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Specific examples and assistance


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  • McLuhan, M. 1995 Understanding the media: The extension of man. MIT Press
  • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, Bobby - an online tool for measuring conformance with the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, National Center for Accessible Media: provide a symbol you can display on pages for which an effort has been made to enhance access, Thirty-something (million): should they be exceptions? Trace Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Visibone: colour charts for designers looking to avoid problems for those with :olour blindness, BT Labs: a detailed explanation of the problems of colour blindness, plus tips and palette charts to help you avoid problems, Neilson Norman Group: usability experts, The e-Learning Network: the association for those interested in the application of technologies to learning, Web Accessibility and the DDA, a paper by Martin Sloan, Graduate School of Law, Glasgow, Disability Rights Commission, AbilityNet - a charitv specialising in computers and disability,
  • A good example, with informative content are the videos of the recent 'Berlin' conference** on academic use of e-prints etc. See: Of particular interest is the piece by Derek Law: Open Access: Developing a National Information Strategy in Scotland - Derek Law, University of Strathclyde [Streaming Video] [Unedited Video 88Mb] [PowerPoint] **Berlin 3 Open Access: Progress in Implementing the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
  • Papers by these authors in: Littlejohn, A. (Ed) 2003. Reusing online resources. Kogan Page Constructivist: variously defines but where students create and re-create their own knowledge - as individuals and as learning groups
  • The Instructional Use of Learning Objects, edited by David Wiley and published by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. The SCORM standard: MERLOT repository at now contains over 5000 educational objects,
  • AL or ALN is a bit of a buzzword but it does describe much of what goes on. The point to make is that it really is two way and you can build in the various bits of multi-media which help the learning process. Not least because you can incorporate a whole variety of 'add ons' which help the learning process and which are using more interactive components than just the written word. The example shows you how this can be done.
  • Bull, J and McKenna, C (2001) " A Blueprint for CAA", Centre for Computer Assisted Assessment ( HYPERLINK "" SAPHE: Self-assessment in Higher Education available online at HYPERLINK SCAAN – Scottish Computer Assisted Assessment Network online at HYPERLINK
  • Transcript

    • 1. Specific examples and assistance Some things we might do and use: Powerpoint and onwards ‘ We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us’ McLuhan 1995
    • 2. Bringing together some of the things we might want to do*
      • Present material to students
        • PowerPoint (lectures etc, posters)
        • Webpages
          • Images,video,audio
      • Integrate materials
        • (website/portals/VLE/LMS)
      • Communicate with students
        • Synchronous (tele/video conferencing)
        • Asynchronous (e-mail, text submission/return)
      • Communication between students
      • Present student material
        • Weblogs,webfolios,posters
        • *back to interaction models
    • 3. We might want to do, or improve, all of these things:
      • Student involvement
      • Staff involvement
      • Immediacy
      • Show reflection
      • Accessibility
      • Recording
      • Assessment
      • Feedback
      • Integration
      • Quality control
      Can we do these things better by 'e-'?
    • 4. University Infrastructure
      • Superjanet as backbone
      • Computer labs for students
      • Library/ies (how e-friendly are they? WiFi?)
      • Teaching spaces, do they have video-projectors?
      • How easy is it to link up? (laptops, memory sticks)
      • How much help do you get for doing things:
      • Personally? (Promotional rewards?)
      • Departmentally? (local gurus?)
    • 5. University/Departmental hardware
      • What facilities do your students have for remote access?
        • Do your students have access to scanners?
      • In lectures, 'magic whiteboards'
      • Interactive units for 'voting' in lectures and seminars
    • 6. University (departmental) Software
      • What do you use?
      • What do your students use?
      • Basic suite of MS Office plus….
      • Modelling?
      • GIS and e.g. Minitab, SPSS
      • Creation tools (Flash, AI)
        • Better web integration
    • 7. Social infrastructure
      • ADSL will become commonplace
      • As will Wi-Fi for local areas (and universities?)
      • 2G phones will become even more common (with even more gadgets)
      • 3G (and upgraded 2G) technologies will give even more sophistication of delivery
    • 8. Public hardware
      • 3G phones, interactive TV, home and portable computers, GPS, PDAs, printers, scanners, digital cameras
      • Satellite communication with TV, computers
      • Most of these are here already! - at steadily reducing costs.
    • 9. Public software
      • Pretty much anything you want - and not even at a price.
