 51. Beneficiaries of Texas Wireless Networking and Communications Center
    • Texas Telecommunication System Manufacturers (Dallas / Richardson)
    • Texas Semiconductor Industry (Austin)
    • Texas Embedded Software and Security Industry (Austin, San Antonio, Dallas)
    • Texas Computer and Network Equipment Manufacturers (Houston, Austin, Dallas)
    • Texas High-Tech Investment Community and Economic Development Agencies (Statewide)
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 52. Key R&D Thrust Areas of Texas Wireless Networking and Communications Center
    • Radio Frequency (RF) Integrated Circuit Design
      • Wireless on a chip
    • Networking Deployment, Simulation, and Security
      • RF ID tags, sensors, border control
      • Large Scale Wireless Internet Control
      • Wireless Access for International, Rural, disadvantaged areas
    • Advanced Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
      • Broadband ubiquitous access
      • Home entertainment
    • Economic Development and Human Capital Development
      • Concept to prototype
      • Spin-out technologies to Texas Companies
      • Technology roadmaps for private and corporate investors
      • High School / Community College education leadership and curriculum development
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 53. The Big Prize – A National Center National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center
    • With existing sponsorship and sustained state funding, The Texas Wireless Networking and Communications Center will be ideally positioned to win a NSF Engineering Research Center (ERC). ERC’s are competitive national centers of excellence that may last up to 15 years, funded at $5M / year. This is a $75 million dollar opportunity.
    • Texas currently does not have an ERC, yet the Texas semiconductor, communications, computer, and software industries would benefit tremendously.
    • With state funding, combined with WNCG current and future funding, and other key Texas engineering centers, an NSF ERC will amplify state funding by a minimum of 20:1 and more likely 100:1 in value.
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 54. How will the Texas state funding be spent?
    • Top notch research scientists and staff recruited to Texas to work with faculty and sponsors for creating new knowledge, inventions, and producing student leaders.
    • Development of curriculum materials and outreach programs to build the state’s leadership in wireless networking.
    • Creation of industry and investor roundtable to better connect university research with corporate technology transfer and the investor community.
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 55. What we need from the State
    • The state should show Texans that Wall Street does not value R&D in Telecommunications since the dot-com implosion, and there is a lot at stake for the future of the Texas communications industry.
    • Asia and Europe are investing heavily in wireless communications and networking while the US R&D spending has faltered.
    • The state has major corporations and leading researchers in wireless, and Texas universities working with industry and government will make Texas a national leader in the wireless revolution and the prosperity it will bring.
    • The state’s support of a Texas research center in wireless networking and communications can spearhead new technologies, new human capital, and economic development for Texas
    • The state’s business support will be needed to win an NSF ERC on ubiquitous wireless communications in 2005 - 2006
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved
  • 56. Final Remarks
    • The Web, the PC, and Wireless will merge
    • Today 1 Billion, but 2 Billion users by 2008
    • We only use high data rates when we sit or stand, hence a commercial battle will occur inside buildings
    • Space-Time Channels will yield huge capacity increases
    • DSP, Networking, RF ID, and Communications are fundamental to future systems
    • Texas has an opportunity to be a world leader in wireless
    C. 2004 T. S. Rappaport, All Rights Reserved