Third Generation Wireless


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  • This Section: Overview of 3G Definitions Technologies Standards Capacities
  • Define3G Industry Vision and Goal for Future Services / Capabilities Major Business Issues and Initial Market View - More Later in Last Section Overview of Major Alternate Technologies Considered for 3G International Standards - Main Driver - Look at Standards Organization Framework and Recent Developments View of Next Steps Industry Plans
  • First Generation AMPS + Other Analog - Mostly Voice Common Technology North America, AMPS 70 + Countries Japan - Total Access Communications - TACS Nordic - NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone Europe Initial Systems - Roaming Difficulties Second Generation - Digital - Mostly Voice - Three Major Standards TIA ANSI 41 Based Systems TDMA, CDMA GSM - Europe Common System Replaced Analog PDC- Personal Digital Communications??? - Japan 2G+ = Addition of Technologies that will make wireless more suited for data flow . GPRS - General Packet Radio Service - mobile packet technology - 115 kbps - Early 2000. EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution - 128 kbps wide area 384 kbps in local area - early 2000. Bluetooth - short range radio system to transmit mobile data between mobile station and other digital devices. Third Generation - Digital + Significant Data, Video +++ Universal, Seamless Global System, Circuit and Packet Modes Full Realization May be 4th Generation All Major Vendors Involved - Different Approaches - More Later Major International Effort in Standards Through International Telecommunications Union (ITU): IMT - 2000
  • 2G = Circuit Switched, Limited Bandwidth Separate Voice and Data Nets 3G = More Capacity Improved Vocoder (2G Also) Packetized = Efficient Integrated Net Standard Interfaces Higher Data Rate Transport Separate from Net Intelligence ====== Higher Capacity, More Services Lower Cost Per Sub and Per Service Factors driving wireless data applications into traditional voice-based wireless communications networks. Internet includes email, web browsing, corporate LAN access Additional non voice services for incremental revenue improved technology higher data rates, user friendly data enabled handsets, better coordination of vendors network and subscriber handset development programs. Incremental Subscriber Revenue Many Unknowns Remain……………………..
  • Every time NYNEX Mobile turned on a new cell site in New York City it immediately went “RED” - Full capacity generating money (except fraud calls). If you don’t have enough capacity, you can’t complete calls / messages and collect for the service. Revenue Needs to Go Up to Meet Demand and Offset Falling Prices Expenses Must Fall Per Sub to Meet Competition and Provide Room For Profit Investment Must Fall Per Sub to Meet Competition and Provide Room For Profit A New Generation Is Needed
  • Vendors and Carriers Looking for New Markets and Revenue, More Later Higher Penetration & User Sectors : Public, Private, Business, Residential More Value Added Services Global Seamless Roaming Opens Universal Roaming Market Common Spectrum (1.8 - 2.2 GHZ) Reduces Equipment Costs Mult Radio Envorin. Vehicular, Mobile, Pedestrian, Indoor, Satellite Megacell, Wireless Local Loop Services - Equivalent to Wireline Multi-Media, Voice, High-Speed Data, Image Video, Internet Voice and Data Equally UP TO 2 Mbps Data Phase I Flexible, Efficient Technologies Accommodate Personal Pocket Term, Vehicle, Special Terminals, Standard ISDN Connected to Mobile Term. Rapid Intro of New Technologies and Services Requires Flexible and Intelligent Network
  • Key Service Objective : Multimedia Services in Circuit and Packet Mode Impact: More competition for resources – Share radio and network resources More complex structure of service offerings, pricing Cable TV vs Broadcast TV vs vs Satellite vs Video store offerings Long Distance, Wireless Phone Offerings vs POTS Global Roaming (via virtual Home Environment concept - “look and feel of home system services in roaming network) Impact - More Services Provided by Third Parties not Carriers Challenge with complex application set - AFFORDABLE, PHASED DEPLYOMENT? NOTE: CAN WIRELESS KEEP UP WITH WIRELINE APPLICATIONS? Data IP-VPN Unified Messaging Video Interactive Games Premium TV Video on Demand Voice In/Out Call Management Unified Messaging Directory Svc Metering/Monitoring Real Time Pricing Audience Meas, Utility Metering Audio CD on Demand Commercial Free Music Advertising E Commerce Virtual Reality Mall Interactive sales with sophisticated video Web assisted call center
  • Building Blocks: Intelligent Systems, Multi-Rate & High-Speed System Basis Effect: PERSONALIZATION, FLEXIBILITY, SEAMLESSNESS DoCoMo View: Combine CDMA (which can transmit high quality moving images in addition to voice and fax and connect to internet) with ATM for “ most effective technology to process text and image info with voice on an integrated basis = best package.
  • Multi-Mode due to US auction of 1.8 - 2.2 GHz spectrum in ‘93-’94 and no common technical standard, after ‘92 WARC conference set aside 230 MHz spectrum for 3G services. Common Radio Interface Indoor - Outdoor Pico High-Capacity Cells, Vehicular Cells, Satellite Systems Open Architecture Common Network Backbone Support Essential Technology and Service Flexible (Multi-Environment, Rapid Service Introduction) Modular Design 3G Implemented Stand Alone or in Many Existing Networks with Gateways and Interworking units: PSTN, PLMN (Public Land-Mobile Networks), ISDN, Packet- Data, Broadband ISDN If Fixed Network Integrated, mobility functions (location registration, paging and handoffs) - part of fixed network is more and more feasible with the development if IN and exchanges for ISDN and B-ISDN. Multiple Networks in Same Area Can Be Used to Provide One Service Different Networks for Mobility Management, Routing, Enhanced Service Provision (Voice Mail, Paging, Data Base, File, Video, Packet - Build on Today’s Wireless Model )
  • Global Seamless Operation Requires Interoperability Among New and Legacy Systems - EXECUTION OF SERVICE REQUEST IN NON - HOME NETWORKS Legacy Systems: Estimated Global Investment ‘98 (((285 Million Subs * ($ 1000 Capital + $ 200 Acquisition Cost / Per Sub)) + (60% * 285 Million * $ 20 for Auction Costs) = $ 342 Billion Estimated Global Investment by ‘ 01 (Growth in Legacy 28 % + 23 % + 19 % = 533 Million Subs) = $ 640 Billion - Revised Est. $ 400 Billion Three Major Family Members (+ Others) North America TIA ANSI 41 ANSI-41 Europe GSM Japan PDC Others ISDN, B-ISDN, UPT, PDN, etc.
  • Overview of Major Issues More Detail Later in Business Case Section
  • Market Growth 15 - 150% Depending on Country and Stage of Introduction Most Markets Competition Increasing - New Licensees and / or Privation of PTTs. WIRELINE SUBSCRIBERS DEMANDING MORE DATA SERVICES - Although Internet Subscriber Penetration Lags Voice Wireless In Many Countries. VENDORS MUST HAVE NEW MARKETS TO GROW - New Subscriber Base and / or New Technologies If service troubles mount, and capacity not expanded - RETURN TO IMTS DAYS?? How much backward compatibility is realistic and affordable?? Market & Technology Changes Transitioning Market Wireless becoming huge market New technologies: software radios, smart antennas, turbocodes, etc.