      • Public Domain Software
      • Linux - Star Office etc
    • 10. Communication methods
      • Webfolios
      • Web logs (blogs)
      • Discussion groups
      • Note sharing
    • 11. Student ability to both own and use these devices
      • Will be related to decreasing costs
      • Will be related to fashion
      • Will be related to ease of use
      • Will be related to integration of devices
      • Will be demanding that 'we' have the applications, tools and subject materials (lectures to libraries) to supply their needs.
    • 12. Some categories to consider
      • University Infrastructure
      • Social infrastructure (ie Public; e.g. ADSL,)
      • University/Departmental hardware
      • Public hardware (3G phones, interactive TV, home and portable computers, GPS, PDAs, printers, scanners, digital cameras……….!)
      • University (departmental) Software
      • Public software
      • Student ability to both own and use these devices
      • Q: What will be the drivers and what the constraints on what/how we teach?
    • 13. A few other things for technology
      • E-submission centrally
      • MCQ s via LTSN CAL
      • Specifics
        • Checking submission of paperwork
        • Sending out reminders
        • Attendance etc
        • students at risk
    • 14. Accessibility
      • SENDA - Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001
      • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act 1998
    • 15. Others ways to Accessibility
      • Videoing lectures (ahem!)
      • Streaming technologies*
        • realtime and progressive
      • Using student inclusiveness
        • Groups and Teams involving lab, field or discussion events (stills; video: fieldwork example )
        • Pre-post event demonstration and recap
      • Technology is on our side, miniaturisation and easy of use an connectivity - you can do it
    • 16. Tools (gadgets) to use
      • Affordances (Donald Norman)
        • In communication technologies
        • In physical tools
        • In ideas about these
        • Thus, let technology (hardware and software) develop and take what's best/easiest to implement
          • (no need to be an early adopter)
    • 17. Tools (applications) to use
      • Office Suite
      • Creative Suite (P'shop, Illustrator, GoLive, Acrobat)
      • Search engines
        • (more than Google! e.g. Scholar, A9; Meta search engines, Vivisiomo,)
      • Databases - search engines Portals
      • Web technologies will drive various aspects
        • HTML, DHTML, XML
    • 18. Educational (Learning) Objects
      • 'A resource which helps a learner achieve a particular learning objective'*
      • Nothing to do with Intelligent learning Systems or automation ('instructivism')
      • Chunks ('granules') that can be used for specific purposes (stand alone)
        • Knowledge Object (Korper)*
        • Content or information object (Mason)
        • Asset (Duncan)
      • Constructivist approaches to education - by reusing ELOs
    • 19. Reusable Educational/Learning Objects
      • Some bits of applications (Java Applets, Javascript)
      • For instructional REOs:
      • Time, effort, cost, finding them etc
      • Better to share - finding the things
      • Copyright problems
        • Creative Commons and Copyleft
        • Can we be altruistic and collegiate?
      • Making a start?
        • Digital repositories (Data storage plus metadata)
          • MERLOT (M'media Educational Resource for Online and Teaching)
    • 20. Some examples
      • Book or journal article (sharing, cost, on-line?)
      • Maps
        • (digital? Redrawn; OS? but e.g. Multimap )
      • Definitions and encyclopedias - use with care
        • (Wikipedia; XreferPlus)
      • Photographs (yours? Copyright?)
      • Diagrams (from text books?!)
      • So you have to know about these resources!
    • 21. Sharing resources
      • Mike Slattery's AAG geomorphology CD
      • 'Borrow' things from Web sites
        • students find these well enough
      • What about day to day PowerPoint?
        • Where do you get your material from?
        • Back to copyright issues
        • Should universities hold copyright?
        • Can we avoid some of these issues?
    • 22. Feedback - how do we give it?
      • Marking is quick, feedback takes time
      • But, students consider the mark as ‘feedback’
        • Websites with general feedback, ‘advance feedback’ (Save time next time)
        • E-mail submission and conversion to pdf and subsequent marking acrobatscreen1.jpg
    • 23. Adding the bells and whistles
      • At this point I need to know what is the capability of the workshop.
      • How to provide instruction?
      • Do you want a demo of the capability of PowerPoint?
