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The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information ... The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information ... Presentation Transcript

  • Assembling the Planetary Computer Keynote to the ACM Ubicomp 2001 Conference Sheraton Midtown Atlanta Hotel www.ubicomp.org/ubicomp/ Atlanta, GA October 1, 2001 Larry Smarr, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD, Director, Cal-(IT) 2
  • Abstract After twenty years, the "S-curve" of building out the wired internet with hundreds of millions of PCs as its end points is flattening out, with corresponding lowering of the growth rates of the major suppliers of that global infrastructure. At the same time, several new "S-curves" are reaching their steep slope as ubiquitous computing begins to sweep the planet. Leading this will be a vast expansion in heterogeneous end-points to a new wireless internet, moving IP throughout the physical world. Billions of internet connected cell phones, embedded processors, hand held devices, sensors, and actuators will lead to radical new applications in biomedicine, transportation, environmental monitoring, and interpersonal communication and collaboration. The combination of wireless LANs, the third generation of cellular phones, satellites, and the increasing use of the FCC unlicensed wireless band will cover the world with connectivity. The resulting vast increase in data streams, augmented by the advent of mass market broadband to homes and businesses, will drive the backbone of the internet to a pure optical lambda-switched network of tremendous capacity. Finally, peer-to-peer computing and storage will increasingly provide a vast untapped capability to power this emergent planetary computer.
    • Wireless Access--Anywhere, Anytime
      • Broadband Speeds
      • “ Always Best Connected”
    • Billions of New Wireless Internet End Points
      • Information Appliances
      • Sensors and Actuators
      • Embedded Processors
    • Emergence of a Distributed Planetary Computer
      • Parallel Lambda Optical Backbone
      • Storage of Data Everywhere
      • Scalable Distributed Computing Power
    • Brilliance is Distributed Throughout the Grid
    The Emerging Brilliant Cloud A Mobile Internet Powered by a Planetary Computer
  • The Era of Guerilla Infrastructure
    • Guerilla vs. Commercial Infrastructure
      • Bottom Up
      • Completely Decentralized
      • Self-Assembling
      • Use at Your Own Risk
      • Paves the Way for Commercial Deployment
    • Examples
      • NSFnet  Internet
      • NCSA Mosaic  Web
      • Napster  Peer-to-Peer Storage
      • [email_address]  Peer-to-Peer Computing
      • IEEE 802.11  Broadband Wireless Internet
  • 802.11 is Creating Broadband Wireless Internet “Watering Holes”
    • Ad Hoc IEEE 802.11 Domains
      • Uses the FCC Unlicensed Spectrum
      • Real Broadband--11 Mbps Going to 54 Mbps
      • Security and Authentication can be Added
      • But, it is Shared and Local
    • Home, Neighborhoods, Office, Schools?
      • MobileStar--Admiral Clubs, Starbucks, Major Hotels, Restaurants, …
      • Widely Adopted on Campus Buildings, Dorms, Coffee Shops…
  • Urban Areas Have WLAN Node Movements to Create “Free” Internet Connectivity
    • “ If you have a broadband or DSL connection in your home or office, buy an access point, hook it up, and you are a node operator.”