  • 3G wireless infrastructure expenditures reach $7.7 billion by 2006 Source: Strategis Group: “3G Wireless, Demand, Standard, and Technology” PCS Industry Revenues of $88B in 2007 Source: Andy Sukawaty, CEO, Sprint PCS, 1998 CDMA Americas Congress, November 18 - 19, 1998, Los Angeles, CA World Cellular & PCS Subscribers 1 Billion by 2010 Source: F. Craig Farrill, Vice President, Strategic Technology, AirTouch Communications, 1998 CDMA America's Congress, November 18, 1998, Los Angeles, CA Some Say by 2007 (Ericsson, Nokia=2003) Ericsson = 400 Million Data Subs by 2004 Remarks at CDMA Congress LA 11-98 Market and Technology Changes Microchip Speed Growth 500 x Gallium Nitirde - IBM* PCS ‘99 POSSIBLE - 1 RADIO NO DUAL MODE SETS W/2 RADIOS Consumers used to data and shopping remotely * PCS ‘99 Bernie Merrison - VP Chip Development PCS ‘99 $ 750 M to Develop Silicone Transistor $ 2 1/2 M to Develop Gallium Base for Chip LOWER POWER BETTER NOISE RATIOS Mobile “Commerce” market could reach $ 200 Billion by 2004 - Strategy Analytics of London - RCR 1-17-00. Application s = Electronic Ticketing, Vending Machine Payments, Internet Shopping
  • VODAPHONE - AIRTOUCH - MANNESMANN DEAL - WSJ 2-4-00 $ 180.95 Billion, 43 Million Subscribers in Britain, Us, Germany, Italy, France (Interest in Others) Analysists: “Sheer Scale Will Promote: Common International Standards for Global Roaming Development of Cell Phones That “ Work Anywhere in the World” - Analysists: “Vodaphone will now have financial strength to “drive market” for new phone technology” Mergers and Deals Among Other Players to Compete ” ATT-W International Roaming - “Infancy ” Vodaphone already has: Joint venture with Bell Atlantic, GTE with Total 20 Million Subscribers Vodaphone / Mannesmann stake in European Wireless Operators (Divest Orange PLC - Mannesman bought 9-99 for $ 33 B) United Kingdom 100% Spain 21% Netherlands 70% Sweden 71.1% Belgium 25 % Poland 19.3% Germany 100% Austria 53.8 % France 32% Hungary 50.1 % Portugal 50.9% Romania 10% Italy 76.8 % Greece 55% Vodaphone Other Deals - Content Providers Vivendi - Wireless Internet venture with Vodaphone: Content = Canal Plus International Pay TV Operator, + “substantial media and entertainment holdings AOL - Europe - Possible Addition (Bertlesmann - Germany negotiating to sell 50 % holding as of 2-4-00) Rivals Feel Heat British Telecom (Vodaphone HQ in England) Deutsch Telecom (Mannesmann HQ in Germany) Telecom Italia controls Telecom Italia Mobile (second largest mobile operator in Europe) Smaller Players - BellSouth (owns Germany’s E-Plus), MobilecommAG-Germany, Swisscom AG Capacity and Revenue More Detail - Next Viewgraph BOARD MANNESMANN DEAL
  • North America - Vendors and Analysists: 60- 70 % wireless traffic data by 2007, 10-15% landline traffic data’07 Total data market 2007 $ 190 Billion $ 60 Billion now = 16% /yr Wireless @ 12% of $ 20 - $ 25 Billion BUT - TODAY mobile data competes for voice traffic: OPPORTUNITY COST VS VOICE TRAFFIC. LANDLINE COST TO TRANSMIT 1Mbps = $ .0001, Mobile costs $30 - 280 for 1 Mbite. - Packet needed (eg Ardis / RAM offer unlimited emails - up to 2000 characters - for $ 59.99 per month) - CAN CPRS, EDGE, BLUETOOTH AND THEN 3G get the cost / opportunity point down? - MORE IN THE BUSINESS CASE SECTION Europe - WAP being introduced in Italy. WAP now and GPRS in 6 - 8 months. SMS heavily in use across Western Europe - Omnipoint “ 1 Billion SMS messages in Europe per month. Internet penetration in Europe is low. Japan and SE Asia - Data and multi media (next 3 - 5 years) tied to landline: Solomon SB.
  • What are the Major Technologies ? What are the Paths to Get There?
  • Paths from CDMA GSM TDMA Get There INCREMENTALLY - EG. WAP Phones are not readily available - (RCR 2-21-00) Examples: 2G 2G+ 3G IS95-A,B 95 HDR cdma2000 GSM EDGE UTRA WCDMA IS136 GPRS UWC-136 MORE INFORMATION LATER BOARD INFO BELOW OmniPoint PCS’99 View of CDMA - 3G IS95 9.6kbps Rate Set 2 p IS95B 14.4-64 Hard HandOff IS95C 14.4 2x cdma2000 Phase 1 HDR 1.8Mbps HiDataRate Proposal cdma2000 Phase 2 OmniPoint PCS’99 View of GSM-IS136 - 3G GSM Data 9.6 kbps HDCSD 9.6-28 9.6-115 Bluetooth GPRS p <470 EDGE WCDMA GPRS p Phase 1 144k-384k WCDMA p 384k-2048k Controversy - How Best Migrate Vendors and analysists “ not convinced” EDGE will make significant inroads into Europe - RCR 4-3-00 + London Conf 4-3/4-00. Path seen as GPRS mid-2002 to WCDMA• EDGE could = Cheap Deployment in Rural or non UMTS License areas US TDMA “lack economies of scale”? - US Carriers say no. QUALCOMM began commercial production of HDR - Non Standard (TR 12-6-99). Carriers tested: DT Freetel - Korea, Sprint PCS, U S West. HDR “claims 2.4 Mbps with small antenna placed next to computer” - Weather will slow system = Clouds / Smoke” - Always on service. Motorola has competing service - non- standard 64 12-99, at CTIA show - offered higher rate service (5 Mbit ??? - Name ??? = Extreme RTT EXRTT ??)
