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Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.
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Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.

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  • 1. Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D. School of Information Sciences and Technology The Pennsylvania State University
  • 2. Understand Mobile Computing What ? Why ? Where ? How ? Advantages Disadvantages Venders Carriers
  • 3. Mobile Technologies – What? Broadband Cellular 3G Cellular 2.5G Cellular 10 m 100 m 1 km 10 km 10 kbs 100 kbs 1 mbs 10 mbs 100 mbs Distance Throughput RFID Bluetooth 802.11x 2G Cellular
  • 4. Mobile Technologies – What?
    • Cellular / PCS:
    • - Cell phones
    • - PDAs
    • - PC cards
    • Location Based Services:
    • - Network
    • - Handset
    • SIM Cards:
    • - Personal data
    • - Stored minutes (prepay)
    • - Stored value (m-cash)
    • Message Technologies:
    • - Email
    • - SMS
    • - IM
    • Telematics:
    • - Private vehicles
    • - Commercial
    • Telemetry
  • 5. US Carriers Deutsche Telekom (100%) GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS 6.5m Looking to be acquired??? iDEN 2 iDEN 8.1m All 1900 mHz cdma2000 1XRTT cdmaOne 14.4m DoCoMo (16%) GSM/GPRS EDGE AMPS/TDMA 19.4m (incl. TeleCorp) SBC (60%) BellSouth (40%) GSM/GPRS EDGE GSM/GPRS AMPS/TDMA 21.3m Verizon (55%) Vodafone (45%) cdma2000 1XRTT cdmaOne AMPS/CDPD 29.4m cust.
  • 6. Mobile Computing Standards 9.6 to 14.4 Kb/sec 115 Kb/sec 384 Kb/sec 384+ Kb/sec (GPRS) (EDGE) (UMTS) 9.6 to 43.2 Kb/sec 9.6 Kb/sec 60-70 Kb/sec ??? 19.2 Kb/sec 4.8 to 19.2 Kb/sec 9.6 Kb/sec 64 Kb/sec (NextGen ReFLEX ???)
      • 2G 2.5G 3G
    14.4 – 64 Kb/sec 144 Kb/sec 384 Kb/sec cdmaOne (95A-95B) (cdma2000 1XRTT) (cdma2000 EVDV) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GSM TDMA CDMA iDEN CDPD Mobitex & DataTAC ReFLEX
  • 7. Mobile Protocol Standards
    • GSM: Global Systems for Mobile Communications.
    • TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access.
    • CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access.
    • iDEN: Integrated Digital Enhanced Network.
    • CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data.
    • Mobitex & DataTAC: Packed-switch Mobile Data Network.
    • UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecom System.
  • 8. Bluetooth
    • 1994 – Ericsson
    • 1998 – Bluetooth SIG
    • - 2000+ members
    • PAN - Personal Area Networking
    • 2.4 gHz
    • 10 m radius
    • - No line-of-sight requirement, as with IR
    • 128 bit security encryption
    • Up to 720 Kb/sec.
    • Low cost chip (max $5)
    • - Can be fitted into anything!
  • 9. 802.11 Standard Series
    • Wireless IP networking for home and office
    • - Limit range: 150 m
    • 802.11b: 11 Mb/sec @ 2.4 gHz
    • - Bluetooth conflicts?
    • 802.11a: 54 Mb/sec @ 5 gHz
    • 802.11g: 22  54 Mb/sec @ 2.4 gHz
    • - Newest std; forward compatibility.
    • Benefits:
    • - User mobility: home, office, even public locations!
    • - Flexibility: P2P, access point (wireless hub), hand-over.
    • - Cheaper: infrastructure. Old building, fault tracking.
    • Issues: significant security problems.
  • 10. Types of Mobile Applications
    • Notification (paging)
    • Two-way Messaging
    • Interactive Data Exchange (Sales order entry, status, ticket purpose).
    • Email (supports, attachments)
    • M-Commerce
    • On-line information inquiry.
    • Telemetry.
    • Location-based services.
    • M-Learning.
  • 11. Mobile Challenges
    • Many different kinds of device technologies:
    • - Internet enabled desktops, PDAs, WAP phones, pagers
    • - Different devices support multiple kinds of browsers
    • Many network protocols with different characteristics:
    • - Voice, data, messaging support traffic from real-time conversations to
    • one-way messaging.
    • - WAP, GSM, CDMA, TDMA, CDPD, AMPS, SMS, TCP/IP, Mobitex,
    • ReFlex
    • Many different kinds of services to be delivered:
    • - Sales, services, support, marketing, distribution, …
    • Many different delivery situations:
    • - In the office, at a customer site, in the airport, on a plane, on the road,
    • at home, you named it.
    • Industry-standard protocols are not fully emerges yet.