    • “ The project grew out of a skepticism towards the claims of the telecom industry regarding the usefulness and success of the future "third generation mobile telephone systems" as the only means to implement "the wireless Internet". “
    • “ We envision a cloud of free Internet connectivity that will cover most inhabited areas. The coverage might be spotty, vary over time, and be hard to control or predict, just like a fog or smog. “
    • 369 members in Sweden as of June 1, 2001
    www.elektrosmog.nu/
  • The FCC Unlicensed Band Can Create a High Speed Wireless Backbone
    • The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network
    • Enabling a Broad Set of Science Applications
    NSF Funded PI, Hans-Werner Braun, SDSC Co-PI, Frank Vernon, SIO 45mbps Duplex Backbone http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/topo.html
  • Forecast Growth of Global Mobile Internet Users 3G Adds Mobility, QoS, and High Speeds Source: Ericsson 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Mobile Internet Fixed Internet Subscribers (millions)
  • The Promise of 3G Creating Billions of New Multimedia Internet Sources Source: Ericsson Consumers are 80% of 2G Usage Corporations are Supposed to be 80% of Early 3G 3G Is Estimated to Grow From 1.3% of the Wireless Market in 2002 to 23% in 2007 Text/SMS Text/Mail Images MMS Video Download Video Steaming
  • Nearly 30 Million I-Mode Subscribers in Japan 9.6 Kbps
  • Japan’s NTT DoCoMo is Initiating the First 3G System TODAY, October 1, 2001
    • WCDMA
    • I-Mode Users
    • 384Kbps downlink
    http://foma.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/
  • UCSD—Has Been First Beta Test Site for Qualcomm’s 1xEV Cellular Internet
    • Optimized for Packet Data Services
      • Uses a 1.25 MHz channel
        • 2.4 Mbps Peak Forward Rate
      • Part of the CDMA2000 Tech Family
      • Can Be Used as Stand-Alone
    • Chipsets in Development Support
      • PacketVideo’s PVPlayer™ MPEG-4
      • gpsOne™ Global Positioning System
      • Bluetooth
      • MP3
      • MIDI
      • BREW
    Rooftop HDR Access Point
  • New Software Environments for Wireless Application Development
    • Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW)
      • Works on Qualcomm CDMA Chipsets
      • Middleware Between
        • the Application and the Chip System Source Code
      • Windows-based Software Development Kit (SDK)
      • Native C/C++ applications will run most efficiently
      • Supports Integration of Java™ Applications
      • Different Model of Security from JAVA
    www.qualcomm.com/brew/
  • UCSD Has First Operational Third Generation Cellular Internet in U.S. Available Now 6 months 12 months Wireless WAN
  • Goal: Smooth Handoff by Mobile Device Faced With Heterogeneous Access Network Identify Issues Related to Handoff Between WLAN and WWAN Networks and Implement a Test-bed Ramesh Rao, Kameshwari Chebrolou UCSD-CWC, Cal-(IT) 2 WLAN GPRS CDMA CDPD Internet (802.11b,a) (CDMA20001xEV)
  • Will The Planned Global Rollout of 3G Proceed as Planned?
    • There is a Lack of 3G Global Standardization
      • Constrains Economies of Scale
      • WCDMA (Japan, Europe), CDMA2000 (USA)
    • The Economics of Telecom
      • The Huge Debt Load
      • The Investment in 3G Buildout
        • Is There a Business Case to Recoup?     
    • Technological Breakouts
      • IEEE 802.11 Buildout
      • 3G (Data-Only) Can Deploy Now (CDMA20001xEV)
      • Will They Skim the Cream of the 3G Market?       
  • The NSF TeraGrid Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure This will Become the National Backbone to Support Multiple Large Scale Science and Engineering Projects Data Compute Visualization Applications Intel, IBM, Qwest Myricom, Sun, Oracle $53Million from NSF NCSA 8 TF 4 TB Memory 240 TB disk Caltech 0.5 TF 0.4 TB Memory 86 TB disk Argonne 1 TF 0.25 TB Memory 25 TB disk TeraGrid Backbone (40 Gbps) SDSC 4.1 TF 2 TB Memory 250 TB disk
  • Star Light International Wavelength Switching Hub Seattle Portland Caltech SDSC NYC SURFnet, CERN CANARIE Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific AMPATH TeraGrid *ANL, UIC, NU, UC, IIT, MREN AMPATH Source: Tom DeFanti, Maxine Brown
  • Layered Software Approach to Building the Planetary Grid Edited by Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman www.mkp.com/grids “ A source book for the history of the future” -- Vint Cerf Science Portals & Workbenches Twenty-First Century Applications Computational Services P e r f o r m a n c e Networking, Devices and Systems Grid Services (resource independent ) Grid Fabric (resource dependent) Access Services & Technology Access Grid Computational Grid
  • From Telephone Conference Calls to Access Grid International Video Meetings Access Grid Lead-Argonne NSF STARTAP Lead-UIC’s Elec. Vis. Lab Creating a Virtual Global Research Lab Using IP Multicast
  • Web Interface to Grid Computing The NPACI GridPort Architecture 802.11b Wireless
    • Interactive Access to:
    • State of Computer
    • Job Status
    • Application Codes
  • Grid Requirements for Internet Middleware Systems
    • Identity & authentication
    • Authorization & policy
    • Resource discovery
    • Resource characterization
    • Resource allocation
    • (Co-)reservation, workflow
    • Distributed algorithms
    • Remote data access
    • High-speed data transfer
    • Performance guarantees
    • Monitoring
    • Adaptation
    • Intrusion detection
    • Resource management
    • Accounting & payment
    • Fault management
    • System evolution
    • Etc.
    • Etc.
    Source: Carl Kessleman IBM Adopts Open Source Globus!