  • cdma2000 IS-95 based developed by the cdmaOne Group - Qualcomm. W-CDMA - Wideband CDMA evolution of GSM systems. W-CDMA not compatible with IS-95 2G systems - European operators and vendors. US: SBC and Omnipoint + others. UWC-136 is a TDMA proposal. It is the 3G evolution of ANSI-136 based systems developed by the Universal Wireless Communications (UWC) consortium Lucent: leader. Developed by cdmaOne Group Qualcomm Lead Not Compatible to IS-95 2G Europe and Omnipoint Consortium, including Lucent
  • Multi Carrier CDMA (IS-95 Evolution) FDD Direct Sequence CDMA (Both) FDD TDD CDMA (Non semetric frequency channel - cordless or computer data networks - fixed wireless) UWC-136 (on its own) DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony GSM MAP and ANSI 41 works on WCDMA and cdma2000 cdma2000 not at same chip rate not supporting pilots WCDMA, async WCDMA, sync cdma2000 Mix/Match - MULTIPLE ACCESS SOLUTIONS GOAL: HARMONIZED AIR INTERFACES FDD Frequency Division Duplex Direct Sequence GSM TDD Time Division Duplex DECT - Europe TD-SCDMA China Chip Rate Different Between Multi- Carrier and Direct Sequence
  • International Standards Who is Working On It? How Will They Fit Together? When Will They Be Done? THERE IS SIGNIFICNAT INDUSTRY COOPERATION - E.G. 47 Companies Have Labs at NTT Doocomo Facilities at Youkoshuka Research Park Outside Tokyo. All Engaged in Research of Wireless for 3G. This Is the Good News - However There Is More to the Story.
  • Standards include Air Interface, Service Requirements, Performance, Network Architecture, Interfaces, Signaling Protocols, Translating International Numbering Schemes, Network Management, Maintenance, Mobility Management, Encryption Mechanism US Agreed to set aside 230 MHz in 1992 with other countries, but later auctioned off the spectrum, leaving the need for a dual mode set for worldwide func
  • The Draft ITU Recommendation admits - No Single Universal Standard : “ A limited number of radio interfaces is needed to encourage rapid deployment of IMT 2000 services globally. Federation of Systems provides IMT-2000 to users in Capability Sets but member systems provide service to other’s subscribers in roaming service offerings. Family members may have different intrasystem specifications . Three Vendor Camps have emerged supporting three Family Member Technologies W-CDMA GSM European, Ericcson, etc. cdma2000 CDMA IS- 95 Qualcomm UWC-136 TDMA IS - 136 Lucent, etc. Major Industry Agreement 3-99 Qualcomm and Ericcson - (Joint Support 3G CDMA 3 Modes: Direct Sequence FDD (similar to W-CDMA), Multi-Carrier FDD (similar to cdma2000), TDD - unpaired spectrum for campus and in building. More Later No Single Standard Compatibility Sets Networks Provide “Home” Services To Roamers Three Vendor Camps CDMA - Qualcomm GSM - Europe TDMA - Lucent Major Industry Agreement on: Migration to CDMA Interworking Needed Final Goal - Seamless Global Need for North American and European MAPs to Interwork REALITY N. AMERICAN VENDORS EUROPEAN VENDORS PACIFIC RIM VENDORS
  • A Family Member incorporates the functions into entities and interfaces to provide IMT-2000 capabilities. However, subsystems may be specific to each Family Member (Interfaces, Gateways will support Roaming) UIM (User Identity Module) MT (Mobile Terminal) RAN (Radio Access Network) CN (Core Network) Support IMT-2000 Functions SubSystems Specific to Families For Example BOARD: UIM User ID Module MT Mobile Terminal RAN Radio Access Net CN Core Network BOARD
  • PARADIGM SHIFT = PACKET AND INTERNET - FOR EXAMPLE: Portal Creators Will Provide (RCR 3-6-00): Customized Internet based information services of text enabled devices (voice interfaces discussed later) - WAP or current generation text messaging handsets Technology hosting, back office support, strategic consulting, systems integrations and content conversion ( News, sports, finance, weather, entertainment, information Text Transformation Companies include:,,, WiredCEO, Logica and Block Diagram of Concept Note - STANDARD Packet Switch Satellite Interface A/G Interface Personalized Phone PBX Interface ISDN Interface Internet Interface
  • ITU-R: Responsible for Layer-1 / Air Interface In May 1999 , Task Group (TG) 8/1 of ITU-R decided on a Multi-mode standard in order to support all of the cdma2000, W-CDMA, UWC-136 Development Steps RTTs to ITU (6- 98): Regional Evaluation Groups evaluate RTTs (9- 98) ITU-R TG 8/1 reviews evaluation as well as the RTTs for minimum performance capabilities ITU-R TG 8/1 determines key technical characteristics (5- 99): Consensus building process among RTTs ITU-R TG 8/1 develops Radio Interface Specs Recommendations (12-99) There were initially fifteen (15) Radio Transmission Technologies (RTTs) submitted in the ITU. Ten of them were terrestrial based proposals and the remaining five were satellite based proposals. Currently, due to the industry efforts to build consensus, the number of terrestrial RTTs under consideration for standardization has been dropped down to five. The candidate RTTs were evaluated outside ITU-R by regional evaluation groups, supported mainly by the local Standards Development Organization (SDOs) . The US had established two evaluation groups that worked cooperatively and submitted their evaluation to TG 8/1. IMT-2000 defines 3G mobile systems which are scheduled to start service in the year 2000, subject, of course, to market considerations. ITU Current Stage in the Development Process Radio Interfaces Global industry efforts for Harmonization (consensus building process): TG 8/1 develops the Radio Interface Specs Recommendations ITU-T: Responsible for Upper Layers / Mobility Signaling In March 1999, Study Group (SG) 11 of ITU-T approved the Framework of IMT-2000 Networks (old Q.FIN) and the Network Functional Model (old Q.FNA) Regional SDOs: TIA, T1, ETSI, TTA, TTC, ARIB participate in harmonization efforts. TIA / T1 = US, ETSI = Europe, TTA = Korea TTC = Japan ARIB =Japan Beyond the Standards Organizations mentioned above, there are multiple forums around the world that are looking into harmonizing the CDMA-based proposals towards a global IMT-2000 Air Interface technology. One of the important groups working on this harmonization issue is the Operators Harmonization Group (OHG). The OHG, whose proposal for a global multi-mode CDMA standard was adopted by both 3GPPs, is proposing the merge of the two 3GPPs (3GPP and 3GPP2) into one single body by the end of 2000. This merger, according to OHG, will provide focus in developing a unified core network for the future as well as ensure that air interfaces will be completely harmonized. Although this is a proposal that had been raised and rejected by part of the industry more than a year ago, the latest developments towards harmonizing CDMA proposals, as well as cross-licensing IPR rights, make it a valid, possible, evolutionary proposal.
