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The Technology in E-government PAD 6710: Lecture 3
M, E, P government <ul><li>Four levels of e-government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-gov information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Technologies <ul><li>Computers: Smart Machines? </li></ul><ul><li>Communication systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communications i...
Computer systems <ul><li>First generation computers (1951-58) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum tube circuits [ENIAC to UNIVAC]...
Computers <ul><li>Laptops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1979-87: Emerging period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987-95: Diversificati...
<ul><li>Landlines based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph (1844); Telephone (1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive infr...
Communication: Internet <ul><li>Federal Network systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) ...
Communications: IP based <ul><li>Digital Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voic...
IP based services
IP based services <ul><li>Podcasts; Really Simple Syndication (RSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence: blogs, wiki...
Digital will replace Analog <ul><li>IP based TV will replace Cathode Ray tube TV </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Personal Commun...
Gov 2.0
Virtual World Simulations <ul><li>Life imitating … (art, comic books,…) </li></ul><ul><li>3D Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Vi...
Virtual Worlds
Cloud computing <ul><li>Also, distributed/grid computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing services are delivered over the I...
Cloud computing
Communications Infrastructure <ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone Modems [56.6 kbps] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Wired communications <ul><li>Fiber to the Home (FTTH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of communications over optical fiber ...
Broadband over Power Line <ul><li>Power Line Communications (PLC), Power Line Telecommunications (PLT) </li></ul><ul><li>M...
BPL
Wireless infrastructure <ul><li>Licensed vs unlicensed frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Area Networks (e.g.Bluetooth, ...
Wireless Infrastructure <ul><li>Wireless is the future of broadband. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radio waves is the ...
Technology Progress: ISPs, 2000
Technology Progress: ISPs, 2004
Technology Progress: ISPs, 2006
Municipal Wi-Fi
Emerging technology trends
RFID <ul><li>RFID tags: Active; Passive; Semi-passive </li></ul><ul><li>RFID receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic produc...
RFID: CBP
RFID: Verichip HTTP://WWW.SPYCHIPS.COM
RFID Sensor Devices <ul><li>RFID tags (with EPC) will become cheap enough to tag objects & persons </li></ul><ul><li>Alter...
Location based service: GIS <ul><li>Desktop GIS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary GIS software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
GIS: Virtual Alabama
GALILEO
GALILEO
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The Technology in E-government PAD 6710: Lecture 3

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  • ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator And calculator EDVAC: electronic discrete variable computer UNIVAC: UNIVersal Automatic Computer Transistor: Bardeen, Schockley, Brattain
  • Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Evolution Data Only (EVDO) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)
  • Transcript of "The Technology in E-government PAD 6710: Lecture 3"

    1. 1. The Technology in E-government PAD 6710: Lecture 3
    2. 2. M, E, P government <ul><li>Four levels of e-government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-gov information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing govt. info. online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-gov Automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automating manual work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-gov reengineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redesign of existing processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P-gov innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>311 (Customer Relationship Management) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Technologies <ul><li>Computers: Smart Machines? </li></ul><ul><li>Communication systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communications infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging technology trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Computer systems <ul><li>First generation computers (1951-58) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum tube circuits [ENIAC to UNIVAC] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second generation (1959-63) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors; mainframe computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiler Programs (FORTRAN/ COBOL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third generation (1964-75) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputers (DEC); Integrated circuits (LSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BASIC, ALGOL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth generation (1970s-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessors (VLSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry specific softwares </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Computers <ul><li>Laptops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1979-87: Emerging period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987-95: Diversification period (Apple) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995-2001: Standardization period (of Operating Systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001-: Growth period (Netbooks included) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart machine: Turing test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic; enumeration; artificial intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moore’s law: Increasing density </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Landlines based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph (1844); Telephone (1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PBX/ PABX/ EPABX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit switching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media (Radio/ TV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone Generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1G: Analog Cellular phones (1981-90) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2G: Digital cellular phones (1991-01) [GSM; CDMA; TDMA] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3G: Digital data phones (2001-now) [UMTS; EVDO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4G?: Faster data phones [LTE; WiMax;UMB] </li></ul></ul></ul>Communications: Phones
    7. 7. Communication: Internet <ul><li>Federal Network systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFNET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University Consortiums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BITNET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Browser/ Network Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name System (DNS) [Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers] </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Communications: IP based <ul><li>Digital Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice Over IP </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol TV </li></ul>