  • “Peer-to-Peer” Distributed Computing Will Power Grid Applications Entropia is Integrating with the Globus Toolkit Client Software Clients Task Server Application
  • Adding Brilliance to Mobile Clients with a Planetary Supercomputer
    • Napster Meets SETI@Home
      • Globally Distributed Computing & Storage
    • Assume Ten Million PCs in Five Years
      • Average Speed Ten Gigaflop
      • Average Free Storage 100 GB
    • Planetary Computer Capacity
      • 100,000 TetaFLOP Speed
      • 1 Million TeraByte Storage
  • California Has Undertaken a Grand Experiment in Partnering The California NanoSystems Institute UCSF UCB The California Institute for Bioengineering, Biotechnology, and Quantitative Biomedical Research The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society UCSC UCD UCM UCSB UCLA UCI UCSD
  • Cal-(IT) 2 An Integrated Approach to the New Internet www.calit2.net 220 UCSD & UCI Faculty Working in Multidisciplinary Teams With Students, Industry, and the Community The State’s $100 M Creates Unique Buildings, Equipment, and Laboratories
  • A Broad Partnership Response from the Private Sector
    • Akamai
    • Boeing
    • Broadcom
    • AMCC
    • CAIMIS
    • Compaq
    • Conexant
    • Cox Communications
    • DuPont
    • Emulex
    • Enterprise Partners VC
    • Entropia
    • Ericsson
    • Global Photon
    • Hewlett-Packard
    • IBM
    • IdeaEdge Ventures
    • Intersil
    • Irvine Sensors
    • Leap Wireless
    • Litton Industries
    • MedExpert
    • Merck
    • Microsoft
    • Mission Ventures
    • NCR
    • Newport Corporation
    • Orincon
    • Panoram Technologies
    • Printronix
    • QUALCOMM
    • R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical RI
    • SAIC
    • SciFrame
    • Seagate Storage
    • Silicon Graphics
    • Silicon Wave
    • Sony
    • STMicroelectronics
    • Sun Microsystems
    • TeraBurst Networks
    • Texas Instruments
    • UCSD Healthcare
    • The Unwired Fund
    • WebEx
    Computers Communications Software Sensors Biomedical Startups Venture Firms $140 M Match From Industry
  • Prototyping Early Warning Systems and Disaster Response Systems
    • Three Tier System
      • Wireless SensorNets Brings Data to Repositories
      • Collaborative Crisis Management Centers
      • Remote Wireless Devices Interrogate Databases
    • Cal-(IT)2 Will Focus on High Performance Grids
      • Analysis, Collaboration, and Crisis Management
      • Broadband Wireless Sensornets
      • Metro Optical Network Testbed
    • Build a “Living-in-the-Future” Laboratory
      • UCSD, UCI, and SDSU Campuses
      • San Diego, Orange County, Cross Border
      • Early Access to HW/SW from Industrial Partners
  • San Diego “Living on the Grid” Laboratory Fiber, Wireless, Compute, Data, Software
    • High Resolution Visualization Facilities
      • Data Analysis
      • Crisis Management
    • Driven by Data-Intensive Applications
      • Civil Infrastructure
      • Environmental Systems
      • Medical Facilities
    • Distributed Collaboration
      • Optically Linked
      • Integrate Access Grid
    • Overlay Wireless Internet
      • First Responder PDAs
      • SensorNets
    SDSC SIO Cal-(IT) 2 SIO Control Room Cox, Panoram, SAIC, SBC, SGI, IBM, TeraBurst Networks UCSD Healthcare SD Telecom Council Cal-(IT) 2 Metro Optical Laboratory
  • Common Portal Architecture Customized for Crisis Management Web Browser - Portal Interface Portal Engine User Preferences State Values Data Gather XML HTML Legacy and Problem Specific Databases, Collections, & Literature
    • Analysis Tools:
    • - Pattern Recognition
    • - GIS Queries
    • Data Mining
    • Multi-Sensor Fusion
    • Applications:
    • - Epidemiology
    • - Transportation Systems
    • - ...
    Built on Prior SDSC and NCSA Work
  • The Wireless Internet Will Improve the Safety of California’s 25,000 Bridges New Bay Bridge Tower with Lateral Shear Links Cal-(IT) 2 Will Develop and Install Wireless Sensor Arrays Linked to Crisis Management Control Rooms Source: UCSD Structural Engineering Dept.
