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  • 2. Contents
    • Introduction
    • Working of WIMAX
    • IEEE 802.16 standard
    • 802.16 Architecture
    • IEEE 802.16 Specifications
    • Features of WIMAX
    • Advantages of WIMAX over WIFI
    • WIMAX vs. 3G
    • ISSUES in WIMAX vs. 3G
  • 3. What is WIMAX?
    • WIMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
    • WiMAX refers to broadband wireless networks that are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which ensures compatibility and interoperability between broadband wireless access equipment
    • WiMAX, which will have a range of up to 31 miles, is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line.
    • There are three possible ways to access internet.
      • Broadband access
      • Uses DSL or cable modem at home and T1 or T3 line at office
      • WIFI
      • Uses WIFI routers at home and hotspots on the road
      • Dial Up Connection
    • Broadband access is too expensive and WiFi coverage is very sparse.
    • The new technology promises
      • High speed of broadband service
      • Wireless rather than wired access
      • Broad Coverage
  • 6.
    • A WiMAX tower , similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km).
    • A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or Personal Computer Memory card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today
    A WIMAX system consists of
  • 7.
  • 8. HOW WIMAX works?
    • Non-Line of sight
    • Uses a lower frequency range.
    • Line of sight
    • Uses a higher frequency range.
  • 10.  
  • 11. WIMAX Scenario
    • Consider a scenario where a WiMax-enabled computer is 10 miles away from the WiMax base station.
    • A special encryption code is given to computer to gain access to base station
    • The base station would beam data from the Internet required for computer (at speeds potentially higher than today's cable modems)
  • 12. WIMAX Scenario
    • The user would pay the provider monthly fee for using the service. The cost for this service could be much lower than current high-speed Internet-subscription fees because the provider never had to run cables
    • The WiMAX protocol is designed to accommodate several different methods of data transmission, one of which is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    • If WiMAX-compatible computers become very common, the use of VoIP could increase dramatically. Almost anyone with a laptop could make VoIP calls
    • WiMAX Mini-PCI Reference Design Intel’s first WIMAX chip
  • 14.  
  • 15. IEEE 802.16
    • Range- 30 miles from base station
    • Speed- 70 Megabits per second
    • Frequency bands- 2 to 11 and 10 to 66(licensed and unlicensed bands respectively)
    • Defines both MAC and PHY layer and allows multiple PHY layer specifications
  • 16.  
  • 17. IEEE 802.16 Specifications
    • 802.16a
    • Uses the licensed frequencies from 2 to 11 GHz
    • Supports Mesh network
    • 802.16b
    • Increase spectrum to 5 and 6 GHz
    • Provides QoS( for real time voice and video service)
    • 802.16c
    • Represents a 10 to 66GHz
    • 802.16d
    • Improvement and fixes for 802.16a
    • 802.16e
    • Addresses on Mobile
    • Enable high-speed signal handoffs necessary for communications with users moving at vehicular speeds
  • 18.  
  • 19. 802.16 Architecture
    • IEEE 802.16 Protocol Architecture has 4 layers: Convergence, MAC, Transmission and physical, which can be mapped to two OSI lowest layers: physical and data link.
  • 20. 802.16 Architecture
    • P2MP Architecture
    • BS connected to Public Networks
    • BS serves Subscriber Stations (SS)
    • Provides SS with first mile access to Public Networks
    • Mesh Architecture
    • Optional architecture for WiMAX
  • 21. P2MP Architecture
  • 22. Mesh Architecture
    • Scalability
    • Quality of Service
    • Range
    • Coverage
  • 24. Scalability
    • The 802.16 standard supports flexible radio frequency (RF) chann el b andwidths.
    • The standard supports hundreds or even thousands of users within one RF channel
    • As the number of subscribers grow the spectrum can be reallocated with process of sectoring.
  • 25. Quality of Service
    • Primary purpose of QoS feature is to define transmission ordering and scheduling on the air interface
    • These features often need to work in conjunction with mechanisms beyond the air interface in order to provide end to end QoS or to police the behaviour or SS.
  • 26. Requirements for QoS
    • A configuration and registration function to pre configure SS based QoS service flows and traffic parameters
    • A signalling function for dynamically establishing QoS enabled service flows and traffic parameters
    • Utilization of MAC scheduling and QoS traffic parameters for uplink service flows
    • Utilization of QoS traffic parameters for downlink service flows
  • 27. RANGE
    • Optimized for up to 50 Km
    • Designed to handle many users spread out over kilometres
    • Designed to tolerate greater multi-path delay spread (signal reflections) up to 10.0μ seconds
    • PHY and MAC designed with multi-mile range in mind
  • 28. Coverage
    • Standard supports mesh network topology
    • Optimized for outdoor NLOS performance
    • Standard supports advanced antenna techniques
    • Speed
      • Faster than broadband service
    • Wireless
      • Not having to lay cables reduces cost
      • Easier to extend to suburban and rural areas
    • Broad Coverage
      • Much wider coverage than WiFi hotspots
  • 30. Benefits to Service Providers
    • Allow service providers to deliver high throughput broadband based services like VoIP, high-speed Internet and Video
    • Facilitate equipment compatibility
    • Reduce the capital expenditures required for network expansion
    • Provide improved performance and extended range
  • 31. Benefits to Customers
    • Range of technology and service level choices from both fixed and wireless broadband operators
    • DSL-like services at DSL prices but with portability
    • Rapidly declining fixed broadband prices
    • No more DSL “installation” fees from incumbent
  • 32. Why not WIFI
    • Scalability
    • Relative Performance
    • Quality of Service
    • Range
    • Coverage
    • Security
  • 33. Scalability
    • Channel bandwidths can be chosen by operator (e.g. for sectorization)
    • 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz width channels. MAC designed for scalability. independent of channel bandwidth
    • MAC designed to support thousands of users.