  • ITU-R Spectrum Input to World Administrative Radio Conference 1992 (WARC-92) and Other Spectrum Usage World Wide FPLMTS = Future Public Mobile Land Telephone System Note US Already Allocated 1.8 GHz = Dual Mode / Dual Frequency Sets
  • US Submissions : CDMA2000 - IS-95 based CDMA cdmaOne Group WIMS - CDMA - emphasis - packet. - developed by Golden Bridge Technologies -. W-CDMA is a Wideband CDMA proposal- evolution of GSM systems. W-CDMA is not compatible with IS-95 2G systems- submitted in T1P1 by Ericsson. WIMS and WCDMA merged = WP-CDMA. UWC-136 = TDMA proposal. -evolution of ANSI-136 based systems. - developed by the Universal Wireless Communications (UWC) - Lucent is the leader. - These came from TIA and T1 committees. 4 Proposals - RTTs from U.S. Cdma2000 Qualcom + WIMS Golden Bridge Technology - N.J. 5 Patents - Common Packet Channel technology - CPCH - Many users to share one channel and enables rapid packet channel acquisition and release Up to 385 kbit . 2Mbit if cell is data only W-CDMA Ericss - on + UWC-136 Lucent + WP-CDMA = Wideband Packet CDMA UWC = Universal Wireless Communications CDG = CDMA Development Group = Development of cdmaOne Advanced Features and Svc.Mostly 2G, some 3G Contributions to Std = TR45 CDG = IS41 Mostly Graceful Evolution cdmaONE to cdma2000 CDG Joined 3GPP2 (First Market Representation Partner) E.G. SIM Manufactured for CDMA EOY 2000 Wireless Internet Protocol Partnership (WIPP) 10-99 (this work did not receive enough support and it was essentially discontinued) TIA launched standards project for wireless over Internet IP. Wireless Data IP Interfaces Application Interfaces Mobile Device Inerfaces Desktop Interfaces Mkt and PR Support Application Development Test Guides Voice over IP Video over IP WIMS - Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services Mobile Wireless Internet Forum - 40 Vendors -Need Info
  • ITU Currently Considering a total of 5 From all Countries: 1. CWTS : this is a Time Division Duplex (TDD) proposal submitted by China . Chinese operators of course support this technology. 2. DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications): this is the second strongest (after GSM) technology in Europe supported by several European operators. 3. UWC-136 : this is a TDMA proposal. It is the 3G evolution of ANSI-136 based systems. It was developed by the Universal Wireless Communications (UWC) consortium, a group of companies among which Lucent is the leader. 4. WCDM A: this is a Wideband CDMA proposal. It is the 3G evolution of GSM systems. It is supported by ETSI (Europe) and some US companies such as Omnipoint and SBC. 5. CDMA-2000 : this is an IS-95 based CDMA proposal. It was developed by the cdmaOne group and it has been championed by Qualcomm. 5 From 15 at ITU Levels - Inc. Sat. China, Korea, Japan, US, Europe Flavors - More Detail in Air Interface
  • (comparing to the previous slide): Direct Spread --> FDD mode of old WCDMA Multi Carrier --> CDMA 2000 CDMA TDD --> mix of the TDD mode of WCDMA with the TDD proposal from China (TD-SCDMA) UWC-136 --> the same as before the adjustment DECT --> the same as before the adjustment
  • The Organizational Partners have agreed to co-operate for the production of Technical Specifications for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on the evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that the Organizational Partners support (i.e. UTRA, both FDD and TDD modes). The 3rd generation systems based on 3GPP specifications will rely on evolutions from the GSM network standards. This approach will ensure that systems based on 3GPP specifications will be capable of rapid development and deployment of competitive service offerings while still enabling global roaming. The Project Co-ordination Group (PCG) is responsible for overall time-frame and management of technical work to ensure that the 3GPP specifications are produced in a timely manner as required by the market place according to the principles and rules contained in the Project documentation. The technical specification development work within 3GPP is accomplished by Technical Specification Groups (TSGs). The four technical specification groups are: the Radio Access Network (RAN) TSG, the Core Networks (CN) TSG, the Services and Systems Aspects (SA) TSG, and the Terminals (T) TSG. Four Technical Specification Groups (TSGs): Radio Access Network (TSG-RAN), Core Networks (TSG-CN), Services and Systems Aspects (TSG-SA): Terminals (TSG-T) Radio Access Network (TSG-RAN): The TSG-RAN is responsible for the radio access part of systems Core Networks (TSG-CN): The TSG-CN is responsible for the specifications of the core network part of systems Services and Systems Aspects (TSG-SA): The TSG-SA is responsible for the overall architecture and service capabilities of systems and, as such, has also the responsibility for cross-TSG coordination Terminals (TSG-T): The TSG-T is responsible for specifying the terminal equipment interfaces ensuring that terminals based on the relevant 3GPP specifications meet the 3GPP objectives The TSG-CN is responsible for the specifications of the core network part of systems based on 3GPP specifications. Specifically it has a responsibility for: user equipment - core network layer 3 radio protocols, core network internal interfaces for call associated and non call associated signaling, and interconnection of the Core Network with external networks. The TSG-R is responsible for the radio access part, including its internal structure, of systems based on 3GPP specifications. Specifically it has a responsibility for: Radio aspects of Terminal Equipment and UTRAN functions (FDD & TDD), requirements and interfaces. The TSG-SA is responsible for the overall architecture and service capabilities of systems based on 3GPP specifications and, as such, has a responsibility for cross TSG co-ordination. Any difficulty that may appear in this role is to be reported to the PCG. Specifically the TSG-SA has the responsibility for: definition, evolution, and maintenance of the overall system architecture including the assignment of functions to particular subsystems, identification of key information flows and definition of bearers and services offered by these subsystems, development of a framework for services, service capabilities, service architecture, definition of a security framework and review of security aspects of the overall system. The TSG-T is responsible for specifying the terminal equipment interfaces ensuring that terminals based on the relevant 3GPP specifications meet the 3GPP objectives. Specifically it has a responsibility for terminal equipment performance specifications, and UMTS SIM and its interface specifications. Cooperation for UTRA FDD and TDD UTRA = Universal Terrestrial Radio Access technology = GSM UMTS Air Interface Technical Input to ITU TSG - RAN Radio Access TSG - SA Services & Architecture TSG - T Terminal Equipment & UTMS SIM Specs TSG - CN Core Network 12-99 UPDATE: 3GPP and 3GPP2 Writing Defacto Standards. 3GPPs not recognized by ITU (some contention) as OFFICIAL and SANCTIONED Standards bodies. So 3GPPs Going Through Stds Such as T1 for 11-99 Letter Ballot on DS and TDD Air Interface Specifications “Technical Report” then “Blessing It” and Submitting to ITU. ETSI Update (4-10-00 RCR) ETSI agreed to standardize “ all technologies accepted by ITU, including cdma2000. However, at least one carrier in each EU country W-CDMA Operators choosing other than W-CDMA risk island or orphan status
  • GSM to UMTS Evolution: High Bit Rates ,.Multi-Media Services ,Mixed Services (i.e. Variable Bit-Rates, Short & Long Data Packets), Dual Mode Terminals for Handoff Between GSM and UMTS Networks Air Interface Technology: W-CDMA: ETSI’s UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) Technology Provides for FDD/TDD Dual Mode Operation terminals Compatible to 2G GSM systems Non-Compatible to IS-95 based CDMA systems UMTS aims to provide the user (subscriber, service provider or network operator) with a comprehensive set of services, features and tools which enable services to have the "same look and feel" wherever they are used (when roaming between networks and across geographic boundaries). UMTS offers a large degree of service personalization such that the user may remove his/her smart card from one terminal, insert it into another and have the "the same look and feel" to service provision maintained. This concept of maintaining “the same look and feel" wherever the terminal is used and/or whenever the smart card is taken out of one terminal and inserted into another is referred to as the Virtual Home Environment (VHE). The VHE is to be realized across GSM and UMTS. Since UMTS aims to be aligned with IMT-2000, the VHE must also be realizable across UMTS and other IMT-2000 family members. UMTS will support multimedia services. UMTS will support, as well, many advanced numbering concepts and addressing schemes such as private numbering and alphanumeric addressing. Number portability features will, within limits, enable the subscriber to change service provider, the service provider to change network operators, and the subscriber to change geographic location without changing numbers or addressing. UMTS will provide for the automatic establishment of roaming relationships between different networks. Handover, for certain services, between UMTS and GSM systems (in both directions) will also be provided. WCDMA Evolves from GSM “ UMTS is Compatible with IMT-2000 Same Look and Feel Wherever Terminal is Located = VIRTUAL HOME ENVIRONMENT Interworking: UWCC and GSM North American Alliance agreed to form GSM Global Roaming Forum to promote common handsets and interoperable networks TDMA - GSM ATT-W (TDMA) very interested due to recent partnership with BT (GSM). Phase 1 (interworking handsets and network components that facilitate interoperability) Specifications from GSM GRF to be completed 11-8-99.