  • Cal-(IT) 2 Wireless Services Middleware: Emerging Pieces Real-Time Services Mobile Code Location Awareness Power Control Security Cal-IT2 Wireless Services Interface UCI Wireless Infrastructures UCSD Wireless Infrastructures Cal-IT2 Applications J. Pasquale, UCSD Data Management
  • HP Grant Brings Wireless Internet Access to Large Number of UCSD Undergraduates
    • Potential “Disintegration” of Campus Learning Culture
      • Anticipated Growth of 10,000 Students Over Next 10 Years
    • Year- Long “Living Laboratory” Experiment
      • 500+ Wireless-Enabled HP Jornada PDAs
      • Incoming Freshmen in Computer Science and Engineering
    • Software Developed
      • ActiveClass: Student-Teacher Interactions
      • Roamer/FindMe: Geolocation and Resource Discovery
      • Extensible Software Infrastructure for Others to Build On
    • Deploy to New UCSD Undergrad College Fall 2002
    Funds: HP, NSF, Campus, Cal-(IT) 2
  • Mobile Code-Based Client-Server for the Active Web
    • Client Is Extended by Injecting Code Into Internet
    • Extension Runs at Intermediate Server
      • Higher Performance, Greater Reliability
      • Liberated From Client Device, Bypasses Wireless Link
    • Current implementation: Java, JINI
    Joe Pasquale, CSE UCSD ActiveWeb Project
  • New Security Issues in Mobile and Wireless Networks
    • Location-based Access Control
        • If Alice Is in Country P, She Can Do X
        • If Alice Is in Country Q, She Can Do Y
      • GPS? Need Tamper-Resistant Hardware…
    • Group-Based or Group-Centric Security
      • How Can One “Speak” As a Group or a Fraction Thereof?
      • Admitting New or Expelling Existing Members
      • Issuing, Re-issuing Credentials
    • Secure Commun. in Constantly Changing Groups
      • Group Needs Common Key: Key Distribution/Agreement
      • Authentication of Membership
        • e.g., Alice Is in This ad Hoc Net Cluster at This Time
    Source: Gene Tsudik, UCI
  • Agents Will Intermediate Between Us and the Grid UCI Campus Parking and Traffic Agent Sharad Mehrotra, UCI Image Processing / Analysis Traffic Data Parking Lot and Traffic Information to User User Submits Destination Parking Lot Query Handheld Device Video Feed of Parking Lot to Server Wireless Camera Database Repository
  • Massive Datasets Available to Mobile Devices in a Biomedical Imaging Research Network Source: Mark Ellisman, UCSD NCRR Imaging and Computing Resources UCSD Cal-(IT) 2 SDSC Forming a National-Scale Grid Federating Multi-Scale Neuro-Imaging Data from Centers with High Field MRI and Advanced 3D Microscopes BIRN Part of the UCSD CRBS Center for Research on Biological Structure Wireless “Pad” Web Interface Surface Web Deep Web Duke UCLA Cal Tech Harvard UCSD
  • Cal-(IT) 2 Plans for Adding Wireless Sensors to Systems-on-Chip Memory Protocol Processors Processors DSP Source: Sujit Dey, UCSD ECE Embedded Software Critical New Role of Power Aware Systems Ad Hoc Hierarchical Network of Brilliant Sensors Applications Sensors Radio Internet
  • Investigating Collaboration with UC Berkeley and CITRIS on Smart Dust
    • Sensing, computation, communication, and power in 1 mm 3
    • Kris Pister, Joe Kahn, Bernhard Boser, UC Berkeley
    Smart Dust – UC Berkeley Smart Dust ’01 Components Goal
  • The Perfect Storm: Convergence of Engineering with Bio, Physics, & IT Nanobio info technology 5 nanometers Human Rhinovirus IBM Quantum Corral Iron Atoms on Copper VCSELaser 2 mm Nanogen MicroArray 500x Magnification MEMS 400x Magnification NANO
  • As Our Bodies Move On-Line We Become the Ultimate Ubiquitous Computer!
    • New Sensors—Israeli Video Pill
      • Battery, Light, & Video Camera
      • Images Stored on Hip Device
    • Next Step—Putting You On-Line!
      • Wireless Internet Transmission
      • Key Metabolic and Physical Variables
      • Model -- Dozens of 25 Processors and 60 Sensors / Actuators Inside of our Cars
    • Genomic Individualized Medicine
      • Combine
        • Genetic Code
        • Body Sensor Data Flows
      • Use Powerful AI Data Mining Techniques
    www.givenimaging.com www.bodymedia.com