  • 12. Mobile Challenges
    • Unfriendly communication environment:
    • - Fluctuating coverage conditions caused by weather, buildings,
    • mountains, devices.
    • - May have coverage holes
    • Narrow bandwidth and low speeds.
    • Interoperability Issues.
    • Roaming workforces.
    • Limitations of current devices and protocol.
    • Security.
  • 13. Limitations of Wireless
    • Bandwidth limitations.
    • Incomplete service coverage.
    • Scarcity of contents
    • Lack of an installed user base.
    • High customer cost.
    • Changing communications standards.
    • Security.
  • 14. Trends in Mobile Devices
    • Faster processors
    • More memory
    • Screens:
    • - Bigger
    • - More color depth
    • - Bitmap addressable
    • New user interfaces:
    • - Keyboard (built-in/attachable)
    • - Joysticks
    • Device convergence:
    • - Hybrid phone/PDA/Pocket PC
    • Cameras / MP3 Player
    • Virtual Machines/Browsers
  • 15. How do Applications run on Devices?
    • Native OS
    • Virtual Machine Library over Native OS
    • Markup in a Browser
    Processor Device OS Application Processor Device OS VM (App) VM Application Processor Device OS Browser (App) Content
  • 16. Web vs. Mobile Development Screen sizes/ resolutions B&W or Color OS Versions Browser versions Application Languages Internationalization Language versions Handset scripting Messaging Keyboards vs. Soft Buttons Available Memory Application Server Data Server HTML cHTML HDML BREW WML PalmCl J2ME Voice
  • 17. Developing Services for Multiple Devices
    • Custom Development:
    • - If you control the mobile devices.
    • - If you have unlimited resources
    • Transcoding:
    • - HTML content scraped and re-marked up
    • - Not recommended for long term
    • XML/XSL:
    • - Some limitations in what a style sheet can do
    • - It is also up to your programming skill
    • Presentation Server:
    • - Virtualize presentation definition
  • 18. Areas Mobile Technologies Help Convenient, mobility, flexibility Customer Satisfaction Supplying and capturing information remotely. Avoid asset downtime, increase productivity Utilization Access information in the field. Reduce redundant activities Efficiency Timely and up-to-date information. Effectiveness. Performance Support Information mobility. Shorten cycle time; reduce cost. Decision Support Problem Solved Area
  • 19. Advantages to Win Competition Cost Quality Innovation Time Flexibility Machines Materials Money Information Technology Services
  • 20. Competitive Advantages
    • Cost / Price:
    • - Initial Cost.
    • - Life Cycle Cost.
    • Quality:
    • - Reliability.
    • - Features.
    • - Performance.
    • Time:
    • - Fast Delivery Time.
    • - On Time Delivery.
    • - New Systems Development Speed.
    • Flexibility:
    • - Functionality Changes.
    • - Format Changes
    • - Interfaces …
  • 21. Benefits of Mobile Computing
    • Easy anywhere, anytime access to information and applications.
    • Manage tasks when away from desk.
    • Key information readily at hand.
    • Faster access to electronic stored information.
    Convenience
    • Capture data in electronic format at point of creation.
    • Simply data exchange between mobile works and back-office systems.
    • Eliminate duplicate data entry in disparate applications
    Remove inefficiencies and reduce error rates
    • Instantly act on new developments triggered by notification and alerts.
    • Initiate execution of subsequent activities from mobile location.
    • Faster information dissemination among sales, field service and customer support staff and the like
    Shorter response time and process cycle time
    • More complete, and up-to-date information at moment of decision making
    Better decision making Underlying Mechanism Benefit
  • 22. Benefits of Mobile Computing
    • Differentiate product/service with mobile extensions.
    • Increase barrier to switch.
    Increase customer retention & loyalty
    • Work from up-to-date client related status/issues information.
    • Faster response to customer requests
    • Handle everything on the spot.
    • First time right.
    Increase customer satisfaction
    • Increase first-time success rate.
    • Reduce administrative activities.
    • Improve resource deployment, scheduling and task assignment.
    • Use down-time more productive.
    Improved productivity Underlying Mechanism Benefit
  • 23. Business Benefits
    • There are no "wireless" problems, only business problems.
    • Improving customer relationships
    • Reducing errors
    • Increasing productivity
    • Strengthening communications
    • Reducing Latencies (faster turnaround)
    • Quicker and easier access to information
    • Improving support
  • 24. Thank You? Any Question?
  • 25. Determinants for Wireless Services Handset Service Contract Roaming Charge Operating Cost Accessories Cell Marketing Infrastructure Operating Cost Management Mobility Battery Life Operating Models Voice Quality Security Coverage Area Roaming Cell Radius Efficiency Privacy Size Weight Screen Size Color User Interface Screen Characteristics Antenna Audio Capabilities Style Design Form Function Affordability Customer Operator

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