  • Six Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) TSG-A (Access Network Interface) TSG-C (CDMA-2000) TSG-N (ANSI 41/WIN) TSG-P (Wireless Packet Data Networking) TSG-R (Interface of Radio Access Technology to Core Network) TSG-S (Systems and Services Aspects) The purpose of 3GPP2 is to prepare, approve and maintain globally applicable Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on the evolved ANSI-41 Core Networks and the relevant radio access technologies to be transposed by the relevant standardisation bodies (Organisational Partners) into appropriate deliverables (e.g., standards). The Steering Committee is responsible for the following tasks: appointment of SC Chair and Vice Chairs, allocation of human and financial resources, handling of appeals on procedural matters and technical matters, determination of the overall time frame and manage overall work progress, final adoption of new and stopped work items proposed by the TSGs, confirmation of appointment or dismissal of TSG Chairs and Vice Chairs, as proposed by TSGs, maintenance of the register of Individual Members eligible to participate in 3GPP2 based on input received from Organisational Partners, maintenance of the register of IPR declarations relevant to 3GPP2, received by the Organisational Partners, adoption of Technical Specifications and Technical Reports forwarded from the TSGs etc. The technical specification development work within 3GPP2 is accomplished by Technical Specification Groups (TSGs). The six technical specification groups are: TSG-A (Access Network Interface), TSG-C (CDMA-2000), TSG-N (ANSI 41/WIN), TSG-P (Wireless Packet Data Networking), TSG-R (Interface of Radio Access Technology to Core Network), TSG-S (Systems and Services Aspects). 3GPP2 will prepare, approve and maintain the necessary set of Technical Specifications and Technical Reports of a 3G Mobile System including: CDMA-2000, 3G Core Network evolved from ANSI-41, Interface of 3GPP Radio Access Technology to 3G Core Network, Wireless Packet Data Networking, A-Interface, Service s and Systems aspects 3GPP2’s 3rd Generation Mobile System and its capabilities will be developed in a phased approach. 3GPP2 will prepare, approve and maintain the necessary set of Technical Specifications and Technical Reports of a 3rd Generation Mobile System including: cdma2000 , a 3G Core Network evolved from ANSI-41 (Third Generation network capabilities that include mobility management and global roaming) , Interface of 3GPP Radio Access Technology to 3G Core Network evolved from ANSI-41 , Wireless Packet Data Networking , A-Interface , and Service s and Systems Aspects. cdma2000 Core Network Evolved from ANSI 41 TSG-A Access Network Interface TSG-C cdma2000 TSG-N ANSI-41 WIN TSG-P Packet Data Networking TSG-R Radio Access TSG-S Systems and Services 9-99 UPDATE - ANSI-41 to GSM Interface 3GPP2 5/1/00 RCR Proposed how 1XRTT (cdma 2000) Technology Evolve This proposal is in the face of enhancements proposed (non-standard) like Motorola/Nokia 1xtreme 5.2M, Qualcomm.Lucent High Data Rate 2.4M Proposal from CDG Perry LaForge Ex Dir.- details not yet (5-5-00) released
  • There is now widespread agreement on an IMT-2000 radio interface comprising a single terrestrial standard encompassing two high level groupings (i.e., CDMA, TDMA, or a combination thereof) and the concept that IMT-2000 should include the capability of operating with both of the major third generation core networks, i.e., GSM-MAP and ANSI-41. The Operators Harmonization Group, whose recommendations were fully endorsed by ITU-R TG 8/1, proposed there should be three modes for the CDMA grouping: FDD Direct Sequence, FDD multi-carrier, and TDD. Agreement Fully Endorsed by ITU-RTG 8/1 Three Modes - CDMA FDD Direct Sequence FDD Multi Carrier TDD Update 9-99, 3-00: See Next Page
  • Key parameters for the G3G technical Specification Harmonized Standards Revently, global wireless operators have been meeting to determine how the various CDMA proposals to ITU’s IMT-2000 System for 3 rd Generation Wireless can be harmonized. As a result of these meetings, the operators, along with several of the main manufacturers, have agreed to a technical framework that was submitted to ITU as well as the Regional Standards Bodies. The technical framework document outlines the key technical parameters for meeting the requirements of commercial wireless operators from around the world that desire a common global specification for 3G CDMA systems. The harmonization framework depends heavily on the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) and cdma2000 submissions made to ITU for IMT-2000. The requirements for harmonization are listed below:ANSI-41 and GSM MAP based services should be fully supported in the Radio Access Network (RAN) associated with all three 3G CDMA modes. Seamless handoff between the harmonized DS and MC including IS-95 for ANSI-41 and the equivalent to this for GSM/UMTS. Functionality is based on synchronous BaseStation operation such as location calculation, etc. Minimum complexity of dual-mode and multi-band terminals and equipment. DoCoMo: WCDMA Freq BW 1.23, 5, 10 MHz; Chip Rates: 1.024. 4.096, 8.192, 16.386 Mpbs MC=FDD DS = FDD Technical Framework Harmonized Standards Requirements MAPs Fully Supported DC and MC Seamless Handoff Synchronous Base Station Dual Mode and Multiband Term. 9-99 Update - NEW INFO T1P1 2 Phases All CDMA 1st Phase Minor Changes- Hooks 2d Phase Major Changes - Extensions (2G to 3G) 12-99 UPDATE: 3GPP and 3GPP2 (DEFACTO IMT-2000 standards) are already meeting on “ Hooks and Extensions “ Workshops . ITU is “Cosmetic” on many of these issues. 3-00 Proposed:Move GSM / EDGE = GERAN Radio Activities to 3GPP from several standards bodies to speed development “ Many more harmonization issues. Biggest one we want is Common IP Network” - Craig Farrill - CTO Airtouch 12-99 RCR SIGNIFICANT ARGUMENTS REMAIN ON HOW FORMAL TO MAKE OHG