    9. 9. IP based services
    10. 10. IP based services <ul><li>Podcasts; Really Simple Syndication (RSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence: blogs, wikis, twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia (Youtube) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer to Peer networks [Trading (ebay), Lending] (prosper.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking(LinkedIn; Xanga) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction-oriented communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest-oriented communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy-oriented communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship-oriented communities </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Digital will replace Analog <ul><li>IP based TV will replace Cathode Ray tube TV </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Personal Communications Service (PCS) phones will replace Cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Digital phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia (Cellywood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data mining techniques </li></ul><ul><li>If anything can be digitized, it will </li></ul>
    12. 12. Gov 2.0
    13. 13. Virtual World Simulations <ul><li>Life imitating … (art, comic books,…) </li></ul><ul><li>3D Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Video/ Electronic/ Virtual Gaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pachinko </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play money (QQ coins) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life/ Active Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual currency (Linden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual real estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual persona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleges and universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The media </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Virtual Worlds
    15. 15. Cloud computing <ul><li>Also, distributed/grid computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing services are delivered over the Internet, on demand, from a remote location, rather than residing on one’s own desktop, laptop, mobile device, or even on an organization’s servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid scalability and deployment capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased maintenance/upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved economies of scale </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Cloud computing
    17. 17. Communications Infrastructure <ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone Modems [56.6 kbps] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadbands >200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (256 Kbps to 6 Mbps) [20 to 1 contention ratio] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Modems (1 – 6 Mbps) [50 to 1 contention ratio] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T1/ T2 lines [10-100 Mbps] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired or Wireless </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Wired communications <ul><li>Fiber to the Home (FTTH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of communications over optical fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1.2% of homes have FTTH connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dallas, Jackson (TN), Sacramento </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Broadband over Power Line <ul><li>Power Line Communications (PLC), Power Line Telecommunications (PLT) </li></ul><ul><li>Manassas, VA deployed the nation's first citywide BPL system recently </li></ul><ul><li>The National Association for Amateur Radio opposes the idea due to interference with radio waves </li></ul>
    20. 20. BPL
    21. 21. Wireless infrastructure <ul><li>Licensed vs unlicensed frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Area Networks (e.g.Bluetooth, Ultra Wide Band) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 Ghz; 720 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range upto 300’; 2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMax (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range upto 30 miles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.16 standard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul>
    22. 22. Wireless Infrastructure <ul><li>Wireless is the future of broadband. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radio waves is the next REAL ESTATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC auctioning of 700 MHz band spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for transmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, UWB; Wi-Fi; WiMax; Mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone lines; Electrical lines (BPL); Optical Fibers (FTTH) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Technology Progress: ISPs, 2000
    24. 24. Technology Progress: ISPs, 2004
    25. 25. Technology Progress: ISPs, 2006
    26. 26. Municipal Wi-Fi
    27. 27. Emerging technology trends
    28. 28. RFID <ul><li>RFID tags: Active; Passive; Semi-passive </li></ul><ul><li>RFID receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic product codes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asset (Inventory) Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of materiel </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. RFID: CBP
    30. 30. RFID: Verichip HTTP://WWW.SPYCHIPS.COM
    31. 31. RFID Sensor Devices <ul><li>RFID tags (with EPC) will become cheap enough to tag objects & persons </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: Smart cards </li></ul><ul><li>Are RFID tags SPY CHIPS? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Location based service: GIS <ul><li>Desktop GIS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary GIS software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible to one person at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developer = User </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steep learning curve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-GIS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary GIS software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible over internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of developers and users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flatter learning curve for users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Geospatial Web (Where 2.0?) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging content and data with geographic metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open access to GIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIS combined with Web 2.0 tools (mashups) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple developers as well as users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency management; Surveillance; Transit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loopt; Google’s Latitude; Foursquare; Hot Potato; Whrrl; Gowalla </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. GIS: Virtual Alabama
    34. 34. GALILEO
    35. 35. GALILEO
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