    • Wide (20MHz) frequency channels
    • MAC designed to support 10’s of users
    802.16a 802.11
  • 34. RELATIVE PERFORMANCE 5.0 bps/Hz 100 Mbps 1.5 – 20 MHz 802.16a 2.7 bps/Hz 54 Mbps 20 MHz 802.11 Maximum bps/Hz Maximum Data Rate Channel Bandwidth
  • 35. Quality of Service
    • Grant-request MAC
    • Designed to support Voice and Video from ground up
    • Supports differentiated service levels: e.g. T1 for business customers; best effort for residential.
    • Centrally-enforced QoS
    • Contention-based MAC (CSMA/CA) => no guaranteed QoS
    • Standard cannot currently guarantee latency for Voice, Video
    • Standard does not allow for differentiated levels of service on a per-user basis
    • 802.11e (proposed) QoS is prioritization only
    802.16a 802.11
  • 36. Range
    • Optimized for up to 50 Km
    • Designed to handle many users spread out over kilometers
    • Designed to tolerate greater multi-path delay spread (signal reflections) up to 10.0μ seconds
    • PHY and MAC designed with multi-mile range in mind
    • Optimized for ~100 meters
    • No “near-far” compensation
    • Designed to handle indoor multi-path delay spread of 0.8μ seconds
    • Optimization centers around PHY and MAC layer for 100m range
    802.16a 802.11
  • 37. Coverage
    • Optimized for outdoor NLOS performance
    • Standard supports mesh network topology
    • Standard supports advanced antenna techniques
    • Optimized for indoor performance
    • No mesh topology support within ratified standards
    802.16a 802.11
  • 38. Security
    • Existing standard is PKM - EAP
    • Existing standard is WPA + WEP
    • 802.11i in process of addressing security
    802.16a 802.11
  • 39. Advantages of WiMax over 3G
    • Using an assortment of proprietary and standards-based technologies, such as OFDM and W-CDMA ,WiMax has a clear advantage over 3G
    • The advantages include
      • Higher Throughput
      • Low Cost
      • Lower Latency
  • 40. Advantages of WiMax over 3G
  • 41. Advantages of WiMax over 3G
    • WiMax spectrum is more economical than 3G.
      • The price paid per Hz is as much as 1000 times lower than for 3G spectrum
      • The low cost is a clear driver for service providers to enter the field of wireless services with WiMax
  • 42. Advantages of WiMax over 3G
    • WiMAX is important for mobile broadband wireless, as it completes 3G by providing higher performance for data with more than 1 Mbps downstream to allow connection of laptops and PDAs
    • WiMAX technology is the solution for many types of high-bandwidth applications at the same time across long distances and will enable service carriers to converge the all-IP-based network for triple-play services data, voice, and video
  • 43. Advantages of WiMax over 3G
    • WiMAX interoperable solutions enable economies of scale through integration of standard chipsets, making WiMAX Forum Certified products cost-effective at delivering high-capacity broadband services at large coverage distances in Line Of Sight and Non Line Of Sight conditions
  • 45. More ……
  • 46. FUTURE
    • WiMax will be deployed in three stages
      • In the first phase WiMaX technology (based on IEEE 802.16-2004) provides fixed wireless connections
      • In the second phase WiMaX will be available as a cheap and self-installing Subscriber Terminal (ST), linked to PC and to antenna
      • The third phase enables portability, thus WiMAX (based on IEEE 802.16e) will be integrated into commercial laptops
  • 47.  
  • 48. Promises
  • 49. ISSUES in 3G vs. WIMAX
    • Deployment of the network
      • WIMAX deployment is in the planning stages and it might take 3-5 years in providing reasonable coverage in well populated areas
      • WiMax may initially be relegated to college campuses and larger corporate campuses where people are less mobile and costs containment is important
  • 50. ISSUES in 3G vs. WIMAX
    • Quality of Service
      • To provide quality of service by deploying WIMAX networks and to facilitate the continuous availability of service, careful planning is required at the edge of the network to manage network monitoring, availability, failover, routing etc
      • This can actually be done using outsourced services in cheap labor markets like India and China via the public Internet
  • 51. ISSUES in 3G vs. WIMAX
    • Cost Issue
      • The main reason to opt for WIMAX is its low cost.
      • The price paid per Hz for WIMAX spectrum is as much as 1000 times lower than for 3G spectrum
      • The low cost of WIMAX spectrum compared to 3G is a clear driver for service providers to enter the field of wireless services with WIMAX
  • 52. The WIMAX Forum
    • Founded in April 2001
    • No Profit organization comprised of wireless access system manufacturers, component suppliers, software developers and carriers
    • A wireless industry consortium that supports and promotes WiMAX’s commercial usage
    • Comply with the WiMAX standard and focus on the interoperability
    • Members include Intel, AT&T, Siemens Mobile, British Telecommunications, etc
  • 53. Conclusion (The Final Issue)
    • Will WIMAX replace 3G?
      • Along with the forthcoming standardization, WiMAX has the potential to substitute 3G and become a promising 4G
      • WiMAX has its distinct identity as either a stand-alone solution for incumbent and competitive fixed network operators or as complementary radio access solution for established 2G and 3G cellular network operators
      • Fixed-line operators, on the one hand, may consider WiMAX as a viable alternative to add mobility to the service portfolio, leveraging their huge subscriber base, in particular in countries where 3G licensing is delayed or not affordable
  • 54. References
  • 55. Questions?