  • The OHG Recommendations for a global multi-mode CDMA standard have now been accepted by both 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2). It seems that 3GPP will be responsible for the development of the Direct Sequence (DS) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes of operation of the global CDMA standard while 3GPP2 will be responsible for the Multi Carrier (MC) mode of it. It is noticeable that there is a general consensus among the industry to gradually stop using the marketing names “WCDMA” and “cdma2000” and replace them with the new names, i.e., the modes of the proposed global CDMA standard. Cdma2000 is sync have to sync base stations use GPS - do it today for IS-95 - do it because use short code to separate repeat every 26 ms may get two that look the same if not synced WCDMA is not sync GSM WCDMA CDMA cdma2000 DIFFERENT CHIP RATE WCDMA is not sync Base Stations WAP FORUM: Set Compatibility Stds Not All Stds Have Been Met (10-25-99 RCR) Zaigo Eng. Firm “Nokia WAP enabled phone - some difficulty working with UP.Link WAP server made by Inc. Zaigo Eng. To introduce “soon” a CD for training on WAP and a WAP Certification. Zsigo Wireless Data Consultants - Michigan Zsigo “People are getting real confident WAP is going to happen and getting interested” (10-99) WAP 1.1 is standard in industry (10-99) Multimedia Trade Association “1394 Trade Association” TR-1-31-00 Promotes 1394 IEEE standard interface for vehicles / telematics 1394 Association wants to promote the use of the 1394 interface for vehicle functions such as navigation, rescue, high-speed audio / video TEXAS INSTURMENTS - Key Player
  • International Standards Who is Working On It? How Will They Fit Together? When Will They Be Done? THERE IS SIGNIFICNAT INDUSTRY COOPERATION - E.G. 47 Companies Have Labs at NTT Doocomo Facilities at Youkoshuka Research Park Outside Tokyo. All Engaged in Research of Wireless for 3G. This Is the Good News - However There Is More to the Story.
  • Similar to RTT ITU Simulation Conclusion Mike / Paul Assist HERE
  • Further notes on cdma capacity: cdma2000 Capacity: Assumptions and Issues Assumed reverse link limits capacity Most people now claim forward link limits capacity for IS95 (at least for 14.4kbps rate) cdma2000 very significantly improves the forward link through better coding and fast forward power control cdma2000 RTT [3] reports simulation results indicating the reverse link capacity is generally greater than or equal to forward link capacity, i.e., reverse link limits capacity Required signal to interference+noise ratio (SINR) Capacity is highly dependent on required SINR cdma2000 reverse link modulation/demodulation similar to IS95 forward link Required IS95 forward link SINR is about 7 dB We used 5.5 dB for voice: New fast forward power control feature also reduces SINR requirements We used 4.0 dB for data because we can lower FER requirements using retransmission; (note, however, that there will be some capacity loss due to retransmission) Turbo codes are also available for cdma2000 data; reduces SINR SINR requirements highly dependent on environment, multipath profile, speed, coding, FER requirements, bandwidth Assumed high data rates available throughout cell Power limitations and interference to other cells may require significant reduction in transmit power near edges of cells Other-cell interference values calculated in [1] and used here assume uniform distribution of users throughout cell. High speed data users, however, cause automatic localized “hot spots”. High speed data users may effect voice users Power control will be slower to respond to high power high speed data users coming on and off the system
  • ECSD assumes two slots operating at 32kbps (ECSD TCS-2) as found in Table 2 of IEEE Personal Communications page 59. N=3 is derived from top left hand column of page 61. I used the same results for IS-136HS but have NOT confirmed whether IS-136HS supports circuit switched data in two slots. I quickly searched through the UWC-136 spec and that IS-136HS supports circuit emulation mode Class B. I do not know how this is implemented right now. IS-136HS is backwards compatible to IS-136+ and therefore supports a “low” speed circuit switch under IS-136+. For IS-136+ the maximum information data rate is 43.2 kbps per the UWC-136 RTT Section A1.3.3. This maximum rate is achieved with 8-PSK. The minimum 6.75 Mbps/cell for IS-136HS compares well with the circuit switched assumption of 64 kpbs/traffic channel and 99 traffic channels served in one cell: (.064 Mbps/traffic channel)X(99 traffic channels) = 6.4 Mbps/Cell UWC-136 Spec: Refer to approximately page 79 of the UWC-136 specification for more details on cell capacity and coverage estimates for various bit rates. IS-136HS Indoors were left out since it probably applies to fixed wireless devices that are currently out of the scope of this effort. HCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data
  • Traffic Factors Granularity Minimum Transmission Delay Discontinuous Transmission Packet Sizes Packet Distributions Wireless Applications Traffic Characteristics Data bursty, mostly non-real time , and requires high accuracy Voice streams, real-time , may not need high accuracy, mostly constant bit rate Feature interactions Video streams, real-time , may not need high accuracy Multimedia stream and/or bursty, need high accuracy, real-time All of the above applications can be used in interactive, messaging, distribution, and retrieval modes
  • Board Soundview Technology and Motorola RCR 3-27-00: Peak Ave Thru Std? Cdma 20001x:Ph1 153.6k 150k Y Cdma2000 1xRTT A 614.4k 415k Y 1xPlusPh1 1.38M 560k Mot. W-CDMA (5Mhz) 2.048M 1.126M Y HDR 2.4 M 621k Qual. Cdma2000 3x MC 2.072M 1.117M 1xPlus (Ph2) 5.184M 1.2M Mot.