      • The Blue Peter Principle ( PPT - Try this)
    • 24. Other things with PowerPoint
      • Make REOs for incorporation elsewhere
      • Students use it for revision
      • Send questions out with it - responses via e-mail or annotations of ppt
      • Turn it in to an asynchronous learning network (add e-mail)
      • Once you've got it you can modify it - flexibility, unlike CDRoms
    • 25. Asynchronous Learning (Networks)
      • You now have the basics of an ALN (via a VLE/MLE)
      • Look, no web pages!
      • Just developing from vanilla PowerPoint
      • You can add material at will (try doing that with a CD let alone an overhead or set of slides)
      • Students can download to add notes.
      • Graphics are there
      • Why do we bother with overheads any longer?
        • Really!
    • 26. Adding substance to our ALN
      • Look back at the requirements we thought of and listed earlier
        • How can we add these?
        • Information provision
        • Just in time provision (rather than just in case)
        • Constructivist scenarios.
      • Integrated web sites (per module) are better
    • 27. Module Websites
      • Add information (of all types)
        • Practicals, mark schemes, images
        • Portal
        • How to, information, guides
        • etc
      • E-mail address for the module/website
      • The importance of assessment:
    • 28. Assessment always rears its head!
      • "if you are intending to train students to learn online, then you have to decide what skills they will need to acquire, and make sure that their development is supported in the assessment. It's no good concentrating on the subject of the course, and forgetting about the process of online learning."
      • Macdonald 2000
    • 29. E-Assessment methods (and some feedback)
      • MCQs and quizzes (automatic)
      • Report writing (Word etc submission)
      • Posters large and small (ppt, e-submission, compact and easy to mark)
      • Web pages for students (a useful skill) eg
      • Web folios (reflection on past work) eg
      • Electronic submission of e-work (drop-off)
      • Checking paper submissions - faster, less 'corruptible'
    • 30. Presentation of work and reflection
      • The usual from Office, ppt Word and Excel
      • Creation of web pages (easy now with HTML editors)
      • Placing material on web pages (ftp, webfolios)
      • Examples
      • Show structure of a module (learning map)
      • Learning log - weblog
    • 31. Student provision
      • We can probably provide better services to students than ever before:
      • Training in anything from GIS to statistics
      • Business and entrepreneurship to 'employability'
    • 32. Other things on websites
      • Usual things such as reading lists
        • Practical info, assistance, comments etc
        • General 'help' or 'how to' information
        • Portals to significant areas
        • Guided this and that 'Virtorial'
        • Records of Achievement
        • Module publicity - records, attainment etc
    • 33. Things students can learn from HTML etc
      • Some structure to scripting languages
      • Invention and communication
      • Graphic design (knowledge about disabilites etc)
      • Communication via media
      • File structures and information
      • Meta data and information retrieval
      • Databases
      • And they do it well! And (usually) enjoy it.
    • 34. E-hardware
      • Creativity
        • cheaper and more robust than conventional, USB and Firewire
      • Data acquisition - images
        • (satellite,digital photography, microscopy)
      • Data acquisition - data logging
      • Data processing
      • Make REOs easily
    • 35. Digital production - made easily and quickly Put video in ppt Images on website Send microscope images to students Audio clips in ppt Share a Wi-Fi network Map with GPS E-whiteboard
    • 36. Some things with simple GPS
      • Self-guided field trips
        • 'Geocaching' to ease congestion and make students do the work/observation
      • Mapping
        • Breadcrumb trail to digital points and jpg
          • Students use this to construct a map via e.g Paintshop or Photoshop
    • 37. Things on the horizon (for e-learning)
      • Games
      • Sharing materials/downloading (BitTorrent - 'a cooperative free speech tool'; Azureus)
      • Podcasting (audio)
      • 3G phones (Isle of Man) and UMTS network. (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
      • Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
      • More mobile and portable computing
    • 38. Have I convinced you?
      • That e-this and that has great potential for learning and teaching
      • That ALNs are a good way to go
      • That we've still a long way to go
      • That a web page for a module is a useful attribute
      • That we should move towards reusable educational objects.
      Either way - come back at me!
    • 39. Some reading
      • Garrison and Anderson 2003
      • 'E-learning in the 21st Century'
      • Jochens, Van Merriënboer and Koper, 2004
      • 'Integrated e-learning'
      • Schank 2002
      • 'Designing world-class e-learning'
      • Shepherd 2004
      • 'E-learning's greatest hits'
        • Association for Learning Technology ALT J
    • 40. Student examples