  • Market and Technical Research Continues - EXAMPLE NTT DoCoMo Youkoshuka Research Park 47 Companies - Cooperative Wireless Research Toward 3G Numerous Technical and Market Trials and Intros: Italy WAP US Wireless Internet-Sprint Japan Music On Demand-NTT 2000 - 2005 MANY NEW TECH/SERV
  • Third Generation Wireless

    1. 1. 3G Wireless The Next Generation - Introduction
    2. 2. 3G Wireless <ul><li>What is 3G? </li></ul><ul><li>The Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Business Implications and the Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Capacities </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is 3G? <ul><li>First Generation Wireless : Analog </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Wireless (2G): Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Wireless + (2G+): More Data </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Wireless (3G): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Global Wireless Voice and Data System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Effort Toward 3G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Standard Underway: IMT-2000 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Comparison 2G vs. 3G Networks <ul><li>Today’s Networks (“2G Networks”): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit-switched Data or Limited Bandwidth Packet-switched Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate Networks for Voice and Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Networks (“3G Networks”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Capacity on Radio Interface (Increased Number of Users Per Cell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Vocoder Technology (Lower Bit Rate Voice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packetized Voice and Data (More Efficient Use of Transport) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single, Integrated Network (More Efficient Staffing for Provisioning and Maintenance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Interfaces (Takes Advantage of Competitive Hardware Pricing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of Supporting Higher Rate Data and Integrated Voice and Data Services (New Revenue Opportunities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport (E.G., Routers, Switches, and Gateways) Are Separated From Service and Call Control Intelligence (Lower Cost of Transport Elements, Open Interfaces for Service Development Encourage Rich Service Offerings) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Why A New Generation? - Business & Technical View: A New Generation Network Can Move All the Elements in the Right Direction Profitability = Revenue - Expense Investment <ul><li>Retain Top Customers and Increase Revenue With Bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Time to Market </li></ul><ul><li>New Services </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Operate One Network, Not Two </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer Physical Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Flowthrough </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler Handsets </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Advantages of Data-centric Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Multiple Overlays </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Initial Cost - Pay As You Go </li></ul><ul><li>Common Data Bases </li></ul>
    6. 6. The 3G Vision <ul><li>Global Seamless Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Common Worldwide Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Radio Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Range of Services -Voice & Data Equally </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, Spectrum Efficient Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless - Wireline Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Security and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Wireline Services and Quality Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Introduction of New Technology </li></ul>
    7. 7. 3G Vision - Applications <ul><li>Potential 3 G Service Applications Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice – E-Mail – SMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax – LAN Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Access (High-Speed Fixed and Mobile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Media Including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 and 2 Way Video Phone and Teleconferencing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Multi-Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Killer Application ??????? </li></ul>3G Note: Many 3d Party content providers needed. Business arrangements will be more complex.
    8. 8. 3G Vision - Building Blocks Multi-Rate & High-Speed Services Rapid Introduction of Features Services / Features System Building Blocks Advanced Multimedia and Data Services Personalization Landline Equivalent Services and Quality Flexible, Efficient Channel Management High Capacity, Low Power Intelligent Systems Seamlessness
    9. 9. 3G Vision - Characteristics <ul><li>Variety of Multi-Mode Terminal Types </li></ul><ul><li>Common Radio Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Open Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3G Stand Alone or Integrated to Existing Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework for Mobility Services from Fixed Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Provision by Multiple Networks </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 3G Vision - Interoperability <ul><li>Legacy Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability Between Different Standards (E.G., ANSI-41, GSM Based Networks) </li></ul><ul><li>How Achieve Interoperability? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: One Global Standard or “Family of Standards” World Wide: IMT - 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased Implementation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 3G Wireless Business and Market Issues
    12. 12. 3G Business Issues <ul><li>Market: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Growth Continues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition Increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transition to Data and Multi-Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s At Stake: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor Sales With New Technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor Health / Survival </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued Robust Market Growth / Carrier Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Offs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level of Backward Compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handset, Network or Combined Interoperability Solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Market Trends <ul><li>3G Wireless Infrastructure Expenditures Reach $7.7 Billion by 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Strategis Group: “3G Wireless, Demand, Standard, and Technology” </li></ul><ul><li>PCS Industry Revenues of $88B in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Andy Sukawaty, CEO, Sprint PCS </li></ul><ul><li>World Cellular & PCS Subscribers 1 Billion by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: F. Craig Farrill, Vice President, Strategic Technology, Airtouch Communications </li></ul>
    14. 14. 3G In World Markets <ul><li>Drivers in Asia / Pacific Countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for Voice Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Revenue from Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Revenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Differentiators </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Segmenting the Market - When 3G? <ul><li>Asian Pacific Rim Market (2000-2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition Motivation: Need to Increase Voice Capacity, 2G+ Sufficient for Some? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Market (2001-2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition Motivation: Need to Develop and Provide Value Added Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM Built Out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Market (2003-2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition Motivation: Need a Reason for Transition From 2G to 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2G Network Being Built Out </li></ul></ul>2000 - 2001 2001 - 2003 2003 - 2005
    16. 16. 3G Wireless Major Alternative Technologies
    17. 17. How do service providers get from 2G to 2G+ to 3G? CDMA I IS-95A CDMA GSM EDGE IS-95B IS-95C 95 HDR ITU DECT cdma2000 DECT TD-SCDMA UTRA CDMA II W-CDMA/NA W-CDMA/Japan WIMS/W-CDMA IS-136 TDMA GSM MAP GSM MAP PDC ANSI 41 ANSI 41 UWC-136 WAP WWWW 3G Aircraft 144kbps Pedestrians 384kbps Mobile 144kbps Fixed 2Mbps
    18. 18. Major Air Interfaces Evolution <ul><li>2G Technology 3G Technology </li></ul>IS-95 CDMA GSM IS-136 TDMA cdma2000 W-CDMA UWC-136
    19. 19. Harmonization <ul><li>Four Multiple Access Schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Carrier CDMA - FDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Sequence CDMA - FDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA/CDMA - TDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA - FDD/TDD </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 3G Wireless Standards
    21. 21. 3G Standards <ul><li>International Mobile Telecommunication Standards For the 21st Century: IMT - 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU Radio and Network Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated Spectrum 1.8 - 2.2 Ghz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family of Systems / Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Circuit Data, Digital Voice and Packet Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Speeds : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 kbit - Vehicle, 384 kbit - Pedestrian, 2 Mbps - Fixed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. IMT-2000: Family of Systems Concept Member A Member B Member C IMT-2000 Family
    23. 23. IMT-2000: Family of Systems <ul><li>The Family Members Must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate With Each Other & Support: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Other’s Users via Roaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit Switched Voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet Switched Data Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interworking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3GPPs primarily, and ITU secondarily, plans to Develop this Function where it is needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. IMT-2000: Concept Packet Network Packet Switch Base Station Base Station Base Station Interface - Satellite Interface - Vehicle Interface - Personal or Indoor Radio Radio Interface Interface - Paging IMT-2000 System Personal Phone End Office Switch Tandem Switch End Office Switch Tandem Switch Other IMT-2000 Systems PSTN ISDN STP Internet 3G Note: Operational Support Systems, Provisioning, and Billing for Multiple Complex Services ?? PBX Data Base Data Base Manager MSC
    25. 25. IMT-2000: ITU Standards Groups & Forums <ul><li>ITU-R: Responsible for Layer-1 / Air Interface </li></ul><ul><li>ITU-T: Responsible for Upper Layers / Mobility Signaling </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP: UMTS Global Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP-2: ANSI 41-based Global Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional SDOs Participate in Harmonization Efforts (ETSI, TI, TIA, ARIB, TTC, TTA, CWTS) </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>ITU-R Spectrum Input to World Administrative Radio Conference 1992 (WARC-92) and Other Spectrum Usage World Wide </li></ul>ITU 2010 2025 1980 MSS MSS* 1930 FPLMTS MSS MSS* FPLMTS 2160 2170 2200 MHz *Region2 1885 2110 PHS 2010 1980 2025 JAPAN 2110 2200 2170 FPLMTS MSS MSS FPLMTS 1895 1885 1918.1 MHz 1980 2110 2200 2170 FPLMTS MSS 1900 1880 DECT 2010 MSS FPLMTS FPLMTS 2025 MHz Europe 2110 2200 2165 2150 Reserve MSS Broadcast Auxiliary 1910 1930 1990 2025 MSS 1850 PCS* PCS A B C D E F PCS A B C D E F MHz U.S.A 2010 1980 2025 China 2110 2200 2170 MSS MSS 1900 1920 MHz * 1710-1755/1805-1850:DCS1800 * 1865 1880 1945 1960 CDMA FDD- WLL FDD- WLL CDMA TDD- WLL
    27. 27. IMT-2000: US RTTs <ul><li>Four IMT-2000 Radio Transmission Technologies (RTTs) Submitted Initially by US to ITU: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cdma2000 – WIMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W-CDMA – UWC-136 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W-CDMA and WIMS Merged to WP-CDMA </li></ul>
    28. 28. IMT-2000: Global RTTs <ul><li>Initially , Five RTTs Categories Under Consideration in ITU for IMT-2000 Standard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TD-SCDMA Based on TDD Submitted by China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECT Supported by European Operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UWC-136 Evolved From ANSI-136 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCDMA Evolved From GSM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cdma2000 Evolved From IS-95 </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. IMT-2000: Global RTTs Adjustment <ul><li>To reflect the recent OHG proposals, the RTTs Categories were recently adjusted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA Direct Spread FDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA Multi-Carrier FDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA TDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UWC-136 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECT </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. IMT-2000: 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) <ul><li>Global Partnership to Develop GSM Based Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Partners : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ETSI (Europe) - T1 (USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARIB (Japan) - TTA (Korea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TTC (Japan) - CWTS (China) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One Project Co-ordination Group (PCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Four Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) </li></ul>
    31. 31. IMT-2000: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) <ul><li>GSM to UMTS Evolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Bit Rates - Multi-Media Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Services - Dual Mode Terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Interface Technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W-CDMA: ETSI’s UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (UTRA) Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for FDD/TDD Dual Mode Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible to 2G GSM systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Compatible to IS-95 based CDMA </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. IMT-2000: 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) <ul><li>Global Partnership for Technical Specifications Based on ANSI-41 </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Partners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIA (USA), ARIB (Japan), TTA (Korea), TTC (Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One Steering Committee (SC) </li></ul><ul><li>Six Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) </li></ul>
    33. 33. IMT-2000: Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) <ul><li>Operators to Harmonize 3G Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement: A Single Terrestrial Standard IMT-2000 Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Two High Level Groupings (Five total air standards - above): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capability of Operating on Both GSM-MAP and ANSI-41 </li></ul><ul><li>OHG Proposed Three Modes for the CDMA Grouping </li></ul>
    34. 34. IMT-2000: Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) <ul><li>OHG Supports 3 Mode (3G3) CDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Carrier (MC) - Direct Sequence (DS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Duplex (TDD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Key Parameters for Global 3G (G3G) CDMA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for Direct Sequence (DS) Based on the FDD mode of the W-CDMA Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for Multi-carrier (MC) Based on the cdma2000 Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for the Time Division Duplex (TDD) will be based on the TDD mode of the W-CDMA and the TD-SCDMA Proposal </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. IMT-2000: Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) <ul><li>3GPP and 3GPP2 accepted the recommendations of the Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP will produce standards for the Direct Sequence (DS) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP2 will produce standards for the Multi Carrier (MC) mode </li></ul><ul><li>All modes will need to operate on both GSM MAP and ANSI-41. The work in the 3GPPs will also include the inter-working between the evolved ANSI-41 and GSM MAP platforms </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP has changed the chip rate of its standard from 4.09 to 3.84 Mcps </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP2 is using 3.6864 Mcps chip rate for its standard </li></ul>
    36. 36. 3G Wireless Capacities
    37. 37. 3G Capacities* <ul><li>1 and 2G System Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>2G + and 3G Capacities - TDMA </li></ul><ul><li>2G+ and 3G System Capacities EDGE Circuit-Switched Data (ECSD) Services </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate cdma2000 Capacity </li></ul>* Calculations for Rough Comparison Purposes Only. Results of Calculations May Vary Significantly With Local Implementation Conditions and Other Variables.
    38. 38. 1G and 2G System Calculated* Capacities for Voice Channels B c = 15 MHz * Calculations for Rough Comparison Purposes Only. Results of Calculations May Vary Significantly With Local Implementation Conditions and Other Variables.
    39. 39. 2G+ and 3G System Calculated* Capacities TDMA Circuit-Switched Data Services Assumptions: - Circuit-switched (Guaranteed Data Rate to the Subscriber) - B c = 15 MHz * Calculations for Rough Comparison Purposes Only. Results of Calculations May Vary Significantly With Local Implementation Conditions and Other Variables.
    40. 40. 2G+ and 3G System Calculated* Capacities EDGE Circuit-Switched Data (ECSD) Services Assumptions: - Circuit-switched (Guaranteed Data Rate to the Subscriber) - B c = 15 MHz * Calculations for Rough Comparison Purposes Only. Results of Calculations May Vary Significantly With Local Implementation Conditions and Other Variables.
    41. 41. Approximate Calculated* cdma2000 Capacity <ul><li>Results are very similar to simulation results reported in cdma2000 RTT [3]. </li></ul><ul><li>For N=3 and data rate 76.8 Kbps, throughput is 0.146 Mbps/MHz/Sector (3-sector cells), or 0.44 Mbps/MHz/Cell. Simulation results reported in [3] provided throughput range of 0.15 - 0.21 Mbps/MHz/Sector for different environments, data modes (circuit, packet), and latency (low delay, long delay) </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput/capacity results don’t include the guard band needed: 1.25MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Higher data rates can be supported for a single user per sector because there is no same-cell interference </li></ul>* Calculations for Rough Comparison Purposes Only. Results of Calculations May Vary Significantly With Local Implementation Conditions and Other Variables
    42. 42. 3 G Next Steps <ul><li>Continuing Efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trials and Technical Research Lead to Standards Modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased Commercial Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Market Decides </li></ul>